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Counties where located. Acres. Counties where located. Acres,
In Bad Ax county ........... .41,806.86 In La Crosse county. .45,314,23
In Fonddu Lac"
and are offered by the State for sale, at the same place as school and University Lands, on a credit of thirty years, at prices varying from $1 25 to $3 00 per acre, with interest at seven per cent per annum, to be paid annually in advance.
By the reports of the State officer's, it appears that the capital of tbe school fund, December 31, 1852, was $819,200 50; of which amount $681,931 71 was due from sales of school lands, $132,491 61 from loans made, and $1,776 15 then in the treasury subject to loan. The interest upon this sum, at seven per cent., amounts to $57,271 03, of which $56,128 31 was paid in and apportioned to the several towns in this State, in March 1853. The whole amount of money. raised from all sources was $127,718 12.
The Superintendent reports that for the year ending August 81st, 1852, 2,765 school districts and parts had made reports. In the districts reported, the average duration of schools was five and a half months; average monthly wages of male teachers $16 34; of female teachers $8 52. There are 66 school houses of brick, 74 of stone, 778 of logs, and 812 framed, all valued at $261,986 32. The highest valuation of any school house is $5,500, and the lowest $1 50.
Government.—The government of Wisconsin does not differ essentially from that of the other States of the Union—in many respects it is more liberal. The qualification for electors is, one year's residence in the State; and this applies as well to persons of foreign as native birth, subject only to the limitation that they shall have declared their intentions to become citizens, comformably to the laws of the United States, on the subject of naturalization. No distinction can be made, under the organic law, between aliens and citizens in reference to the possession, enjoyment, or descent of property. Imprisonment for debt is prohibited by the Constitution.
The legislative power is vested in the Senate and Assembly. The Senate consists of twenty-five members, who hold their offices for two years, and are chosen from single districts. Those from the odd numbered districts being chosen one year, and those from the even numbered the next.
The Assembly consists of eighty-two members, who are chosen annually, and hold their office for one year.
The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected by a plurality of votes, and holds his office for the term of two years. A Lieutenant Governor is chosen at the same time, and in the same manner. The usual executive powers are conferred upon the Governor; whose salary is $1,250. The Lieutenant Governor is President of the Senate, and receives five dollars a day, while in attendance, and the same mileage as members. In certain contingences he succeeds to the duties of the office of Governor.
The administrative powers are conferred upon the Secretary of State, salary $1,200; State Treasurer, salary $800; Attorney General, salary $800; and State Superintendent, salary $1,000. They severally hold their offices for two years, and are elected at the same time as the Governor.
Several offices for the performance of special duties have been established by law since the adoption of the Constitution.
The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, County Courts, and Justices of the Peace.
The Supreme Court, with few exceptions, has appellate jurisdiction. It consists of one Chief Justice, and two Associates, who are elected by the people, and will hereafter be chosen for six years. [The Judges of the several Circuit Courts have heretofore comprised the Supreme Court.] A majority of the Judges appoint a Clerk, who continues during their pleasure. This Court has two terms a year at the Capitol, in Madison. The salary of each of the Judges is $2,000.
Circuit Courts have original jurisdiction in all matters civil and criminal, except such as is otherwise provided, and an appellate jurisdiction from all inferior Courts and tribunals. The Judges are elected by districts, holding their office for six years, and having a salary of $1,500. Two terms of this Court are holden annually in each county organized for judicial purposes in the State. The voters of any county so organized, elect a County Judge, who holds his office for four years, and has certain civil, original and appellate jurisdiction. He is also Judge of the Probate Court of the county.
Four Justices of the Peace are elected in each town, two annually, and hold their offices for the term of two years; they possess the powers usually conferred upon such officers.
Civil Divisions.—The State of Wisconsin is divided into fortyfour counties, with about four hundred towns ; three Congressional Districts, and six Judicial Circuits.
Counties—Adams, Bad Ax, Brown, Calumet, Chippewa, Columbia, Crawford, Dane, Dodge, Door, Fond du Lac, Grant, Green, Iowa, Jackson, Jefferson, Kewaunee, Kenosha, La Crosse, Lafayette, La Pointe, Manitowoc, Marathon, Marquette, Milwaukee, Oconto, Outagamie, Ozaukee, Pierce, Polk, Portage, Racine, "Richland, Bock, St. Croix, Sauk, Shawana, Sheboygan, Walworth, Washington, Waukesha, Waupacea, Waushara and Winnebago.
Congressional Districts.—1st, Daniel Wells, jr., member; composed of the Counties of Kenosha, Milwaukee, Racine, Walworth and Waukesha.
2d. Ben 0. Eastman, member; composed of the counties of Adams, Bad Ax, Chippewa, Crawford, Dane, Grant, Green, Iowa, Jackson, La Crosse, Lafayette, La Pointe, Marathon, Pierce, Polk, Portage, Richland, Rock, St. Croix and Sauk.
3d. John B. Maoy, member; composed of the counties of Brown, Calumet, Columbia, Dodge, Door, Fond du Lac, Jefferson, Kewaunee, Manitowoc, Marquette, Oconto, Ozaukee, Outagamie, Shawana, Sheboygan, Washington, Waupacca, Waushara and Winnebago.
Judicial Circuits.—1st. Green, Kenosha, Racine, Rock and Walworth counties.
2d. Dane, Jefferson, Milwaukee and Waukesha counties.
3d. Adams, Columbia, Dodge, Marathon, Marquette, Ozaukee, Portage, Sauk, Waushara and Washington counties.
4th. Brown, Calumet, Door,* Fond du Lac, Kewaunee,* Manitowoc, Oconto,* Outagamie, Shawana,* Sheboygan, Waupacca and Winnebago,
5th. Grant, Iowa, Lafayette and Richland counties.
6th. Bad Ax, Chippewa,* Cray/ford, Jackson,* La Crosse, La Pointe, Pierce,* Polk,* and St, Croix counties.
Improvements.—Of the many railroads projected and chartered in this state, several are already under contract and rapidly progressing to completion. Plank roads have been constructed and are now in progress, connecting most of the leading towns of the interior with each other, and with the towns on the lake shore. A large grant of land has been made by Congress to aid in the improvement of the navigation of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, and to connect the same by a canal. This work is under the immediate supervision of a board of Public Works, comprised of three Commissioners, and a Register and Treasurer, who are elected yearly by the legislature. The Governor has the general control and supervision of the work. A large portion of the Improvement is let out by contract, while some parts are carried on by the Commissioners. This work, when completed, will open steamboat navigation nearly through the centre of the Stafe from the Gulf of Mexico to St. Lawrence.
* Not organized for judicial purposes.
The construction of the canal and the improvement of the Lower Fox, has been under contract for several years, but owing to various causes is as yet unfinished.
Public Lands.—By a pre-emption law passed September, 1841, any person being the head of a family, widow, or single man over the age of twenty-one years, a citizen of the United States, or who has filed declarations to become so under the naturalization laws, who makes a settlement on any public lands in person, is entitled to enter, at the minimum price of $1 25 per acre, a quarter section, of 160 acre^, or a less legal subdivision, at the district land office. Lands not entered by pre-emption are offered for sale, previous to which no person not having a pre-emption claim can purchase.
There has been granted to Wisconsin, by the General Government, for various purposes, the following amounts of public lands:
Improvements 858,400 acres.
Individuals and Companies 5,705"
Public Buildings 6,400"
Educational purposes 1,004,728"
Swamp Lands 1,259,269"
There is still undisposed of 24,506,295"
Public lands are laid out by the rectangular system of surveys adopted for the first time in 1785, by the United States, and are so simple that the position of any surveyed section or township is known at once, by observing the letters and figures applied to each. Each township of six miles has a number different from every other; and to follow the directions here given, it is only necessary to take the meridian as a straight line, extending due north and south, when reckoning east or west; and the base