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but recently emigrated from Asia, and had not lost their knowledge of the elephant."
Climate And Health.—The climate of Wisconsin is similar to that of the interior and western counties of New-York. The winters for the past four years have for the most been mild, and without much snow. The mean temperature of nine different localities in the State, in 1851, was 45° 54'. Mr. Lapham, in the work above referred to, says:
"The salubrity of the climate, the purity of the atmosphere, and of the water, which is usually obtained from copious living springs; the coolness and short duration of summer, and the dryness of the air' during winter, all conspire to render Wisconsin one of the most healthy portions of the United States. The wet meadows, marshes and swamps, are constantly supplied with pure water from springs; and as they are not exposed during summer to a burning heat, they do not send forth those noxious and deleterious qualities so much dreaded in more southern and less favored latitudes. Many of our most flourishing towns and settlements are in the immediate vicinity of large swamps, and partially overflown meadows, yet no injurious effects upon the general health are produced by them.
It has usually been found, in making new settlements in the western wilderness, that as the forests are cleared away and the surface thereby exposed to the direct influence of the sun and winds, a deleterious effect is produced on the general health—the decaying vegetable matter being thus suddenly made to send forth its malarious qualities. But in Wisconsin no such result is apprehended, or can be produced, for a large proportion of the country consists of oak opening and prairie, and may therefore be considered as already cleared. The removal of the few remaining "burr oaks" cannot have the same effect upon the soil as the cutting down of the dense forests of the other States. And besides this, the fires that have annually raged over the surface, often kindled purposely by the Indians, on their hunting excursions, have prevented that rapid accumulation of vegetable matter which is always found in deep shady woods where the fires do not so often penetrate.
It is believed that the facts here stated will be sufficient to satisfy the reader of the truth of the opinion expressed by our most intelligent physicians, that Wisconsin is, and will continue to be, one of the most healthy places in the world."
Productions.—The productions of Wisconsin may be divided into four classes, the Forest, Animal, Vegetable and Mineral. The comparative amount belonging to each will be shown by the statement given below, which is mainly compiled from the
United States census of 1850:
Bales furs and peltry 800
Feet sawed lumber, pine 150,000,000
Thousand shingles 30,000
Cubic feet timber 20,000,000
Number staves 10,000,000
Cords tan bark 2,000
Tons ashes, pot and pearl 25
Pounds maple sugar 610,976
Gallons molasses 9,874
Pounds wax and honey 131,000
Bushels cranberries 2,000
Value of live stock, June, 1850 $4,879,385
Number of horses A 30,335
"milch cows and cattle 183,434
Pounds of cheese 400,283
Dozen of eggs 100,000
Value of animals slaughtered $920,178
Bushels wheat 4,286,131
barley , . 209,602
"peas and beans , 20,657
potatoes, Irish 1,402,077
Pounds flax 100,000
Bushels flaxseed 6,000
Pounds hops 15,930
Bushels buckwheat 79,876
"grass seed 3,000
Tons hay 275,662
Value of orchard products $8,000
"garden products, market $32,142
Pounds lead 40,000,000
Tons of iron 5,000
The amount of lead shipped from Galena, during the last year was 40,000,000 pounds, nine-tenths of which was raised in Wisconsin. Considerable more than the remaining one-tenth of the amount above stated has been shipped from ports in this State, from which it will be seen that this estimate is small.
To the practical miner, as capitalist or operative, the lead region of the Upper Mississippi offers the most substantial inducements to settlement. The exceeding abundance and richness of the mineral; the comparative ease with which it may be mined; and the high price it commands the moment it is brought to the surface, open to the industrious and prudent operator a highway to wealth.
New leads of the richest promise, have been recently discovered in the mineral district, and an increasing emigration to that section of the State, promises to replace the California draft, and to meet the growing demand for the mineral.
The steady advance in the price of lead, which has prevailed for five years past, is indicative of a gradual but decided extension of its uses in the arts. There is no ground for apprehension that the supply will outrun the demand, or be able to work a reduction of the wages of labor and profits of capital in this industrial occupation, for some years to come.
The copper mines of Lake Superior are of established celebrity throughout the world, and open an inviting field for enterprise. The mining interest in that region is fast losing its character of adventure, and is attracting the attention of the prudent capitalist and the practical miner, as a remunerative branch of business.
The iron mines of Wisconsin have not yet been opened to any extent, but are worthy the attention of the immigrant. There are rich localities of ore near the head waters of the Rock, and on the Upper Mississippi and its branches.
The following statement exhibits the shipment of lead from Galena from the year 18il to 1852 inclusive, and the value of the same at four dollars per hundred weight:
Years. Number of Pounds. Value.
1841 .29,749,909 $1,189,996
1842 29,424,329 1,176,973
1843 36,878 797 1,475,151
1844 41,036,293 1,641,451
1845. 51,144,822 2,045,792
1846 48,007,938 1,920,317
1847 50,999,303 2,039,972
1848 49,783,737 1,991,349
1849 45,985,839 1,839,433
1850 .41,485,900 1,659,436
1851 34,500,384 1,380,015
1852 40,000,000 1,600,000
Total valuation of exports at the ports of Kenosha, Racine, Milwaukee, Port Washington, Sheboygan, Manitowoc and Green Bay, for 1851 2,079,060
Total valuation of lead exported in 1851 1,380,015
Total exports $3,459,075
There are also large quantities of lead shipped at different points along the "Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers, the precise amount of which no data has been furnished upon which an intelligent estimate can be made.
In reviewing the foregoing statement, it should be recollected that Wisconsin is rapidly increasing, not only in population and wealth, but in the amount and quality of its resources, manufactures and products.
Manufactures.—The richness of the soil of Wisconsin, and its ability to produce in abundance all kinds of grain, as well as the facility by which the lands are brought under subjection, create a permanent demand for all kinds of agricultural implements and mechanical labor. Architectural elegance in public and private buildings, and elaborate perfection in complicated machinery, is not to be expected in new settlements; but many of them in Wisconsin compare favorably with those of the older States. The rapid growth of towns, and the great influx of farmers with their families, create a necessity for temporary buildings, soon to be superseded by comfortable dwellings and outhouses; and give constant employ for the mason, the carpenter, and all other mechanics. The immense flouring mills of the State already in operation, as well as those in progress of erection, provide labor for the millwright and machinist, and furnish not only their respective vicinities with all kinds of mill stuff, but more than 100,000 barrels of flour annually for exportation.
To the lumberman, the pineries of Wisconsin present inducements for investment and settlement, which can be hardly overrated. That of the Upper Wisconsin and its tributaries is the most extensive; and distinguished still more for the fine quality, than the inexhaustible quantities of its timber. The other localities of the white pine and other evergreens, are mainly on the Wolf, the great northern affluent of the Fox, the tributaries of Green Bay, and on the La Crosse, the Black, Chippewa, and the St. Croix, branches of the Upper Mississippi.