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WISC 0 N SIN,
Situation, Bounds, Extent and Area.—History of Territory and State-Face of the Country, Soil, &c.—Antiquities.—Climate and Health.-Productions.—Manufactures.——Trade.——Education.—-Government.—-Civil Divisions.—-Improvements.Public Lands.--Miscellaneous.
SITUATION, ExTENT, Bounds AND AREA, The State of Wisconsin embraces all of that portion of the Northwestern Territory lying north of the parallel of latitude 42° 30' and west of Lake Michigan, excepting a portion of said Territory north and east of the Menomonee River of Green Bay, belonging to and forming the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; and another portion lying west of the River St. Croix, included in and constituting a portion of the Territory of Minnesota. Its greatest extent from north to south is two hundred and eighty-five miles, and from east to west two hundred and fifty-five miles.
Wisconsin is bounded on the north by Minnesota and Michigan, on the northeast, and east in Lake Michigan by Michigan, on the south by Illinois, and on the west by Iowa and Minnesota; or according to the Constitution, as follows, to wit: “Beginning at the northeast corner of the State of Illinois, that is to say, at a point in the centre of Lake Michigan, where the line of forty-two degrees and thirty-nine minutes of north latitude crosses the same; thence running with the boundary line of the state of Michigan, through Lake Michigan, Green Bay, to the mouth of the Menomonee river; thence up the channel of the said river to the Brule river; thence up said last mentioned river to Lake Brule; thence along the southern shore of Lake Brule, in a direct line to the centre of the channel between Middle and South Islands, in the Lake of the Desert; thence in a direct line to the head waters of the Montreal river, as marked upon the survey made by Captain Cram; thence down the main channel of the Montreal river to the middle of Lake Superior; thence through the centre of Lake Superior to the mouth of the St. Louis river; thence up the main channel of said river to the first rapids in the same, above the Indian village, according to Nicollet's map ; thence due south to the main branch of the river St. Croix; thence down the main channel of said river to the Mississippi; thence down the centre of the main channel of that river to the northwest corner of the state of Illinois; thence due east with the northern boundary of the state of Illinois, to the place of beginning, as established by “an act to enable the people of the Illinois territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such state into the Union on an equal footing with the original states,’ approved April 18th, 1818.”
The area of Wisconsin in land is 53,924 square miles, or 34,511,360 square acres.
HISTORY..—Wisconsin was first visited by French Missionaries in 1660, in October of which year Mesnard reached Che-goi-megon, on Lake Superior. In 1672, Aloues and Dablon visited Green Bay, and the country between the Fox river and the south end of Lake Michigan. In the year following, on the 13th of May, Marquette, a Jesuit Missionary, and Joliet, an agent of the government of France, with five other Frenchmen, embarked from their Mission, near Mackinac, and arrived at Green Bay, where they found an Indian village and procured guides to accompany them up Fox river to the Portage with the Wisconsin. They descended this river to its mouth, where they arrived on the 17th of June, 1673, and made the first discovery of the Upper Mississippi river. The Territory remained under the government of the French, who claimed it, until 1763, when, at the treaty of Paris, it was ceded to Great Britain, who retained it until the Independence of the United States was acknowledged by that county in 1783, when it was claimed by Virginia, as a part of the Illinois country conquered by Col. George Rogers Clark. It however remained in the possession of Great Britain until 1796, when it was surrendered in accordance with Jay's treaty, ratified the previous year. On the first day of March, 1784, it was ceded by Virginia to the United States. By the celebrated ordinance passed the 13th of July, 1787, a government was provided for the Territory northwest of the Ohio river, which territory was divided into two separate governments, the western called Indiana, by an act passed May 7th, 1800. An act dividing the Indiana Territory and organizing Illinois, was passed and approved February 3d, 1809. By the act of Congress to enable the people of Illinois to form a State government, approved April 18th, 1818, all that portion of said territory north of the parallel of latitude 42° 30' west of the middle of Lake Michigan, was attached to the Terri. tory of Michigan, which had been set off from Indiana in 1805. In 1835, Michigan having assumed a State government, John S. Horner, Secretary and Acting Governor, convened a session of the legislature, at Green Bay, from the remainder of said Territory. No business was transacted, except the passage of several Memorials to Congress, among which was one asking for the organization of the Territory of Wisconsin, with the seat of government at Cassville, on the Mississippi. An act establishing the Territorial government of Wisconsin, was passed and approved April 20th, 1836, and the Territory fully organized July 4th, 1836. On the 12th day of June 1838, an act was passed dividing the Territory of Wisconsin, and establishing that portion on the west side of the Mississippi (which had been attached to Michigan in 1834,) into a separate government, under the name of Iowa. In 1836, Governor Dodge, by proclamation dated September 9th, convened the legislature at Belmont, now in Lafayette county, on the 25th day of October in that year. The second session was held at Burlington, now in the State of Iowa, Nov. 6th, 1837, at which session the seat of government was located at Madison, where the first session of the 2d Legislative Assembly of Wisconsin was held Nov. 26th, 1838. A Convention was held at Madison, October 5th, 1846, for the purpose of drafting a State Constitution, which was adopted in Convention, December 16th, 1846, but rejected by the people at the election held on the first Tuesday in April, 1847. A second Convention was held December 16th, 1847, and a Constitution agreed to February 1st, 1848, which was approved of by the electors at the election held April, 1848, and Wisconsin was admitted into the Union, on an equal footing with the other States, on the 29th day of May, 1848. At the dates given below, the gentlemen named were appointed by the President of the United States, to the offices designated: GOVERNORS. Henry Dodge . . . . . . . . April 13th, 1836. Henry Dodge, re-appointed . . . March 9th, 1839. James Duane Doty, . . . . . . September 30th, 1841.
Nathaniel P. Tallmadge . . . . June 21st, 1844.
John Catlin . . . . . . . . . February 24th, 1846.
Frazier . . . . . . . . Associate. David Irwin, Jr. . . . . . . . Associate. Andrew G. Miller . . . . . . . Associate, in place of
The following is a list of the several State Officers, from the organization of the State :
GOVERNORS. Nelson Dewey . . . . . . . . May 8th, 1848. Nelson Dewey, re-elected . . . . November, 1849.
Leonard J. Farwell . . . . . . . November 4th, 1851.
John E. Holmes . . . . . . . May 8th, 1848. Samuel W. Beall . . . . . . . November, 1849. Timothy Burns . . . . . . . November 4th, 1851.
SECRETARIES OF STATE.
Thomas McHugh . . . . . . . May 8th, 1848. William A. Barstow . . . . . November, 1849.
Charles D. Robinson . . . . . November 4th, 1851.
STATE TREASURERS. Jairus C. Fairchild . . . . . . May 8th, 1848.
Jairus C. Fairchild, re-elected . . November, 1849. Edward H. Janssen . . . . . . November 4, 1851.
James S. Brown . . . . . . . May 8th, 1848. S. Park Coon . . . . . . . . November, 1849. Experience Estabrook . . . . . November 4th, 1851.
Eleazer Root . . . . . . . . May 8th, 1848. Eleazer Root . . . . . . . . November, 1849. Azel P. Ladd . . . . . . . . November 4th, 1851.
James S. Baker, appointed by Governor, November 20th, 1852.