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of the Constitution. One branch of the new system, it was claimed, was the establishment of a large national bank. The next branch was a high protective tariff, levied not to raise the revenue needed, but for protection merely; the next was a comprehensive scheme of internal improvements, and finally a plan for the distribution of the proceeds of the sales of the public lands among the States. But the term "American system," as most generally understood, is used to denote the policy of protec tion to home industries by means of high duties on imports. The term was probably first used by Henry Clay in the debates which preceded the enactment of the tariff law of 1824, when he called his plan of protective duties and internal improvements the "American system."

American System discussed by President Polk, IV, 654.

American Wood Preserving Co., purchase of machinery from, referred to, VIII, 89. Ames, Fisher:

Commissioner to treat with Indians, nomination of, I, 260.

On committee to conduct inaugural ceremony of President Washington, I, 47.

Amin Bey, visit of, to United States referred to,

V, 119.

Amistad Case.-The case of the United States against the Spanish vessel Amistad. A cargo of kidnapped Africans, who had been landed near Havana, Cuba, by a Portuguese slaver, was shortly afterwards placed aboard the Spanish vessel Amistad for shipment to Puerto Principe. On the voyage the negroes took possession of the vessel and ordered the crew to return to Africa; but the sailors brought her into American waters, where, off the coast of Long Island, she was captured by a United States war vessel and carried into New London, Conn., Aug. 29, 1839. On a libel for salvage the Supreme Court of the United States held on appeal that the negroes, having been kidnapped from a foreign country, were free men, and not bound by treaties with Spain. Amistad, The:

Appropriations for claimants in case of, recom

mended, IV, 551; V, 209, 446, 511, 561. Claims arising out of, V, 98, 184.

Negroes taken on board, referred to, III, 639. Reference to, IV, 275; V, 641.

Release of, demanded by Spanish minister, III, 588.

Salvage due on, referred to, IV, 232. Ammunition. (See Arms and Ammunition.) Amnesty.-An act of pardon for political offenses. The effect of it is that the crimes and offenses against the State specified in the act are so obliterated that they can never again be charged against the guilty parties. When amnesty is proclaimed without restriction as to persons or localities it is called absolute. Numerous instances of qualified amnesty are found in ancient and modern history. When Thrasybulus overthrew the oligarchy at Athens he proclaimed an amnesty, excepting 30 tyrants

and a few of their followers. President Lincoln's first amnesty proclamation excepted all officers or agents of the Confederate gov. ernment, all army officers above the rank of colonel, all naval officers above the rank of lieutenant, all persons who left the service of the United States to participate in the insurrection, and all those who had resigned from the military or naval service and afterwards participated in rebellion; also all those who had treated colored persons or those in charge of them otherwise than as prisoners of war (VI, 213). Dec. 25, 1868, President Johnson proclaimed absolute amnesty (VI, 708).

Amnesty (see also Pardons):

Proclamation of President Lincoln, VI, 213. Discussed, VI, 189, 254.

Persons entitled to benefits of, defined, VI,


Referred to, VI, 310.

Proclamations of President Johnson, VI, 310, 547,655, 708.

Authority for, discussed, VI, 697.

Circular regarding, VI, 341.

Persons worth more than $20,000 to whom special pardons issued, referred to, VI, 385. Referred to, VI, 461, 471, 524, 581. Recommendations of President Grant regard ing, VII, 153, 255.

Amphitrite, The, mentioned, X, 93.
Amsterdam, Netherlands:

Accounts of bankers of United States in, rendered, I, 121.

Loan contracted by United States with, I, 128. Anatolia College, partial destruction of, by mob in Turkey, and indemnity paid for, discussed, IX, 440.

Anderson, Edward C., lieutenant in Navy, resignation of, referred to, V, 74, 76.

Anderson, Mary, act granting pension to, vetoed, VIII, 445.

Anderson, Richard C., minister to Panama, nomi nation of, II, 320. Anderson, Robert:

Commander of forts in Charleston Harbor, V, 658.

Dispatches of, while in command of Fort Sumter referred to, VI, 12, 21.

Empowered to receive volunteer troops, VI, 18.

Flag over Fort Sumter at evacuation of, to be raised on ruins of, by, VI, 283.

Anderson, Sarah C., act granting pension to, vetoed, VIII, 712.

Anderson, Willis, proclamation offering reward for, II, 377

Anderson Case.-A negro named Anderson was found wandering around the plantation of Seneca Diggs, in Missouri. He had no pass, and was arrested by Mr. Diggs as a fugitive slave. The negro plunged a knife into his captor's heart and made his escape to Canada. Upon demand he was surrendered to the Government of the United States under the extradition treaty. He was tried, but was dis

charged on a technical poinc. Anderson Case referred to, V, 668.

Andrews, T. P., treaty with Indians concluded

by, IV, 454.

Anduaga, Don Joaquin de, letter of, regarding insults offered Spanish officers by Gen. Jackson, II, 140.

Angell, James B.:

Member of commission to consider construction of canal from Great Lakes to Atlantic Ocean, IX, 747

Treaty with Great Britain on subject of fisheries concluded by, VIII, 604.

Animal Industry, Bureau of:

Appropriation for, discussed, IX, 455, 547Inspector and assistant inspector in, recommendation that diplomas and examinations be required of applicants for, IX, 455. Animals and Animal Products:

Commission appointed to report on unhealthfulness of, discussed and recommendations regarding, VIII, 206.

Contagious diseases among animals discussed, VII, 626, 628; VIII, 184, 527, 798; IX, 329, 455. Exportation of, discussed, VII, 626; IX, 119, 328, 455, 546.

Importation of, into United States

Discussed, IX, 455.

Laws prohibiting, in certain cases recommended, VIII, 612.

Proclamation removing prohibition on, IX, 593

Restrictions upon importation of, into foreign


Austria, VIII, 331.

Belgium, IX, 524; X, 100.

France, VIII, 106, 171, 202, 331, 609; IX, 110. Germany, VIII, 171, 202, 331; IX, 525, 629; X, 105.

Great Britain, VII, 567; IX, 329, 746. Correspondence regarding, referred to, VIII,

394. Decrees of

France regarding, IX, 82.

Germany, France, Belgium, and Denmark regarding, IX, 668.

Discussed, VIII, 362; IX, 119, 206.

Removed, IX, 181, 206, 328.

Annals of Congress.-A record of the debates and proceedings of Congress from the commencement of the First Congress, Mar. 4, 1789, to the close of the first session of the Eighteenth Congress, May 27, 1824. The Annals also contain many valuable state papers, public documents, laws, and much correspondence. (See Congressional Globe; Congressional Record; Register of Debates.) Annapolis, The, mentioned, X, 93. Annapolis, Md.:

Act for erection of public building at, reasons for applying pocket veto to, VIII, 486. Naval Academy at. (See Naval Academy.) Annexation. After the adoption of the Federal Constitution the individual States ceded to the United States all territory west of the lines they established as their western boundaries. In the original charters this territory extended nominally to the Pacific Ocean, but really only to the Mississippi River, for Louisiana and


Florida were Spanish possessions. In 1800 Louisiana was retroceded by Spain to France, and was acquired by the United States from the latter Apr. 30, 1803, by payment of $15,000,The territory embraced all of the present State of Louisiana lying west of the Mississippi River, together with New Orleans and the adjacent district east; Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, a portion of Idaho and Minnesota, all of the Dakotas, most of Kansas, all of Ne braska and Indian Territory, part of Colorado, most of Wyoming, and the whole of Montana, and contained 1,171,931 sq. miles. Feb. 22, 1819, Florida was ceded to the United States by Spain for $5,000,000. Texas, which had for 9 years existed as an independent Republic, was added to the United States as a State Dec. 29, 1845. As a result of the Mexican War and the payment of $18,250,000 to Mexico and $10,000,000 to Texas, territory including what are now California and Utah and portions of New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Wyoming, and Colorado was added, and later the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico were by the Gadsden treaty purchased from Mexico. Alaska was acquired in 1867 by purchase, the price being $7,200,000, and Hawaii in 1898 by treaty. By the treaty between the United States and Spain at the close of the Spanish-American War, in 1899, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands were ceded to the United States.

Annexation discussed. (See Alaska; California; Cuba; Florida; Foreign Policy; Gadsden Furchase; Hawaiian Islands; Louisiana Purchase; New Mexico; Philippine Islands; Puer to Rico; St. John Island; St. Thomas Island; Santo Domingo; Texas; Yucatan.) Annual Addresses of President

Adams, John, I, 250, 271, 289, 305.

Washington, 1, 65, 81, 103, 125, 138, 162, 182, 199.
Annual Messages of President-

Adams, John (addresses), I, 250, 271, 289, 305.
Adams, J. Q., II, 299, 350, 378, 407.
Arthur, VIII, 37, 126, 170, 235.
Buchanan, V, 436, 497, 552, 626.

Cleveland, VIII, 324, 497, 580, 773; IX, 434, 523, 626, 714.

Fillmore, V, 77, 113, 163.

Grant, VII, 27, 96, 142, 184, 235, 284, 332, 399.
Harrison, Benj., IX, 32, 107, 180, 306.
Hayes, VII, 458, 492, 557, 601.

Jackson, II, 442, 500, 544, 591; III, 19, 97, 147, 236.
Jefferson, I. 326, 342, 357, 369, 382, 405, 425, 451.
Johnson, VI, 353, 445, 558, 672.
Lincoln, VI, 44, 126, 179, 243.
McKinley, X, 26, 82, 131, 191.

Madison, I, 473, 482, 491, 514. 534. 547, 562, 573-
Monroe, II, 11, 39, 54, 73. 98, 185, 207, 248.
Pierce, V, 207, 273, 327, 397.
Polk, IV, 385, 471, 532, 629.
Roosevelt, X, 417.
Taylor, V, 9.

Tyler, IV, 74, 194, 257, 334.
Van Buren, III, 373, 483, 529, 602.

Washington (addresses), I, 65, 81, 103, 125, 30, 162, 182, 199.

Anti-Federalists.-A political party which opposed the adoption and ratification of the Constitution. Its fundamental principle was opposition to the strengthening of the National Government at the expense of the States. George Clinton, George Mason, and Patrick Henry were its leaders. Their strength was shown in the First and Second Congresses. They opposed Hamilton and his followers and championed a strict construction of the Constitution as against monarchical federalism. They later became merged into the Republican party, under the leadership of Jefferson. There have been many political parties termed "antis." As their names imply, they have opposed some specific measure, organization, or person. Though acting as political parties, they are not such in the strict sense of the word, for they have no affirmative policy and their claims are negative. Organized with a specific purpose to oppose, they disappear with the is


Prominent among quasi parties have been the Anti-Lecompton, Anti-Masonic, AntiMonopoly, Anti-Nebraska, and Anti-Renters. Anti-Masonic Party.-In 1826 William Morgan and David C. Miller, of Batavia, N. Y., announced that they were about to publish an exposé of Freemasonry. Before the book was produced Morgan was arrested for debt and confined in the jail at Canandaigua, whence he disappeared on the night of Sept. 12, 1826. It was charged, but never shown to be true, that he had been foully dealt with by members of the Masonic order, as all attempts to discover his whereabouts were unavailing. The oftreiterated charges aroused a bitter opposition to the order, and Thurlow Weed began the publication of the Anti-Masonic Enquirer at Rochester. In 1827 a convention was held by the Anti-Masons of Genesee County at Le Roy, N. Y., and a political party organized. It was claimed that many of the State officials were Masons and regarded their fraternal obligations as more binding than their civil oaths. The Anti-Masonic feeling grew rapidly. The party cast 33,000 votes in New York State in 1828, 70,000 in 1829, and 128,000 in 1830, though many of the latter were anti-Jackson men regardless of Masonry. In September, 1830, a national convention met at Philadelphia, Francis Granger, of New York, presiding. In 1831 they nominated William Wirt for President, but carried only the State of Vermont. In 1835, through a Democratic split, they elected Joseph Ritner governor of Pennsylvania. After this date the Anti-Masonic party declined as rapidly as it had arisen.

Anti-Monopolists.-A political party organized in 1884 upon a platform demanding economical government, the enactment and enforcement of equitable laws, the establishment of labor bureaus, laws providing for industrial arbitration, a direct vote of the people for United States Senators, a graduated income tax, payment of the national debt as it matures, and "fostering care" for agriculture. The platform denounced a protective tariff and the granting

of land to corporations. One of the reforms demanded was the passage of an interstatecommerce law, which was subsequently enacted. In May, 1884, the Anti-Monopolists held a national convention at Chicago and nominated Gen. B. F. Butler for President of the United States. He was later indorsed by the Greenback-Labor party, and the combination was known as the People's Party. It polled about 130,000 votes.

Antietam (Md.), Battle of.-After the severe en-
gagement at South Mountain, Lee's army con-
centrated to the west of Antietam Creek, a
small stream flowing into the Potomac River
about 8 miles above Harpers Ferry. Here,
near the town of Sharpsburg, between the
Potomac and the creek, Lee awaited the return
of Jackson, who had been sent to capture Har-
pers Ferry. According to Federal accounts,
Lee had not more than 25,000 men until Jack-
son's two divisions came up. Later he was
joined by D. H. Hill's, McLaw's, and Ander-
son's divisions. This raised the strength of
Lee's command to over 45,000 combatants.
Sept. 16, 1862, McClellan's army, about 70,000
strong, was assembled on the east bank of
Antietam Creek. This command was reen-
forced to 87,164, of which 4,320 were cavalry.
About 60,000 of this force bore the brunt of the
battle. On the evening of the 16th Hooker's
division crossed the creek and began an attack,
which darkness ended. Fighting was resumed
at daylight on the 17th and continued all day,
with varying success and terrific slaughter.
Darkness again put an end to the carnage.
McClellan did not renew the attack on the 18th,
but orders were issued to resume fighting on
the 19th. During the night of the 18th, how-
ever, the Confederates withdrew to the west
of the Potomac and proceeded toward Martins-
burg. A few days later McClellan occupied
Martinsburg. The total loss of the Union army
was 12,469 (2,010 killed); of the Confederates,
25,899. Other estimates of the Confederate loss
are 9,000 to 12,000. The official Confederate
accounts claim that this was a drawn battle,
and that the total effective force of Lee was a
little more than 35,000. This was called by the
Confederates the battle of Sharpsburg.
Antilles.-A term used to designate generally all
of the West India Islands except the Bahamas.
The Greater Antilles are Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti,
and Puerto Rico. The Lesser Antilles consist
of two chains, one trending in a southeasterly
curve from Puerto Rico to the Gulf of Paria, on
the northeast coast of Venezuela, and the other
stretching westward north of Venezuela to
the Gulf of Maracaibo. The Spanish called
the latter chain the Leeward Islands and the
former the Windward Islands, but strictly
speaking the Leeward Islands are all those
north of the fifteenth parallel north latitude,
and the Windward are south of that line. (See
also the several islands.)
Antwerp, Belgium:

Industrial exposition at, IX, 524.
Loan contracted with, I, 128,

Apache Indians.-A confederation of the Athapascan stock of North American Indians, consisting of a dozen or more tribes. In 1598 they inhabited northwestern New Mexico, and later spread over the valley of the Gila River. By 1800 their range extended from the Colorado River eastward to central Texas, and later they made incursions into Mexico as far south as Durango. They were the terror of the early Spanish settlers, and since the annexation of their territory to the United States they have given the Government much trouble under the leadership of such famous braves as Cochise, Mangus, Colorado, and Geronimo (III, 514). White settlers opposed the plan of the Government to remove the Apaches to a reservation in New Mexico, and on Apr. 30, 1871, over 100 of the Indians were massacred at Fort Grant, Ariz. The Apaches, numbering some 6,200, are now confined to reservations in Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Apache Indians:

Agreement between Cherokee Commission and, IX, 333

Appropriation for support of, etc., recommended, VIII, 105.

Imprisonment of, recommendations regarding, VIII, 789; IX, 60, 66, 536.

Suppression of hostilities a.nong, discussed, VII, 572; VIII, 50, 358, 514, 789.

Treaty with, V, 191, 229; VI, 193, 375, 598. War with. (See Indian Wars.) Apalachicola Indians, treaty with, III, 37. Apollo, The, seizure of, by American Government referred to, II, 100.

Appeals, Courts of. (See Courts of Appeals.) Appointing Power of President. (See Executive Nominations.)

Appointments to Office. (See Executive Nominations.)

Appomattox (Va.), Battle of.-After the battle of Farmville, Apr. 7, 1865, Lee moved off toward the west, closely followed by Meade on the north side of the Appomattox. Sheridan, learning of the arrival of supply trains for Lee's army at Appomattox Station, pushed forward for that place with all the cavalry. Lee's hopeless condition being now apparent, Grant sent him a note inviting surrender. Lee replied, asking for terms, and Grant insisted upon the unconditional surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. On the night of Apr. 8 Custer, who was in Sheridan's advance, reached Appomattox Station, where the Confederate advance had just arrived. He attacked the forces and captured 25 guns and 4 supply trains, a hospital train, and a park of wagons. During the night Sheridan came up, and by daylight was joined by Gen. Ord's command and the Fifth Corps. Lee was now only 20 miles from Lynchburg, his objective point. At first, underestimating the opposing forces, he ordered Gen. Gordon to make a reconnoissance and attack. Sheridan's cavalry withdrew to one side and revealed the lines of Ord's and Griffin's commands in line of battle. Gordon sent forward a white flag. Gen. Lee M P-VOL X-34


then dispatched a note to Gen. Grant requesting an interview, which being allowed closed with the signing of articles of surrender of Lee's army and camp followers, about 27,000 The officers and men were paroled Apr. 12 and allowed to return to their homes. All public property was turned over, but the officers were allowed to keep their side arms and both officers and men to retain their private horses and baggage.

Apportionment.-The distribution of representation in the Federal House of Representatives and in the general assemblies of the various States. In the Continental Congress each State had but one vote. Long contention over the matter of representation finally led to the establishment of two Houses of Congress-the Senate, wherein all States should have equal representation regardless of area or population, and the House, in which each State should have representation in proportion to its population. A census was taken and 1 Representative was allowed for every 30,000 inhabitants. This rule governed apportionments for 70 years, though the ratio was changed from time to time as the population increased. In order to keep the number of members of the House a fixed quantity, the Thirty-first Congress decided to divide the representative population by 233 after each census, and by the quotient thus obtained divide the representative population of each State. This gave the number of Representatives to which each State vas entitled, and when the total number fell short of 233, Representatives were allowed the States having the largest fractions after division. The ratio at the present time is 173,901. Methods of legislative apportionment vary in different States. President Washington vetoed a bill on this subject (I, 124). (See also Gerrymander.)


According to census of 1890 necessary, IX,


Bill for

Approved and reasons therefor, IV, 159.
Vetoed, I, 124.

Delay in making, V, 145.

Acts making, vetoed. (See the several subjects.)

Appropriation bill, special session messages

regarding failure to pass, V, 394; VII, 452, 520. Appropriation bills failing to pass, effect of, discussed, V, 570.

General legislation in appropriation bills objected to, V, 462, 489; VIII, 778.

Power of Congress to designate officer to expend, discussed, V, 597.

Reference to, V, 385.

Should not be made unless necessary, III, 29. Suspension of, referred to, III, 622. Arapaho Indians.-A tribe of the Algonquian stock of Indians living on the head waters of the Platte and Arkansas rivers, but also ranging from the Yellowstone to the Rio Grande. The name is said to signify "tattooed people."

They are at present (1902) divided between two reservations, one (the Arapaho) in Indian Territory and the other (the Shoshone) in Wyoming.

Arapaho Indians:

Agreement between Cherokee Commission and, IX, 130.

Lands acquired under, opened to settlement,
IX, 275.

Appropriation to, recommended, IX, 326.
Disarming of, discussed, VIII, 262.

Lands set apart for, referred to, VIII, 93, 191.
Treaty with, VI, 33, 375, 598, 637.
Arbitration, International:

Attitude of Great Britain and United States discussed, IX, 442, 722, 746; X, 16, 42. 207. Failure of treaty of, referred to, IX, 188. Reports adopted by International American Conference respecting, transmitted, IX, 83. Resolutions of French Chambers favoring treaty of arbitration referred to, IX, 628. Treaty with Great Britain egarding, discussed, IX, 746; X, 17, 155.

Arbuthnot and Ambristie Lambrister], courtsmartial of, referred to, II, 43. Arcachon, France, exhibition of fishery and water culture at, referred to, VI, 380, 386. Arcas Cays, guano deposits on, IX, 244. Arctic Expedition, Second, publication of second edition of, suggested, VIII, 79. (See also Exploring Expeditions.)

Arctic Expeditions.-There have been many expeditions into the arctic regions. One of the most noted was that of Sir John Franklin, who was sent out by the British Admiralty in search of a northwest passage in 1845. Henry Grinnell fitted out and sent an expedition in search of Franklin in 1850 under command of Lieut. E. J. De Haven. In 1853 Grinnell dispatched another expedition on the same mission under Dr. Elisha K. Kane. Still another, gotten up by subscription, in 1860 went, under command of Isaac I. Hayes, in search of an open polar sea. In 1860 Charles F. Hall led an expedition in search of Sir John Franklin. July 7, 1881, Lieut. (now Gen.) Adolphus W. Greely was sent by the United States Government to establish an arctic observing station. He established the station in Discovery Harbor. Three parties were sent to his relief, but only the third, under command of Commander Winfield S. Schley, reached him, at Cape Sabine, whither he had retreated, June 22, 1884 (VIII, 248). Greely attained in his explorations lat. 83° 24′ north, a higher latitude than any before reached. In 1891 Lieut. Robert E. Peary conducted an expedition to Greenland under the auspices of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. He returned in 1892 and made another expedition in 1893 with the intention of surveying the northeast coast of Greenland. Thirty-five relief expeditions, public and private, were sent out from England and America in search of the Franklin exploring party between 1847 and 1857. Argentine Republic.-The largest of what are known as the Spanish-American Republics.

The Andes Mountains form its western bound. ary. The Atlantic Ocean, with Uruguay and Brazil, bound it on the east, Bolivia and Paraguay on the north, and on the south it extends to Tierra del Fuego. Its chief river system is that of the Rio de la Plata. The jurisdiction of the Argentine Republic extends over the whole South Atlantic coast, including all of Patagonia east of the watershed of the Andes and all of Tierra del Fuego east of the meridian of the mouth of the Strait of Magellan, a total area of about 1,113.849 sq. miles. divided into 15 self-governing provinces and several outlying territories dependent on the general Government. Argentina declared its independence of the mother country (Spain) in 1816. The constitution is modeled closely after that of the United States. Suffrage is limited to those who can read and write. The President is elected for a term of 6 years and can not be reelected. The population (1900), 4.794.149. The principal industry is stock raising. Roman Catholicism is the established religion, but all religions are tolerated. Argentine Republic:

Boundary question with

Brazil submitted to President of United
States, IX, 435.

Award of, discussed, IX, 626.
Chile referred to, VIII, 42; X, 98.

Paraguay submitted to President of United
States, VII, 497.

Cables of American company, questions regarding rate charges imposed upon by, X, 98.

Claims of, against United States, VIII, 325.
Claims of United States against, III, 27, 377;
VIII, 219.
Adjusted, X, 99

Coined silver, and products of, referred to, IX, 476.

Consul at Buenos Ayres, recommendation regarding salary of, VIII, 262.

Diplomatic relations with Buenos Ayres discussed, IV, 263.

Imprisonment of American citizens in, II, 63.

Independence of Buenos Ayres asserted, II, 43. 58.

Internal disorders in, VII, 611.

Joint resolution relating to congratulations from, vetoed, VII, 430.

Minister of United States in Buenos Ayres, return of, II, 608.

Minister to be sent to United States, III, 151.
Received, III, 489; VIII, 131.

Outrages upon American vessels in Falkland
Islands discussed, II, 553; III, 27.
Revolution in Buenos Ayres discussed, V, 166.
Tariff laws of, modifications in, discussed, IX,

Treaty with, V, 226, 280; VIII, 265, 530; X, 200.
Return of, requested, VIII, 303.

War between Buenos Ayres and Brazil-
Peace concluded, II, 411.

Questions between United States and Brazil
arising out of, II, 363, 385.

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