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Railroads in, memorial from legislature of, asking extension of time to complete, VI, 381. Alabama Claims.-During the Civil War in the United States the Queen of England issued a proclamation of neutrality, May 13, 1861, granting belligerent rights to both combatants and forbidding her subjects to take part with either. Great Britain's laws prohibited the equipment of any land or naval forces within her dominions to act against any friendly power. Notwithstanding this prohibition, the Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Shenandoah, and other vessels were built in Great Britain for the Confederate States, and, regardless of the remonstrances of the American minister, were allowed to escape from British ports fitted out as commerce destroyers. In less than 2 months the Alabama had taken 27 prizes. After a long cruise among islands of the East and West Indies and along the coast of Brazil the Alabama came to anchor at Cherbourg, France. Off this harbor she was sunk by the U.S. S. Kearsarge, after having destroyed 58 vessels and about $6,550,000 worth of property. After the war the United States pressed a claim for damages against Great Britain. After much discussion it was agreed to submit the matter to a court of arbitration composed of Charles Francis Adams, appointed by the President of the United States; Sir Alexander Cockburn, by the Queen of England; Count Federigo Sclopis, by the King of Italy; M. Jacques Staempfli, by the President of Switzerland, and Viscount d'Itajuba, by the Emperor of Brazil. The commissioners met at Geneva, Switzerland, Dec. 15, 1871, Count Sclopis presiding. The United States were awarded $15,500,000 in gold in satisfaction for all claims. All claims to indirect damages were rejected, and Great Britain was held culpable for not doing more to prevent the sailing and success of the cruisers. The award was paid. Alabama Claims:

Arbitration of, proposed by United States, and reply of Great Britain discussed, VI, 367. Commission to take proof on, recommended, VII, 102.

Correspondence regarding mode of settling, VII, 121.

Court of Commissioners of

Discussed, VII, 290, 342, 402, 418.

Time of duration of, extended, VII, 324, 342. Discussed, VI, 367, 457, 579; VII, 33, 102, 367. Transfer of indemnity to United States referred to, VII, 358.

Tribunal at Geneva for settlement of—

Award of, VII, 184.

Commissioners to report on distribution of, appointment of, recommended, VII, 185, 236.

Payment of, VII, 236.

Case of United States and counter case re'ferred to, VII, 161, 164, 165.

Differences of opinion regarding powers of, VII, 166, 168.

Discussed, VII, 143, 184.

Alabama Claims-Continued.

Tribunal at Geneva for settlement of-Con tinued.

Legislation in connection with, urged, VIL


Referred to, VII, 207.

Alabama Indians encouraged to reduce them. selves to fixed habitation, I, 458. Alabama, The, destruction of, by the Kearsarge referred to, VI, 256. (See also Alabama Claims.) Alaska.-A territorial possession of the United States lying in the extreme northwestern part of North America. Its area is about 530,000 sq. miles, or about the area of the United States east of the Mississippi River exclusive of the Gulf States. It is valuable for its extensive seal and salmon fisheries. Recent discoveries of rich and extensive gold deposits in the Klondike region of the Yukon River have added greatly to the wealth and population of the territory and to its importance to the United States. It is sparsely settled, though the climate on the coast is quite salubrious. As early as 1859 official communications passed between the United States and Russia concerning the purchase of Alaska, or, as it was then called, Russian America. Russia was desirous of parting with the territory, and the fishing and trading interests favored the change of sovereignty. It was not until 1867, however, that definite steps were taken toward the transfer. In March of that year the Russian minister at Washington reopened negotiations, and on the 23d of that month Secretary Seward made an offer of $7,200,000 for the peninsula. A week later the minister communicated the Czar's acceptance, and at 4 o'clock on the morning of the 30th the treaty was signed, and later ratified by the Senate, and on Oct. 18 following the formal transfer was made at Sitka, Gen. Rousseau taking possession for the United States. In 1884 Congress provided a civil and judicial government for Alaska, with a governor and other necessary officers. Population in 1900 was 63,592. Alaska:

Attempted occupation of portion of, by Great
Britain and Canada, IX, 665.

Attempts of Great Britain and Canada to es-
tablish post routes in, IX, 665.
Boundary line with British possessions-
Commission to determine, recommended,
VII, 187.

Discussed, VII, 187; VIII, 332, 400, 500, 781, 815;
IX, 526, 631; X, 145, 204.

Report regarding, referred to, VIII, 400.
Cession of, to United States-

Discussed, VI, 580, 688.

Referred to, VI, 600.

Treaty regarding, referred to, VI, 521, 524. Appropriation for payment under, recommended, VI, 521, 580.

Chinamen in, cruel treatment of, VIII, 498.
Collection district established at Sitka, VI,
Education in, appropriation for,recommended,
VIII, 80; IX, 48; X. 228.


Encroachments of Hudsons Bay Company upon trade of, VI, 700. Government for

Act providing for, VIII, 292.

Discussed by President Benj. Harrison, IX, 325.

Municipal governments recommended by President Benj. Harrison, IX, 48, 206. Recommended by President

Arthur, VIII, 64, 144, 184.

Hayes, VII, 570, 621.

Importation of breech-loading rifles and fixed

ammunition into, forbidden, VII, 328. Instructions regarding, modified, VIII, 124. Lands in

Proclamation modifying order reserving, IX, 696.

Set apart as public reservation by proclamation, IX, 360.

Legislation, recommended, VI, 524: X, 44, 175. Light-house on coast of, point to be selected for, VI, 704.

Military arrests in, VII, 358, 359, 360.
Military Department of, VI, 632: X, 44.
Mineral wealth in, discussed, IX, 631.
Port of entry in, establishment of, recom-
mended, IX, 49.

Privileges of hunting, trading, and fishing in, referred to, VI, 631, 632.

Referred to, VI, 620, 631; X, 44, 127, 228.
Report of governor of, VIII, 390.

Seal fisheries within limits of. (See Bering

Seal islands in, sale of, recommended, VII, 40. Albany, The, cruise of, referred to, V, 305. Albany Convention.-One of the important predecessors of the Continental Congress and among the first definite steps taken toward national union. Upon a call issued by the Lords of Trade, commissioners from the Colonies of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland met at Albany, N. Y., on June 19, 1754, to arrange a treaty with the Six Nations of Indians. Benjamin Franklin proposed and the convention adopted a plan for colonial union. It provided for a president-general of all the Colonies, with veto power, and a grand council to be composed of from 2 to 7 delegates from each Colony, chosen by assembly for a term of 3 years each. This grand council was to be authorized to equip forces for the common defense of the Colonies and to levy taxes for their maintenance and have control of all Indian affairs. The plan was rejected by the Crown because it gave too much power to the Colonies.

Albany Regency.-A combination of politicians of the Democratic party. Prominent among these were Martin Van Buren, William L. Marcy, John A. Dix, and Silas Wright. This combination was, it was charged, organized to manage and control that party in New York State from about 1820 to 1855. Their organization was quite thorough and complete, and its success was mainly due to this fact. A ma

jority of those in the combination resided in Albany or operated from that city. The name arose from this circumstance. Albemarle, The.-A Confederate ironclad ram built on the Roanoke River, below Weldon, N. C., in 1863. She was destroyed with a torpedo by Lieut. W. B. Cushing on the night of Oct. 27, 1864 (VI, 256). Before her destruction she did much damage to vessels of the United States. In 1867 she was raised, towed to Norfolk, and sold. Albemarle, The:

Destruction of, VI, 256.

Referred to, X, 81.

Engagement of, with the Sassacus referred to, VI, 210.

Albion, The, seizure of, referred to, V, 100. Alburg, Vt.. proclamation granting privileges of other ports to, V, 326.

Alden, James, thanks of Congress to, recommended, VI, 76.

Alert, The, convention between Nicaragua and Costa Rica signed on, X, 100. (See also Greely, A. W.)

Aleutian Islands.-A chain of about 150 islands extending from the western extremity of Alaska to near the continent of Asia. The inhabitants-about 2,000-are variously regarded as of Asiatic or American origin. Their trade is chiefly in fish and furs. The islands belong principally to the United States by reason of the acquisition of Alaska. They were discovered by the Russians about the middle of the eighteenth century.

Alexander, General E. P., settlement of question between Costa Rico and Nicaragua by, X,


Alexander, James, crimes charged against, I, 417. Alexandria, Va.:

Act incorporating church in, vetoed, I, 489. Blockade of port of, removed by proclamation, VI, 170.

British retreat from, I, 547.

Property in, destroyed by British forces, I,

545, 547.

Alexandria County, D. C.:

Court-house in, unsafe and new one recommended, III, 404.

Jail erected in, II, 364.

Retrocession of, to Virginia by proclamation IV, 470.

Alfonso XII, The, mentioned, X, 53.

Alford, Benedict, act for relief of, discussed, III, 134.

Alger, R. A., thanks of President tendered Gen. Shafter through, X, 349.

Algeria.-A country on the north coast of Africa. 184.474 sq. miles in area and containing a population of about 4,774,042. Its capital and principal city is Algiers. It comprises the ancient country of Numidia and a portion of Mauritania. For many centuries it was a nest of corsairs, who haunted the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean as far as the North Sea, preying upon the commerce of all nations which refused to pay them tr ute. To pay this tribute was deemed wiser by

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many European powers than to wage war against them. Following the example of other nations, the United States signed a treaty in 1795 agreeing to pay the Dey $1,000,000 for the ransom of American captives and promising an annual tribute (I, 123, 182). Algeria made war against the United States in 1815. Commodore Decatur, with 10 vessels, sailed against the Dey and met with such success that he was enabled to exact indemnity from the Dey himself, and also a treaty renouncing all claim to tribute, presents, or ransom, and a promise not to reduce prisoners of war to slavery (I, 562). France has since reduced Algeria to the dominion of her Government, organizing it as a colonial possession in 1834. Algeria:

Consuls of United States in, I, 177, 392, 521.
Banished, I, 518.

Change in pay of, III, 99.

Powers of, should be increased, I, 248.
Salary of, should be increased, I, 248.
Injustifiable proceedings toward, by Dey
of, I, 453.

Declaration of war against, recommended,
I, 554.

Hostile attitude of, toward United States. I, 440, 554, 575.

Imprisonment of American citizens in, I, 88, 98, 123, 148, 177, 200, 205, 207, 554. Reference to, 1, 152, 153, 210. Treaty of peace with, I, 569; II, 110. Treaty with, transmitted and discussed, I, 123, 182, 186, 192, 205, 569; II, 110.

Annulled by Algeria with alternative of war or renewal of former treaty, I, 575. Tribute to be paid by United States to, I, 123, 182.

Payment of, I, 337.

Vessels sold to, I, 247.

War with United States. (See Algerine War.) Algerine War (see also Algeria):

Declaration of war by Congress recommended, I, 554.

Dey of Algiers commences war against United States, I, 440.

Information of amicable settlement, I, 440. Termination of, I, 562.

Threatened by Algiers, I, 575.

Treaty of peace concluded, I, 569; II, 110. Algonquin Indians.-A tribe of the Algonquian stock of Indians. At the time of the advent of white settlers into America the Algonquian linguistic division occupied by far the largest area of any of the Indian nations. The name means "those on the other side of the river"-that is, the river St. Lawrence. They were spread over the territory from Labrador to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudsons Bay to Pamlico Sound. Though this territory was not exclusively peopled by Algonquian Indians, some of their tribes had wandered to the west and south through hostile nations and established their family beyond the limits of the present stock. The Cheyennes and Arapahoes had strayed westward to the Black Hills and finally into Colorado, and the Shawnees had pene

trated into South Carolina and Tennessee. There were hundreds of divisions of these Indians into tribes and confederacies, the principal of which were the Abnaki, Illinois, Pennacook, Powhatan, and Siksika confederacies and the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sac, Fox, Conoy, Cree, Delaware, Kickapoo, Mahican, Massachuset, Menominee, Miami, Micmac, Misisaga, Mohegan, Montagnais, Montauk, Munsee, Nanticoke, Narraganset, Nauset, Nipmuc, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Pamlico, Pequot, Piankishaw, Pottawotomi, Shawano, Wampanoag, Wappinger, and Algonquin tribes. The latter tribe, from which the stock takes its name, occupied the basin of the St. Lawrence and its northern tributaries in Canada. They allied themselves with the French in the early wars. About 5,000 of this tribe are now located in the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario. The Algonquian stock numbers about 95,000 at this time, of whom some 60,000 are in Canada and the remainder in the United States.

Alien and Sedition Laws.-Two important acts of Congress passed by the Federalists in 1798. Their importance consists not so much in their essential character and the fact that they largely caused the downfall of the Federalist party as in their position in American history as a landmark beyond which it is unsafe for the law-making power to go. During the French Revolution American feeling was high and bitter. Many public speakers and writers openly advocated intervention by the United States in favor of the one side or the other, denounced the neutral attitude of the Government as cowardly and ungrateful, and heaped invectives upon the Administration. The fact that many of the newspapers in which the Government was so bitterly assailed were in the hands of foreigners had much to do with the passage of the alien act. This law authorized the President to order out of this country all such aliens as he might judge to be dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States or engaged in plotting against them. The sedition act provided heavy fines and impris onment for any person who should conspire to oppose the United States Government or laws, or who should print or publish any false, scandalous, or malicious writings against the Government, Congress, or the President intended to bring disrepute or hatred upon them or to stir up sedition. These laws were regarded by the Republican party of that day as unconstitutional and were denounced by the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions as subversive of the liberty of speech and the press. They expired in 1800 and 1801, respectively. (See also Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.)

Alien Contract Law, amendment of, recommended, X, 123 230.

Alien Laborers discussed, IX, 633.

Aliens in United States (see also Naturalized Citizens):

Abduction of foreigners claiming protection of United States should be made a crime, V, 12

Aliens in United States-Continued.

Allegiance of, to Government discussed and

orders regarding, VI, 117.

Claims of, court to try, recommended, VII, 237, 289, 343, 406.

Liability of, to perform military duty-
Discussed, VI, 180.

Proclaimed, VI, 168.

Number of, employed in Executive Departments, report on, transmitted, IX, 670. Offenses against treaty rights of, should be cognizable in Federal courts, IX, 183. Allabach, Nancy G., act granting pension to, vetoed, IX, 671.

Allatoona (Ga.), Battle of.—In the hope of drawing Gen. Sherman's army out of Georgia, the Confederates, 36,000 strong, under Gen. Hood, threatened his railroad communications with Nashville. Oct. 5, 1864, a division of Hood's infantry appeared before Allatoona Pass, where were stored about 1,500,000 rations. The post was held by Col. Tourtelotte, who was reenforced by Gen. Corse, thus increasing the Union force to 1,944 men. The attack was made on the 6th. The conflict lasted from 8.30 a. m. until night, when the Confederates withdrew, leaving 231 dead and 411 prisoners. Corse lost 707 men and was himself wounded. Hood crossed the Coosa Oct. 10, and Sherman's army followed him to Gaylesville by way of Rome, and then returned to Atlanta. Allegiance.-According to Blackstone, allegiance is "the tie which binds the subject to the sovereign in return for that protection which the sovereign affords the subject." Natural or implied allegiance is that obligation which one owes to the nation of which he is a naturalborn citizen or subject so long as he remains such, and it does not arise from any express promise. Express allegiance is that obligation which arises from an expressed oath or promise. Local aflegiance is that obedience and temporary aid due by an alien to the State or community in which he resides. Local allegiance is temporary and expires with residence.

Allegiance, Oath of, army officers directed to subscribe anew, VI, 18.

Allen, Andrew H., member of Board on Geographic Names, IX, 212.

Allen, Ira, claims of heir of, against Great Britain, III, 49.

Allen, Walter, member of Ponca Indian Commission, VII, 630.

Allentown, Pa., act for erection of public building at, vetoed, VIII, 658.

Allianca, The, firing upon, by Spanish vessel disavowed by Spain, discussed, IX, 636. Allotment of Lands. (See Lands, Indian.) Almirante Oquendo, The, mentioned, X, 92. Almodóvar, Duke of, communication from, regarding Spanish-American peace negotiations, X, 95.

Alta Vela Island, claim of citizens of United States to guano on, VI, 629.

Altamaha River, canal from Tennessee River to, referred to, II, 464.

Alvarez, Manuel, acting governor of New Mexico, V, 75.

Alvord, H. J., treaty with Indians concluded by, VI, 259.

Amazon River:

Explorations of, by officers of Navy, V, 176, 188, 229; VII, 497.

Appropriation for, recommended, VII, 247. Free navigation of, desired, V, 211.

Attempts to secure, unsuccessful, V, 280. Opened to commerce, VI, 578.

Ambassador. This term was long erroneously used in reference to our envoys to foreig countries. The United States did not appoin. diplomatic representatives of higher rank than envoy or minister until the year 1893, when by act of Mar. 3 of that year the higher grade was established. Thomas F. Bayard was raised to the rank of ambassador to Great Britain, being the first to hold that rank. Later, ambassadors were duly accredited to France, Italy, Germany, Russia, and Mexico (IX, 442; X, 110). In ancient times ambassadors were appointed on special occasions. Mediæval republics like Venice both received and sent ambassadors.

Ambassadors (see also Ministers):

Elevation of missions of

Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany
to grade of, and like action of United
States, IX, 442.

Russia to grade of, and like action of United
States, X, 110.

Announced, IX, 442.

Official residences for, recommended, IX, 640,


Ambristie [Ambrister] and Arbuthnot, courtsmartial of, referred to, II, 43.

Amelia Island.-A coast island, N.E. of Florida, between St. Marys and Nassau rivers. Colonial governments not responsible for unlawful conduct of persons in, II, 32. Governor Mitchell ordered to restore, to the Spanish, I, 508.

Possession of

Inquired into, II, 51.

Taken by Gen. Matthews, I, 507.

Unlawful expeditions to, discussed, II, 13, 21, 23, 32, 40, 51.

Amendments.-One of the chief defects of the original Articles of Confederation was that they could only be amended by the unanimous consent of the thirteen States. Three needful changes having failed of ratification, a convention was called in 1787 to consider amendments. The result of the deliberations of this convention is the present Constitution, which provides for amendments in the following words: "The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which in either case shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution when ratified by the legisla

tures of three fourths of the several States or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided," etc. (Article V: I, 31). Many amendments to the Constitution have been proposed, but only 15 have been ratified. They relate to (1) freedom of speech, the press, and religion (1,34); (2) right to establish State militia (I, 34); (3) quartering of troops, in private houses (1,35); (4) security against unreasonable search and seizure (I, 35); (5) capital crime (I, 35); (6) criminal prosecutions (1,35); (7) trial by jury under common law (I, 35); (8) forbidding excessive bail or fines and cruel and unusual punishment (I, 36); (9) relation of constitutional to natural rights (I, 36); (10) powers reserved to the States (I, 36); (11) suits of nonresidents against States in Federal courts (I, 36); (12) election of President and Vice-President (I, 36); (13) slavery (I, 37); (14 and 15) abridgment of the franchise, etc., by States (I, 37, 38). The first to of the amendments were submitted to the several State legislatures by a resolution of Congress which passed on Sept. 25, 1789, at the first session of the First Congress, and were ratified by a sufficient number of States on or before Dec. 15, 1791. The eleventh amendment was declared adopted Jan. 8, 1798; the twelfth Sept. 25, 1804; the thirteenth Dec. 18, 1865; the fourteenth July 28, 1868, and the fifteenth Mar. 30, 1870.

Amendments. (See Constitution.) America.-The entire Western Continent or grand division of the world, including North, Central, and South America and the adjacent islands. It was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci, an early explorer, whose accounts of the country received wide publicity. It was visited by Norse navigators as early as about 1000 A. D., and there are myths of Chinese and Irish discoveries, but it was not until after its discovery by Columbus in 1492 that it became generally known to Europeans. In a treatise on the new country published in 1507, called Cosmographiæ Introductio, by Waldseemüller, a teacher of geography in the college of St. Dié in the Vosges, the name of America was proposed. On the north the country includes the unexplored regions of the Arctic Ocean, and extending south all the land between the Atlantic and Pacific. The northern portion of America consists of a central basin divided by a watershed and marked by Hudsons Bay and its feeders on the north and drained by the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio rivers and their tributaries flowing into the Gulf of Mexico on the south. This great basin is separated from the ocean on each side by ranges of mountains in the general form of the letter V, having the Rocky Mountains for one arm and the Appalachian system for the other, the latter being shortened by the depression of the St. Lawrence River, which runs transversely to the general course of other rivers of the great basin. In South America the Andes-a continuation of the Rocky Mountain system

skirts the Pacific coast, and the general course of the rivers is to the southeast, except those north of the valley of the Amazon, which run north to the Caribbean Sea, an arm of the Gulf of Mexico. All America, from the frigid zone of the north through the torrid Tropics to the icy extreme of the south, is rich in either mineral or vegetable products or the flesh and furs of native animals. The original inhabitants of the country, called Indians (q. v.), have now almost entirely disappeared in most regions before the advance of the Caucasian race. The several political divisions of America are treated under separate headings.

America, Four Hundredth Anniversary of Discov

ery of:

Celebration of. (See Madrid, Spain; World's Columbian Exposition.)

Observance of, enjoined by proclamation, IX,


America, Russian. (See Alaska.)
American National Red Cross:

Aid furnished Cubans by, discussed, X, 59.83.
Work accomplished by, in Spanish-American
War, discussed, X, 95.

American Nations, Congress of. (See Panama, Isthmus of.)

American Protective Association.-While dis-
claiming to be a political party, the A. P. A.
has influenced results in many localities. Its
principles, as set forth in a platform adopted
at Des Moines, Iowa, in 1894, are (1) protection
of our nonsectarian free public-school system;
(2) no public funds or property to be used for
sectarian purposes; (3) preserving and main-
taining the Constitution and Government of
the United States; (4) restriction of immigra-
tion, and (5) extension of time required for nat-
uralization. The association was organized
in 1887, and soon had well-attended councils
in nearly every State of the Union.
American Republics, Bureau of.-A bureau estab-
lished upon the recommendation of the Pan-
American Conference of October, 1889, for the
prompt collection and distribution of informa-
tion concerning the American Republics. The
information so far obtained has been of much
commercial value. Its first report was trans-
mitted to Congress in 1891 (IX, 212).
American Republics, Bureau of:

Bulletins of, transmitted, IX, 243, 350.
Discussed, X, 113, 124, 156, 211.

Report of, transmitted, IX, 212, 334, 475, 569,
667, 751; X, 124.

American Seamen. (See Seamen, American.) American Society of Mechanical Engineers, memorial of, relating to Ericsson transmitted, IX, 130.

American System.-In his annual message, December, 1848, President Polk discussed what its authors and advocates called the "American system" (IV, 654). He insisted that this socalled system was founded on a departure from the earliest policy of the Government; that it depended on an enlargement of the powers of the Federal Government by construction and was not warranted by a just interpretation

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