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Army of the Potomac. (See War between the States.)

Army Officers. (See Army.)

Arner, Philip, act granting pension to, vetoed, VIII, 443

Arnold, Gerrard, reward offered for murderer of, II, 377.

Arnold, Samuel, implicated in murder of President Lincoln, proceedings of trial and verdict of military commission, VI, 334, 335, 336, 342, 347, 348.

Arny, W. F. M., mentioned, VI, 468. Aroostook, The, claim of owners of, for compensation in searching for bodies and property lost in steamer Oneida, VII, 165. Aroostook War. - Between 1837 and 1839 the unsettled boundary between Maine and New Brunswick came near leading to active hostilities on the Aroostook River. The governor of Maine sent troops to drive off the intruders and erect fortifications, and Congress authorized the President to resist the encroachments of the British. President Van Buren sent Gen. Scott to the scene, who arranged a truce, and it was agreed that the country should be occupied jointly, as before, pending adjustment of the boundary, which was definitively settled Aug. 9, 1842, by the Ashburton treaty (III, 516, 521, 530). Arsenals. Armories and arsenals were not established in the United States until the be

ginning of the Revolutionary War. In 1776 powder was manufactured in Virginia and brass cannon were cast in Philadelphia. An arsenal was established at Carlisle, Pa., the same year. Washington in 1777 chose Springfield, Mass., as a suitable location for an arsenal, and small arms were manufactured there in 1787. The establishment now has a capacity of 1,000 rifles per day. The arsenal at Harpers Ferry, W. Va., was begun in 1795, and from that time the number was gradually increased until 1860, when there were 23 arsenals scattered over the country. The principal ones at present in use are at Allegheny, Pa.; Augusta, Ga.; Benicia, Cal.; Cheyenne, Wyo.; Columbia, Tenn.; Fort Leavenworth, Kans.; Fortress Monroe, Va.; Fort Snelling, Minn.; Frankford, Pa.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Augusta, Me.; Springfield, Mass.; Governors Island, N. Y.; Rock Island, Ill.; St. Louis, Mo.; San Antonio, Tex.; Dover, N. J.; Vancouver, Wash.; Washington, D. C.; Watertown, Mass., and Watervliet, N. Y. Ordnance, arms, ammunition, and accouterments are manufactured at many of these places, the idea being to devote each to a special line of fabrication. Thus the establishment at Watervliet is devoted to the manufacture of heavy ordnance. Casting and assembling of guns are carried on at Rock Island and Benicia, as well as the making of leather goods. Naval guns and projectiles are made at Washington, D. C.

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Arsenals and Magazines-Continued.

Erection of armories on Western waters referred to, II, 136, 212, 239; IV, 226. Establishment of, recommended to utilize the iron mines and works at Berkeley and L. the State of Virginia, I, 107.

In the South, I, 335.

Frankford, Pa., arsenal at, referred to, VIII, 74.
Location for magazines, referred to, VI, 646.
Replenishment of, recommended, I, 265.
Rock Island Arsenal, appropriatica for, recom-
mended, VIII, 93, 151.

Sale of, not used by Government recommended, VII, 40, 195, 408.

Schuylkill Arsenal, appropriation for, recom. mended, VIII, 198.

Sites for

Appropriation for, II, 203.

Referred to, I, 186; V, 363; VII, 194. Art. (See Science and Art.)

Art Exhibition. (See International Exhibition of Fine Arts.)

Arthur, Chester A. (twenty-first President United States):

Annual messages of, VIII, 37, 126, 170, 235Biographical sketch of, VIII, 31. Bland-Allison Act discussed by, and recommendations regarding, VIII, 46, 133, 243Civil service discussed by, VIII, 60, 145, 161, 167, 186, 252, 276.

Collector of port of New York, suspension of, discussed, VII, 511.

Constitutional amendment regarding approval of separate items of bill and veto of others recommended by, VIII, 138, 187, 253Death of, announced and honors to be paid memory of, VIII, 496, 497.

Death of President Garfield

Announced to, and reply of, VIII, 14.
Discussed by, VIII, 33, 37.

Finances discussed by, VIII, 45, 132, 176, 242.
Inaugural address of, VIII, 33.
Internal improvements discussed by, VIII, 59
Oath of office administered to, VIII, 25.
Portrait of, VIII, 30.

Powers of Federal and State Governments
discussed by, VIII, 120, 184, 221.
Proclamations of-

Day of mourning in memory of President
Garfield, VIII, 34.

Discriminating duties on vessels from Cuba
and Puerto Rico suspended, VIII, 223.
Duties on foreign vessels suspended, VIII,
284, 285.

Extraordinary session of Senate, VIII, 34, 286.
Hundredth anniversary of surrender by
Washington of commission as Commander
in Chief, VIII, 223.

Quarantine regulations, VIII, 225.
Thanksgiving, VIII, 36, 123, 159, 225.
Treaty with Great Britain, termination of,
VIII, 280.

Unauthorized occupancy of lands in Indian
Territory, VIII, 224.

Unlawful combinations in Utah, VIII, 122.
World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial
Exposition, VIII, 159.

Arthur, Chester A.-Continued.

State of the Union discussed by, VIII, 235. Tariff discussed by, VII, 49, 134, 252. Thanksgiving proclamations of, VIII, 36, 123,

159, 225.

Veto messages of

Chinese immigration, VIII, 112.
Passengers by sea, VIII, 118.

Relief of Fitz-John Porter, VIII, 221.
Rivers and harbors, VIII, 120.

Discussed, VIII, 137.

Articles of Confederation, I, 9.
Signers of, I, 17.

Artillery. The history of artillery begins shortly after the invention of gunpowder. It was used by the Moors of Algeciras, in Spain, in 1343, and Edward III had 4 cannon at Crecy in 1346. During the sixteenth century brass guns and cast-iron projectiles were adopted throughout Europe. Gustavus Adolphus, Sweden's greatest warrior, introduced the battalion system and reduced the use of artillery to a science in Europe. Napoleon owed much of his military success to his skill in the manipulation of artillery. In his wars are seen the first important effects of the concentration of fire, which in those days could only be produced by the massing of guns. Napoleon III made a special study of the subject of artillery, and the treatise begun and mainly written by him is a standard work on the subject. During the Civil War Gen. William F. Barry did much to improve the organization of the artillery of the Union Army. The aggregate of field guns was about 15,000, with 40,000 horses and 48,000 men. Regular Army of the United States at present (1902) includes 7 regiments of artillery, with full quota of officers and enlisted men. Each regiment consists of 12 batteries of heavy artillery, 2 batteries of field artillery, and a band. The regimental officers are colonel, lieutenant-colonel, 3 majors, 16 captains, 16 first lieutenants, 14 second lieutenants, sergeant-major, and quartermaster-sergeant. The personnel of the battery consists of a captain and first and second lieutenants, with full quota of noncommissioned officers and 52 privates. The matériel of a mounted battery of field artillery on a war footing is 6 guns and 6 caissons, battery wagon, traveling forge, and 112 horses. In time of peace the numbers of men and horses are reduced to 60 and 80, respectively. (See also Army.)

Artillery:

The

Increase in. (See Army, increase in.) Organization of, discussed, V, 288. Artillery School of Practice at Fortress Monroe, Va., II, 374.

Artists, Foreign, tariff discriminations against, VIII, 207, 237, 339, 506; IX, 66.

Arundel Manuscripts, copy of, placed in Library of Congress, III, 226.

Arve, The, seizure of, by Haitien authorities, V, 144

Ashburton Treaty.-A treaty concluded at Washington Aug. 9, 1842, between Great Britain and the United States. It was negotiated by Lord

Ashburton and Daniel Webster. It settled the long-disputed boundary line between the United States and Canada. The former secured about seven-twelfths of the territory which had been claimed by both countries. Provision was also made by the treaty for the suppression of the slave trade and the mutual extradition of fugitives from justice (IV, 162, 194, 229). Ashburton Treaty:

Discussed, IV, 162, 194, 229.

Reference to, IV, 281, 423; V, 227, 540.

Asheville, N. C., act for erection of public building in, vetoed, VIII, 475.

Ashley, Gen., attacked by Indians, II, 212. Ashton, J. Hubley, agent of United States before Mexican and United States Claims Commission, report of, transmitted, VII, 425. Asia. The largest grand division of the globe. It is generally regarded as the birthplace of the human family and the seat of the most ancient civilization. Its area, including adjacent islands, is (estimated) 17,255,890 sq. miles. Its population was estimated in 1900 to be 923,367,000. Asia lies in the north division of the Eastern Hemisphere. The mass of the continent is more than four times that of Europe. Though it contains more than one-half the inhabitants of the globe, its area is so vast that the density of its population is only one-third that of Europe. The continent embraces in a general way all climates, physical features, grades of civilization, and forms of religion. In the southeast and north the people are Mongolians, the central and west central portions are peopled by Aryan races, while the Arabs, Hebrews, and Syrians of the southwest belong to the Semitic group of peoples. The countries of Asia are Siberia, China, Korea, Borneo, Sumatra, Annam, Siam, Burma, India, Tibet, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Turkestan, Persia, Arabia, Asiatic Turkey, and the Japan and Philippine Islands.

Asia:

Commerce with, extension of, recommended, V, 88, 167.

Cooly trade with, referred to, "I, 60. Asiatic Squadron. (See Manila Harbor, Battle of.) Asphaltum, disposition of lands in Utah containing, discussed, IX, 736.

Aspinwall, United States of Colombia:

Claims arising out of destruction of, VIII, 327,

537.

Imprisonment of American citizens in, VIII,

211.

Maltreatment of passengers and seamen on ships plying between New York and, VI, 212. Vessels from, duties on, suspended, VIII, 284. Assassination of President Lincoln. (See Lincoln, Abraham.)

Assessments, Political.-In the conduct of a political campaign considerable expense is incurred for hall rent, printing, music, and the necessary and legitimate efforts of each party to present its claims to the voters and secure their attendance at the polls. This expense is paid out of the campaign funds of the various political parties, the money therefor being

raised in part by assessments upon both candidates and officeholders, as well as by voluntary contributions. In order to properly ap portion the contributions to the campaign funds, assessments are sometimes based upon the salary of the office held or asked for at the hands of the party. There is a limit to legitimate party assessments and party expenses, beyond which lies the criminal field of blackmail and bribery. The first legal knowledge of the system of levying political assessments is found in the testimony taken before the Swartwout investigating committee of the House in the Twenty-fifth Congress. A former deputy collector of the port of New York testified that he had frequently been called upon to contribute while in the custom-house. As far as can be ascertained, assessments have been pretty general since 1840. It is claimed by the advocates of civil-service reform that a proper execution of the civil-service laws will largely, if not entirely, destroy the plan of assessments of persons holding office when made without their consent. Assumption of State Debts.-Early in the second session of the First Congress Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, recommended that in order to restore public credit the Federal Government should fund and pay the foreign debt of the Confederation ($13,000,000), the domestic debt ($42,000,000), and also that it assume and pay the unpaid war debt of the States. Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and South Carolina favored the plan. Virginia strongly opposed the latter clause. She was sustained in her opposition by Maryland, Georgia, and New Hampshire. The influence of North Carolina thrown against the measure defeated it for the time, but it was revived later, and passed Aug. 4, 1790, it was claimed, by a combination of its friends with those of the measure locating the Federal capital on the Potomac. The amount authorized to be assumed by the Government in the liquidation of the State debts was $21,500,000, but the amount actually assumed was $3,250,000 less than that sum.

Astronomical Observatory:

Establishment of, recommended, II, 313. Report of Simon Newcomb on improvements for, VIII, 203.

Asylum, Military. (See Soldiers' Home.) Asylum, Right of, discussed, VI, 685; IX, 529. Atchison and Pikes Peak Railroad Co. referred to, VI, 460.

Atkinson, Edward, international arrangement fixing rates between gold and silver coinage, report of, on, VIII, 592. Atkinson, Henry:

Mentioned, II, 132.

Treaty with Indians concluded by, II, 321. Troops sent to suppress Indians, commanded by, II, 387, 603.

Atlanta, The. (See Weehawken, The.)
Atlanta, Ga.:

Capture of, and orders regarding celebration of, VI, 238.

Atlanta, Ga.-Continued.

Collection of remains of officers and soldiers around, referred to, VI, 383. Cotton Exposition at, VIII, 44. Atlanta (Ga.), Battle of.-On the night of July 21, 1864, Gen. Hood transferred his forces be fore Atlanta to a point near Decatur, about 5 miles east of Atlanta. Sherman came up and, finding the works on Peach Tree Creek abandoned, proceeded to invest the city. At 11 a. m. of the 22d Hood surprised the left wing of Sherman's army, under McPherson, by a sudden movement from Decatur. The whole line was soon engaged. Gen. McPherson was killed in the action, and the command of the Army of the Tennessee devolved upon Ger.. Logan. After 4 hours of fighting the Confederates retired into their main works about Atlanta, leaving their dead and wounded on the field. The total Confederate loss was estimated at about 8,000. The Federal loss was 3,722 killed, wounded, and missing. Sherman now drew his lines closely around Atlanta and prepared for a siege, but was unable to cut off Confederate supplies from Macon, Aug. 25 he gave up the idea of a direct siege. Sept. 1, however, a part of Hood's forces under Hardee having been repulsed at Jonesboro, Hood blew up his magazines and evacuated the city. Atlantic Ocean:

Canal from

Great Lakes to, commission to consider construction of, IX, 747

Gulf of Mexico to, discussed, II, 429. Junction between Pacific and, referred to, IV, 275: V, 140. Desired, V, 280, 457. Atlantic Telegraph: Discussed, VI, 455.

Referred to, VI, 128, 181, 244.

Atlixco (Mexico), Battle of.-Immediately after the battle of Huamantla Gen. Lane pressed forward to relieve the garrison at Puebla. Oct. 18, 1847, he learned that Rea, with a body of guerrillas, was at Atlixco, a town about 10 leagues from Perote. The enemy was encoun tered on the afternoon of the 19th outside of the city, driven into and through the city, and dispersed. The Mexican loss was very severe, no less than 519 having been killed and wounded, while the Americans lost only 2 men. Attorney-General.-The early American Colonies had their attorneys-general. The judiciary act passed in 1789 under the new Constitution provided for an Attorney-General of the United States to act as Government counsel, at a salary of $1,500. His official duties, which were light, did not interfere with the regular practice of his profession. It was not until 1814 that he became a member of the Cabinet, and not until 1858 was he provided with an assistant. In 1861 he was given charge of the United States district attorneys and marshals. In 1870 the office was reorganized as the Department of Justice. The following is a list of AttorneysGeneral in the order of their appointment from 1789 to date: Edmund Randolph, Virginia;

William Bradford, Pennsylvania; Charles Lee, Virginia; Levi Lincoln, Massachusetts; Robert Smith, Maryland; John Breckenridge, Kentucky; C. A. Rodney, Pennsylvania; William Pinkney, Maryland; Richard Rush, Pennsylvania; William Wirt, Virginia; John M. Berrien, Georgia; R. B. Taney, Maryland; B. F. Butler, New York; Felix Grundy, Tennessee; Henry D. Gilpin, Pennsylvania; J. J. Crittenden, Kentucky; Hugh S. Legaré, South Carolina; John Nelson, Maryland; John Y. Mason, Virginia; Nathan Clifford, Maine; Isaac Toucey, Connecticut; Reverdy Johnson, Maryland; J. J. Crittenden, Kentucky; Caleb Cushing, Massachusetts; J. S. Black, Pennsylvania; E. M. Stanton, Pennsylvania; Edward Bates, Missouri; James Speed, Kentucky: Henry Stanbery, Ohio; W. M. Evarts, New York; E. Rockwood Hoar, Massachusetts; Amos T. Akerman, Georgia; G. H. Williams, Oregon; Edwards Pierrepont, New York; Alphonso Taft, Ohio; Charles Devens, Massachusetts; Wayne MacVeagh, Pennsylvania; B. H. Brewster, Pennsylvania; A. H. Garland, Arkansas; W. H. H. Miller, Indiana; Richard Olney, Massachusetts; Judson Harmon, Ohio; Joseph McKenna, California; John W. Griggs, New Jersey; Philander Chase Knox, Pennsyl. vania.

Attorney-General (see also Judiciarý System, Justice, Department of):

Compensation to, referred to, II, 128, 528.
Duties of, IV, 415.

Duty to prosecute and conduct all cases in the
Supreme Court in which the United States
should be concerned or interested, II, 128.
Member of board to examine quotas of States
under call for troops, VI, 275.
Modifications in office of, recommended, II,
527: IV, 415.

Opinion of

Concerning treaty of Ghent, II, 400. Regarding delivery of persons charged with crimes referred to, III, 591. Opinions of, compiled, III, 639; V, 96, 107. Recommendation that he be placed on footing with heads of other Executive Departments, I, 577; II, 314, 453; IV, 415. Attorneys, District:

Compensation of, discussed, I, 197; V, 130, 178; VIII, 183, 249, 354, 518.

Necessity of a uniform fee bill for guidance of, referred to, V, 130.

Atwater, Caleb, treaty with Indians concluded by, II, 466.

Atzerodt, George A.:

Implicated in murder of President Lincoln, proceedings of trial and verdict of military commission, VI, 334, 335, 336, 342, 347, 348. Persons claiming reward for apprehension of, directed to file claims, VI, 353.

Augur, Christopher C., directed to assume command of Department of Missouri, VIII, 167. Augusta, Ga., arsenal at, referred to, II, 327. Augusta (Ga.), Siege of.-In the autumn of 1780 Cornwallis stationed Lieut. Col. Brown, with a Loyalist force, at Augusta, Ga. Col. Clark

threatened the place for 2 days, inflicting some loss upon the garrison. The British loss was principally of their Indian auxiliaries. In the spring of the following year, while Gen. Greene besieged Fort Ninety-Six, Lee, Pickens, Clark, and other Southern partisans laid siege to Augusta, beginning May 23. June 5, 1781, Brown surrendered. The American loss was 51 killed and wounded. The British lost 52 killed. The wounded and prisoners on the British side amounted to 334.

Auldjo, Thomas, vice-consul to Poole, England, nomination of, I. 98.

Aury, Louis de, mentioned, II, 32. Austin-Topolovampo Railroad, survey of, correspondence with Mexico regarding, referred to, VII, 523.

Australasia. The name given to the continent. of Australia and those large islands lying between the Indian Archipelago and Polynesia. The principal islands of the group are Tasmania, New Guinea, New Zealand. New Caledonia, New Hebrides, New Ireland, and New Britain. In 1885 a federal council of British colonies was instituted, but it has not yet been put into full operation. The combined area of the colonies is over 3,500,000 sq. miles and they contain a population of about 5,500,000. Australia. The southwestern division of Australasia. It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the west, northwest, and southwest by the Indian Ocean, on the north by Arafoora Sea and Torres Strait, which separate it from New Guinea and other small Pacific islands. On the south Bass Strait divides it from Tasmania. Its greatest length from north to south is 1,900 miles and its greatest width from east to west is 2,500 miles. Its area is about 3,000,000 sq. miles-half the size of Europe and ten times the size of New Guinea. Population (1901), 3.767,443. It is wholly south of the equator. The natives resemble Africans, but are lighter in color. The physical features suggest the possibility of Australia having at no remote period been the bed of an ocean. On the coasts are rocky hills and low mountains, while in the lower interior occur large deposits of animal bones. In general the climate is warm and dry and very salubrious. The fauna and flora also present characteristics peculiar to Australia. Its chief products are gold and wool. It is a colony of Great Britain and is settled largely by English.

Australia. (See Adelaide; Melbourne; Sydney.) Austria (see also Austria-Hungary):

Chargé d'affaires of, to United States, withdrawal of, referred to, V, 154.

Commercial relations with, II, 551; IV, 151. Confederate envoys sent to Great Britain and 'France referred to. (See Mason and Slidell.) Consul of United States to Vienna referred to, V, 45.

Consular convention with, VII, 69.

Fugitive criminals, convention with, for surrender of, V, 378.

Importation of American products to, legislation against, discussed, VIII, 331.

Austria-Continued.

Imprisonment of American citizens by, V, 153,

209.

Minister of United States to be sent to, III, 375.
Relations opened with, III, 489.
Treaty with, transmitted and discussed, II,
409, 445, 463, 534, 542, 594; IV, 584; V, 378.
Correspondence regarding, referred to, V, 26.
Referred to, II, 507, 551.

Troops of, departing to Mexico referred to, VI, 390, 391.

Vessels of, discriminating duties on, suspended by proclamation, II, 440, 441. War with Hungary, sympathy of American Government with latter, V, 12, 41. Wines from, duties on. (See Wines.) Austria-Hungary.-A bipartite State in the interior of Europe consisting of the Cisleithan Empire of Austria and the Transleithan Kingdom of Hungary. Each of the two countries has its own parliament, the connecting links between them being a hereditary sovereign, common army, navy, diplomatic corps, and a controlling body known as the Delegations. The Delegations form a parliament of 120 members, one half of whom is chosen by Austria and the other half by Hungary. On matters affecting the common welfare the Delegations have a decisive vote, their resolutions requiring neither approbation nor confirmation. The Austrian and Hungarian members usually sit in separate council, but if unable to agree they must meet as one body. Their jurisdiction is limited to foreign affairs, finance, and war. The country has a circumference of about 5,350 miles, about 500 miles of which is seacoast, bordering upon the Adriatic. Three-fourths of the surface is mountainous. The area is 265,189 sq. miles, containing a population of 45,085,000. The principal industries are mining, the cultivation of fruit, and wine making. The leading mineral products are coal, iron, salt, gold, and silver, though none of the useful minerals is wanting. Hungary is second only to France in the abundance and quality of the wine produced.

Austria-Hungary (see also Austria; Hungary):
Claims of, regarding subjects killed in conflict
in Pennsylvania, X, 99, 138.
Consular convention with, VII, 144.
Empress-Queen of, assassination of, X, 99.
Expulsion of American citizens, X, 200.
Minister of, to United States received, VIII, 131.
Minister of United States to, appointment of
A. M. Keiley as, and refusal to receive, dis-
cussed, VIII, 325.

Naturalization treaty with, VII, 115, 144, 188.
Tariff laws of, evidence of modifications of,

proclaimed, IX, 283. Discussed, IX, 312.

Trade-marks, treaty with, regarding, VII, 160. Autonomous Government for Cuba discussed, IX, 720; X. 36. 59. 83. 436.

Auttose Towns, Destruction of.-The news of the massacre of whites at Fort Mimms having spread into Georgia, Brig. Gen. John Floyd, at the head of 950 State militia and 400 friendly

Indians, started on an expedition of chastisement. Between midnight and dawn of Nov. 29. 1813, the attack was made on two Auttose villages. The Indians fought fiercely, but were overwhelmed, driven to the woods and caves, and shot. Floyd lost 11 killed and 54 wounded. Aux Canards (Canada), Battle of.-The first encounter between British and Americans in the War of 1812. Gen. William Hull, governor of the Northwest Territory, placed in command of forces in Ohio and ordered to begin the invasion of Canada, crossed the river July 12, 1812, and dispatched Col. Lewis Cass with 280 men toward Malden. Crossing the Rivière aux Canards, a tributary of the Detroit, he drove the outposts in and took 2 prisoners, from whom he learned that some of the enemy had been killed and 9 or 10 wounded. Cass did not lose a man.

Auxiliary Navy in Spanish-American War, X, 88. Averysboro (N. C.), Battle of.—Mar. 16, 1865, Gen. Slocum, in the advance of the Union army, encountered the Confederates under Gen. Hardee near Averysboro, in the narrow swampy neck between Cape Fear and South rivers. Hardee hoped to hold Sherman in check until Johnston could concentrate his army at some point in his rear. Incessant rains had made the ground so soft that men and horses sank deep in the mud. A severe fight took place amid showers of rain and gusts of wind. The whole line advanced late in the afternoon and the Confederates retreated to Smithfield, leaving 108 dead upon the field. The Federal loss was 77 killed and 477 wounded. Aves Islands. A group of small islands in the Caribbean Sea, belonging to Venezuela. Aves Islands:

Claims regarding, paid, VI, 244

Convention with Venezuela regarding, V, 580, 663.

Reference to, V, 668.

Ayer, Ira, mentioned, IX, 307.

Ayers, Edward, act granting pension to, vetoed, VIII, 419.

Aztecas or Aztecs.-A branch of the Nahuatl stock of Indians, supposed to be the original inhabitants of Mexico. They appeared in the valley of Mexico about the middle of the thirteenth century, and are said to have been journeying southward for 600 years. The conquest of Mexico by Cortez in 1519 put an end to the power of the confederacy between the Aztecas, Tezcucans, and the Tecpanecans. From analogy of language it is probable that they crossed the Pacific Ocean by way of the Aleutian Islands from Asia. There are, however, various theories as to their origin. They founded Tenochtitlan on the present site of the City of Mexico in 1325, and ruled an empire of 30,000,000 people. They were well advanced in the arts and sciences, as is evidenced by the remains of their temples, roads, and waterways. Only about 2,000,000 pure-blooded Aztecas are left in the mountains of Mexico. In stature they are small and somewhat resemble the Egyptians.

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