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ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. N. Atlantic, 645 m. N. E. of Atwood's Keys, the nearest of the W. India Islands, and 580 m. from Cape Hatteras, in North Carolina. These islands are very numerous: the principal are St. George's, St. David's, Long Island (or Bermuda), Somerset, and Ireland. They belong to Great Britain. The climate of the Bermudas is that of perpetual spring. The name is derived from the supposed discoverer, Bermudez, a Spaniard who is said to have touched here in 1522. Wreck Hill, the western part of the group, is in 32° 15' N. Lat., and 64° 50 W. Lon. Total pop. in 1832, 12,228. .(P. C.)-Inhab. BERMUDIAN, ber-moolde-an.
BęRN or BERNE (Ger. and Fr. pron. bérn), the most populous and next to the largest canton of Switzerland, is situated in the central part of this country. Area 2,577 sq. m. Pop. in 1831, 380,000. (P. C.) -Adj. and inhab. BÆR-NEŞE/.
BERN, the cap. of the above, on a peninsula formed by the r. Aar. Its trade is considerable, and it possesses several good establishments for education, with a richly endowed museum of natural history, and a public library of 30,000 volumes. Lat. 46° 57' N., Lon. 7° 25' E. Pop. of the town, with its environs, 20,000. (B.)
BÆRN!-ARD, Sr., a mountain pass between Switzerland and Italy, on which the celebrated Hospice or monastery of St. Bernard stands, at the height of about 7,963 feet, being the most elevated fixed habitation in Europe, and close upon the limits of perpetual snow. Above it, tremendous rocks rise to the height of 4,240 feet, or about 12,200 feet above the level of the sea.
BERNARD, ST., a parish in the S. E. part of La., bordering on Lake Borgne. Pop. 3,237.
BER/-R!-en, a co. forming the S. W. extremity of the state of Mich., lying on L. Michigan. Pop. 5,011. Co. t. St. Joseph.
BER-TJE', a co. in the N. E. part of N. C., bordering on the Roanoke. Pop. 12,175. Co. t. Windsor.
BERWICK, usually pronounced bérl-rick,a seaport and garrison t. of the co. of Northumberland, Eng., on the road from London to Edinburgh, on the N. bank of the Tweed, about half a mile from its mouth, and 48 m. E. by S. from Edinburgh. Lat. 55° 46' N., Lon. about 2° W. Pop. of the parish, including an area of 8 sq. m., 8,484.
BERWICKSHIRE, bérl-rik-shịr, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Scotland. Pop. 34,438.
BESANÇON, bęz-ån-SÓN' or b’zán'-SON', (the Vesan/tii of the Romans,) a very ancient fortified t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Doubs, on the r. Doubs, 205 m. S. E. of Paris. Its trade and manufactures are considerable; it possesses a number of establishments for education, and is the seat of an archbishopric. Lat. 47° 14' N., Lon. 6° 3' E. Pop. 29,000. (B.)
Bes'-99-RA-B1-4, or bes'-så-rål-be-à, a prov. forming the S. W. extremity of the Russian empire, lying between the Pruth and Dniester, between 44° 45 and 48° 40' N. Lat., and 26° 10' and 30° 25' E. Lon.
Beyl-EL-AND (Dutch pron. bd/velånt,) a dist. of Holland, including
Fate, får, fäll, fit; mé, m't; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo as in good; two islands called N. and S. Beveland, situated in the great estuary of the Scheldt.
Bevl-p-ren (Dutch pron. bål-ver-en), a t. of Belgium, 7 m. W. of Antwerp. Pop. near 6,000. (B.)
Bev/-ER-LEY, a t. of England, cap. of the E. riding of Yorkshire, 28 m. E. by S. of York. Entire pop. of the town and liberties, 8,671.
Bev/-ER-LY, a t. of Essex co., Mass., 16 m. N. N. E. of Boston. Pop. of the township, 4,689.
BEWD-LEY, a t. of England, in the co. of Worcester, 13 m. N. by W. of Worcester. Pop. 3,400.
Beyra or Beira, ble-rå, a prov. of Portugal; bounded on the N. by the r. Douro, which separates it from the provinces Entre Douro e Minho and Tras os Montes, E. by Spain, S. by the provinces of Algarve and Estremadura, and W. by the Atlantic. Length froin N. to S., 130 m.; breadth, from E. to W., about 110 m.
BEYROOT or BAIROUT, bil-root, (Turk. pron. bi-root; that of the Arabs corresponds with the English, as already given : Gr. Brpuros, Lat. Berdytus,) a very ancient city of Syria, in the pashalic of Acre, on the Mediterranean, once celebrated for its school of jurisprudence. It now possesses few traces of its former splendor. Lat. 33° 494' N., Lon. 35° 27' E. Pop. estimated at 6,000. (P. C.)
Buar -GONG! or b'håt'-gong', a t. of Nepaul, about 6 m. S. E. of Katmandoo, celebrated as a seat of Brahminical learning.
BHOPAL. See BOPAUL.
Buurt'-POOR' or b’hurt'-poor', a t. of Hindostan, in the prov. of Agra; cap. of a dist. of the same name. Lat. 27° 12' N., Lon. 77° 30' E.
B1-A1/-YS-TOK, an elegantly built t. of Western Russia ; cap. of a prov. of the same name. Lat. 53° 7' N., Lon. 23° 18' E. Pop. above 6,000. (P. C.)
BIBB, a co. in the central part of Ga., intersected by the Ocmulgee. Pop. 9,802. Co. t. Macon.
BIBB, a co. in the central part of Ala., intersected by the Cahawba. Pop. 8,284. Co. t. Centreville.
Bid'-E-FORD or BIDDEFORD, a seaport t. of Devonshire, England, 36m. N. by W. from Exeler. Lat. 51° 2 N., Lon. 4° 12' W. Pop. 4,830.
BIELEFELD, beel-lek-felt', a manufacturing t. of Prussia, in Westphalia. Lat. 52° 2' N., Lon. 8° 29' E. Pop. 5,200. (B.)
BiG-BLACK River, a r. in the state of Miss., flowing into the Mississippi.
Big HORN RIVER, rising in the Rocky Mountains, flows into the Yellow Stone.
Bilbao, bil-bål-o, often written and pronounced in English Bru/-BO-A, a t. in the N. of Spain; cap. of Biscay. Lat. 43° 15' N., Lon. 2° 50 W. Pop. about 15,000. (B.)
BILLSI-TỌN, a manufacturing t. of England, in Staffordshire, 107 m. N. W. from London. Pop. of the township and chapelry, with an area of about 4 sq. m., 20,181.
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Bixol-EN, a t. of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the left bank of the Rhine. Lat. 49° 55' N., Lon. 7° 51' E. Pop. 4,100. (B.)
BENG'-gẠM-TỌN, or CHENANGO Point, the cap. of Broome co., N. Y., on the New York and Erie Railroad, 20 m. E. of Owego, and connected by the Chenango, with the Erie, Canal. Pop. of the township, 5,465.
BIO-BIO, beel-o-bee-o, a r. of Chili, which falls into the Pacific in 36° 50 S. Lat.
BIRKET-EL-KEROON, more properly BIRKET-EL-Koorn, běēr/-ket-elkoorn' (i.e. the " lake of the horn,” so named from its peculiar shape); a considerable lake of Middle Egypt, bounding the prov. of Faïoom on the N. W., and situated between 29° 35' and 29° 15' N. Lat., and 30° 10 and 30° 40' E. Lon. Its length, following the curve, is rather more than 30 m.; its greatest breadth, 6 or 7 m. It is the Lake Mæris of che ancients.
BIRKET-EL-MarioOT, běěr/-ket-el-må-re-oot, (the Lake Mareo'tis of the ancients,) a lake in the N. E. part of Lower Egypt, S. E. of Alexandria. It had become entirely dry within the last three centuries, but as the bottom is several feet below the level of the sea, the English, in 1801, in order to circumscribe the operations of the French, cut across the narrow isthmus which separated the basin from the lake of Abookeer (Aboukir), when the sea-water flowed in, and covered an extent of 30 m. in length, and 15 in breadth. This isthmus has since been restored by Mehemet Ali.
BIR-MẠ, Bursa, or Bran-MẠ, called also the kingdom of Ava, an empire of Chin-India, in the S. E. of Asia. Its exact boundaries on the N. and E. are not known. On the 8. it extends about 240 m. along the gulf of Martaban; the country of Arracan bounds it on the W. The Birman empire consists of Birma proper, Pegoo, Martaban, and the Birman Lao. The climate is said not to exhibit the extremes of heat and cold which are found in India, and is supposed, therefore, to be more healthy to the European constitution. It varies, however, greatly in different parts of the country. The soil produceş almost every kind of grain and vegelables, as well as the different tropical fruits; the pine apple is said to grow here spontaneously. The Birmans are much less civilized than the Hindoos. In religion they are Boodhists; neither Mahomelanism nor Christianity has made any progress among them. The government is an absolute despotism, their sovereign being the lord of the life and property of all his subjects.—Adj. and inhab. Bịr/mẠN and BỊR-MEŞE', or BURMESE.
BỊR - MING-HẠM, a large t. of England, in Warwickshire, 98 m. N. W. of London. It has increased astonishingly within a century, and has become the principal hardware manufacturing town of G. Britain. By means of canals and railways it is connected with all the more important places of the kingdom, and thus enjoys every facility for trade, and is enabled to distribute the productions of its industry to all parts of the globe. Lat. 52° 29' N., Lon. 1° 52' W. Pop. 182,922.
Fåte, får, fall, fåt; m', m't; p're or pina, p'n; n', n't; oo, as in good;
BỊrr or Parl-sỌNS-TOWN', i i. o' Ir. land, in King co. Lat. 53° 7' N. Lon. 7° 51' W. Pop. in 1831, 6,591. (P. C.)
Bıs/-cay, (Sp. Biscaya, bis-ki-á or Viscaya,) a snall prov. in the N. of Spain, lying on the Bay of scay. Adj. and inhab. Bis-cayl-ẠN.
Biscay, Bay of, is that portion of the Atlantic Ocean which washes the northern coasts of Spain, and divides thein from the western coasts of France.
Black Mountain, near the N. W. extremity of N. C., remarkable as being the most elevated point of the Appalachian system, and the highest mountain-summit in the United States, E. of the Rocky Mountains. Height, 6,476 ft. Lat. about 36° 10' N., Lon. 81° 40' W.
BLACK RIVER, a r. in the northern part of N. Y., which flows into L. Ontario, near Sackett's Harbour. Its whole length is about 120 m.
Black Rock, a village of Erie co., N. Y., on Lake Erie, at the commencement of the Niagara r., 2 m. from Buffalo. Pop. of the township, 3,625.
BLACK SEA,* called also the Eul-xine, (Anc. Pon'tus Euxi/nus; Turk. Kål-rå' Dengl-is,) lies between 40° 50' and 46° 40' N. Lat., and 27° 20% and 41° 50' E. Lon., and divides the southern provinces of European Russia from Natolia. It communicates with the Mediterranean by the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora, and the Hellespont. Throughout its whole extent there is but one small island. This is uninhabited, and lies in 45° 15' N. Lat., at a considerable distance from the western shore. The waters of this sea are much less saline than those of the ocean. Their specific gravity, compared with that of fresh water, is 1142 to 1000. The water of the Atlantic is 1288. This difference is probably owing to the great quantity of fresh water which the numerous rivers pour into the Euxine from the surrounding country. The waters of the Baltic, however, are considerably less saline than those of the Black Sea, their specific gravity being not above 1042. (P. C.)
BLACK WARRIOR, a r. of Alabama, which flows into the Tombigbee. It is navigable for steainboats to Tuscaloosa, nearly 500 m. by water, fron Mobile.
BLACK-FÇRD, a co. in the E. N. E. part of Ind., a little S. E. of the Wabash and Erie canal. Pop. 1,226.
BlAl-DỆN, a co. in the S. E. part of N. C., intersected by the Cape Fear r. Pop. 8,022. Co. t. Elizabethtown.
BLANC, Mount, (Fr. Mont Blanc, món blån, i. e. "white mountain,")
* The name Black Sea is said to have been given by the Turks, who, being accustomed only to the navigation of the Archipelago, where the numerous islands and their convenient poris, offered many places of refuge in case of dan. ger, found the traversing such an open expanse of water very perilous, and accord. ingly expressed their fears by the epithet "black" (kara). Partly on the same account, and partly because the shores of this sea were occupied by barbarous nations, the ancient Greeks first called it ateros, (axenos,) i. e. " in hospitable;" but afterwards, when they had become better acquainted with the art of navigation, and had established numerous colonies on the shores, they changed the name to Euferos or cužeiVOS, (euxenos or cuxeinos,) i. e. “ hospitable.'
01, as in our; th, as in thin ; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. the highest mountain in Europe, situated in the kingdom of Sardinia, on the boundary line between Savoy and Piedmont. The highest point is 2460 toises, or 15,533 English feet above the level of the sea. (B.) Lat. about 45° 50' N., Lon. 6° 50' E.
BLAN'-co CAPE, on the W. coast of Africa, in 20° 46' 26" N. Lat., and 17° 4' 10" W. Lon., is the W. extremity of a rocky ridge extending into the Sahara, called the White Mountains.
BLAN-KEN-BURG' or blån-ken-bõÕRG', a principality in the N. of Germany, belonging to the dukes of Brunswick.–Also the chief t. of the above. Lat. 51° 47' N., Lon. 10° 57' E. Pop. 3,200. (P. C.)
BLED -SOE, a co. in the E. central part of Tenn., W. of the Tennessee r. Pop. 5,676. Co. t. Pikeville.
BLEIBERG, blil-berg, i. e. " lead mountain," a village of the Austrian empire, on the Drave, in Carinthia, with one of the richest lead mines in Europe. Pop. including that of the environs, near 4,000. (B.)
BLENHEIM, blen'-im, (Ger. pron. blen/-bime,) a village of Bavaria on the Danube, where, in 1704, Marlborough and Prince Eugene gained a great victory over the French and Bavarian forces under Marshal Tallard,
Blois, Bloi, or, more correctly, blwả, an important city of France, on the Loire, cap. of the dep. of Loir-et-Cher. Here is an ancient aqueduct cut in the rock, supposed to have been made by the Romans, which is still used for supplying the town with water. Lat. 47° 35' N., Lon. 1° 20' E. Pop. 13,000. (B.)
BLOUNT, a co. in tlie northern part of Ala., S. of the Tennessee r. Pop. 5,570. Co. t. Blountsville.
BLOUNT, a co. in the E. part of Tenn., bordering on N. C. Pop. 11,745. Co. t. Marysville.
BLUE MOUNTAINS, the eastern range of the Alleghanies, extending from the highlands, on the Hudson, to N. C., where it joins the main range. In Va. it is called the Blue Ridge.
Bo'-BER, a r. of Prussian Silesia, flowing into the Oder, at Krossen. Length about 140 m.
Bocage, boʻ-kảzh', a dist. of France, in the former prov. of Normandy, now siluated in the dep. of Calvados. The inhabitants are distinguished by their small stature, and are remarkable for the patriarchal simplicity of their mode of life, for industry, and for attachment to their native soil. Capital, Vire.
Bauf, bif, the name of a bayou in La., which communicates with the Red r. and the Atchafalaya. (See Bayou.)
BODENSEE. See CONSTANCE, LAKE.
Bod'-MIN, a t. of England, in the co. of Cornwall, about 210 m. W.S. W. of London. Pop. of the borough, with an area of above 4 sq. m., 4,205.
Bog, sometimes written Boug (Anc. Hypłanis), a r. in the S. part of European Russia, flowing into the Dnieper. Length about 470 m.
Böl-GLL-POOR', a t. of Hindostan; cap. of a dist. of the same name,