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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; Ty, as in this ; x, nearly like ng. maritine trade, it communicates, by means of railroads, with all the principal places in Mass., and with most of the important towns in the adjoining states. It is the second commercial city of the United States. The tonnage of this port, in 1813, amounted to 210,324. The total value of the imports, for the same year, was $20,662,567, and of the exports, $7,365,712. It is probable that the amount of imports and exports, during the present year (1844), will be much greater. The number and excellence of her institutions for education, and the zeal and success with which literature and science are cultivated by her citizens, appear fully to justify the distinguished reputation which Boston enjoys, as a seat of learning. Among the numerous literary establishnients of this city, may be mentioned the Atheneum, with a library of 34,000 vols. Lat. of the State House, 42° 21' 22'' N., Lon. 71° 49' W. Pop. 93,393.-Inhab. Bos-To-NL-AN.
BOSTON, a sea port t. of England, in Lincolnshire, about 100 m. N. of London. Lat. 53° N., Lon. 0° 2' W. Pop. of the town and parish, with an area of above 8 sq. m., 12,942.*
BOT-4-NY BAY, situated on the E. coast of New Holland, was named by Cook, from the great quantity of plants found there. Near it is Sydney, the chief town of the colony of convicts from Great Britain. See SYDNEY.
BOTETOURT, bot/-e-tort, a co. in the S. central part of Virginia, W. of the Blue Ridge. Pop. 11,679. Co. t. Fincastle.
BOTH'-N]-a, a country in the N. of Europe, formerly divided into E. and W. Bothnia; but the prov. called E. Bothnia has been ceded to Russia, and now forms a part of the government
of Uleåborg. S. Bothnia extends from about 63° 30' to 68° N. Lat. On the S. E. it borders on the Gulf of Bothnia.-Adj. Both'-NI-ẠN and BOTH'-NIC.
BOTHNIA, Gulf of, the inost northern part of the Baltic Sea, extends from 60° to near 66° N. Lat. Its whole length is perhaps 450 m.
Botz-EN, (It. Bolzano, bol-sål-no,) a t. of Tyrol, 32 m. N. by E. of Trent. Pop. 8,000. (B.)
BOUCHES DU RHÔNE. See MOUTHS OF THE RHONE.
BOULOGNE, boo-lone',(Fr. pron. booʻ- loñl: Anc. Gesoriacum, afterwards Bono'nia or Bolo'nia,) a seaport t. of France, in the dep. of Pas de Calais, 138 m. N. by W. of Paris. It contains, among other institutions, a public library of above 22,000 vols. Lat. 50° 44' N., Lon. 1° 35' E. Pop. 26,000. (B.)
BOURBON, boorl-bon, (Fr. pron. booR - HON',) an i. belonging to France, situated in the Indian Ocean, E. of Madagascar. The t. of St. Denis, at the N. W. extremity, is in 20° 51' S. Lat., and 55° 30' E. Lon. This island is nearly 50 m. long, from S. E. to N. W., and about 35 m. wide. The soil is very fertile in the vicinity of the coast, but the interior is decidedly sterile. A large portion of the island is mountainous; one
McCulloch gives the population of this town, without mentioning the area included.
Fåte, får, fäll, fit; m', m't; p'nc or pine, p’n; n', not; oo as in good, of the peaks rises to the height of near 9,600 it. above the level of the sea. Pop. in 1822, about 65,000. (P. C.) See MAURITIUS.
BọUR/-BON, a co. in the N. part of Ky., N. E. of Lexington. Pop. 14,478. Co. t. Paris.
BOURBON Lancy, boor'-bÒN-lån -se', a small t. of France, in the dep. of Saône and Loire, celebrated for its warm mineral springs and baths. This place was known to the Romans under the name of Aquæ Nisinei. Lat. 46° 37' N., Lon. 3° 46' E.
BOURBON L'ARCHAMBAULT, boor`-BİN-lar'-shåm'-ből, a t. of France, in the dep. of Allier, which appears to have been known for its warm mineral waters, to the Romans, under the name of Aque Bormonis. It is a place of considerable resort during the months of summer. Lat. 46° 36' N., Lon. 3° 1' E. Pop. about 3,060. (P. C.)
BOURBON VENDÉE, boor'-bÀN' vån-dal, a t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Vendée. Lat. 46° 41' N., Lon. 1° 29' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)
BOURDEAUX. See BORDEAUX.
BOURBONNE-LES-BAINS, boor'-bonn' la - bảN', a t. of France, in the dep. of Upper Marne, remarkable for its hot mineral springs and for the military hospital established here. Lat. 47° 57' N., Lon. 5° 46' E. Pop 4,000. (B.)
BOURG, book, a t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Ain, 50 m. by the road N. N. E. of Lyons. Lat. 46° 13' N., Lon. 5° 12' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)
Bourges, boorzh, (Anc. Avarlicum, afterwards Biturliges,) an archiepiscopal t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Cher, 125 m. due S. from Paris. This city may vie, in antiquity and ancient importance, with almost any in France. It was, in the time of Cæsar, the capital of the Bituriges, and one of the finest cities in Gaul. At present, it is chiefly remarkable as a seat of learning. Besides other institutions for educa tion, of less importance, it possesses an académie universitaire and a royal college. Lat. 47° 5' N., Lon. 2° 23' E. Pop. 20,000. (B.) BOURGOGNE. See BURGUNDY.
Boylę, a co. in the E. central part of Ky., a little S. W. of Ken. tucky r.
BRABANT, brål-bant,* (Dutch pron.bri-bånt.) The duchy of this name was formerly one of the most important provinces in the Netherlands. It was divided into Dutch (now North) and Spanish or Austrian (South) Brabant. In the revolution of 1830, the S. portion joined in the revoli, and has since formed a part of the kingdom of Belgium; while N. Brabant still continues a province of Holland. Brussels is the capita! of South, and Bois-le-Duc, of North Brabant.
Brackl-ưn, a co. in the N. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio, and E. of Licking r. Pop. 7,053. Co. t. Augusta.
• We sometimes hear this name accentuated on the latter syllable, by respectable speakers; but the authority of the poets, as well as the native pronunciation, is against this practice,
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; x, nearly like ng. BRADI-Ford, a co. in the N. part of Pa., bordering on N. Y., and intersected by the Susquehanna. Pop. 32,769. Co. t. Towanda.
BRADFORD, a manufacturing t. of England, in the W. riding of Yorkshire, 10 m. nearly W. from Leeds. Pop. 34,560.
BRADFORD, GREAT, a t. of Wiltshire, England, near the Kennet and Avon canal, about 90 m. W. of London. Total pop. of the parish, 10,563; that of the town is about one-third of the whole.
BRAD -LEY, a co. in the S. E. part of Ark., bordering on La. BRADLEY, a co. in the S. E. part of Tenn., bordering on Ga. Pop. 7,385.
BRAGA, brål-gå, (the Braclara Augusta of the Romans,) a t. of Portugal, in the prov. of Minho, about 15 m. from the sea. Lat. 41° 33' N. Lon. 8° 23' W. Pop. above 14,000. (B.)
BRAH-MA-POOT/-RẠ, one of the largest rivers of Asia, rises in the mountains N. of the Birman empire, and E. of Assam, and, after having traversed the kingdom of Assam and eastern Bengal, and received several tributaries, among them a branch of the Ganges, it takes the name of Megna, and finally joins the Ganges a little below Luckipoor, in Lal. 22° 45' N., Lon. 90° 40'E. Yet, though their streams appear to unite, the great body of their waters continues separate, and forms two currents, even after they have reached the sea. The whole length of the Brahmapootra is estimated at 1,500 m.
BRAN'-DEN-BURG, (Ger. pron. brản-den-bóóra',) a prov. of the kingdom of Prussia, extending from 51° 48' to 53° 37' N. Lat., and 10° 50 to 16° 12 E. Lon. The area is about 15,330 sq. m.
Branch, a co. in the S. part of Mich., bordering on Ind. Pop. 5,715. Co. t. Branch
BRAN-DY-WINE CREEK, a stream in the S. E. part of Pa., flowing into the Christiana, below Wilmington. A noted battle was fought on its banks, between the British and Americans, in 1777.
BRAUNSBERG, brouns-błRG, a t. of Prussia, 36 m. S. W. of Königsberg. It contains a college, a lyceum with the faculties of theology and philosophy, and several other institutions. Pop. 7,300. (B.)
BRAXI-TON, a co. in the N. W., or N. W. central part of Va., a little N. E. of the Kanawha r. Pop. 2,575. Seat of justice, Braxton c. h.
BRAZIL, or braz-ill, or brå-zeell, a vast empire in the E. part of S. America, extending from about 5° N. to 340 S. Lat., and from about 35° to 73° W. Lon.; bounded on the N. W. and N. by Ecuador, Venezuela, Guiana; N. E., E., and S. E. by the Atlantic, and S. W. and W. by Monte Video, La Plata, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. I's vast extent brings it in contact with all the countries of S. America, except Patagonia, Chili, and New Granada. The area has been estimated at 3,000,000 sq. m. Pop. 5,000,000. (B.) As might be supposed, the vegetable productions of a country of so great extent, lying within such latitudes, and, for the most part, plentifully supplied with water, are extreinely abundant and various. Nor does animal life appear in less variety and luxuriance. Many of the Brazilian birds are remarkable for the brilliancy of their plumage; the insects, for their size and the
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mè, mắt ; plne or pine, pin; no, nðt; õõ, as in good; beauty of their colours, especially the butterflies. The mineral wealth of this country is considerable, but limited to a few articles, of which the chief are gold, diamonds, topazes, iron, and salt. Brazil was formerly a colony belonging to the crown of Portugal. But, on the 12th of October, 1822, it was declared an independent state, and Pedro, the son of the king of Portugal, whom his father had appointed regent of Brazil, yielding to the torrent of public opinion, adopted the title of emperor, and, on the 1st of December, was crowned. Soon after, the Portuguese troops, who had been stationed in the towns of Bahia, Maranham and Para, were compelled to sail for Europe, and the independence of the new empire was established, with scarcely any loss of blood. The government of Brazil is a limited inonarchy. The cap. is Rio Janeiro. - Adj. and inhab. BRAZILIAN, brå-zil-yan.
BRAZ-os, a r. of Texas, which flows into the Gulf of Mexico, in about 28° 50' N. Lat., and 95° 20' W. Lon. The entire length, following its windings, is estimated at near 1,000 m.
Brazza, bråt/-så, an i. in the Adriatic, belonging to Austria, intersected by the parallel of 43° 15' N. Lat., and the meridian of 16° 30 E. Lon. It is nearly 30 m. long, and from 6 to 9 broad. Pop. 15,000. (E. G.)
BREATHitt, breth-it, a co. in the E. part of Ky., on the head waters of the Kentucky r. Pop. 2,195.
BRECHIN, brek/-in, a i. of Scotland, in Forfarsbire, about 34 m. S.W. of Aberdeen. Pop. 3,951.
BRECK-EN-RIDGE, a co. in the N. N. W. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio. Pop. 8,944. Co. t. Hardinsburg. BRECH
T-on or Breck/-NOCK-SHỊRE, an inland co. in the S. of Wales. Pop. 55,603.
BRECON or BRECKNOCK, a t. of Wales; cap. of Brecknockshire, situated on the r. Usk, 167 m. W. N. W. of London. Pop. 5,701.
BREDA, brá-dål, a fortified t. of Holland, in N. Brabant, on the Aa, with a royal military academy. Lat. 51° 35' N., Lon. 4° 47' E. Pop. about 9,000. (B.)
BREISACH, bril-zÅK, (Fr. Brisach, bre'-zák!,) an ancient and important fortress of Germany, belonging at present to the grand-duchy of Baden, on the Rhine, 12 m. W. of Freiburg. Lat. 48° 2' N., Lon. 7° 35' E. Pop. above 3,000. (B.)
BREM-EN (Ger. pron. bra-men), THE FREE HANSEATIC STATE OF, in the N. W. of Germany, intersected by the Weser, is situated between 53° 1' and 53° 11'N. Lat., and 8° 35' and 9° E. Lon. Area about 67 sq.m. As an independent power it forms one of the 38 constituent members of the German confederation. Pop. in 1823, 55,453. (P. C.) The city of Bremen, the cap. of the above state, is situated on the Weser, and divided by it into two unequal parts, the larger, called the Old Town (Alt-stadt), is on the right; the other, called the New Town (Neustadt), on the left bank of the river. Its commerce is very extensive. Among the various literary and scientific institutions of Bremen, the observatory of Dr. Olbers, from which he discovered the two planets,
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Pallas and Vesta, deserves to be particularly mentioned. Lat. 53° 4 36 N., Lon. 8° 48' 58" E. Pop. about 41,500. (P. C.)
BRENTA, bren'-tả, a r. in the N. of Italy, which rises in the mountains of Tyrol, and flows into the Adriatic, near Venice. Its whole course is nearly 100 m.
BRESCIA, bresh'e-à, or bresh -X, (Anc. Brixia,) a manufacturing and commercial t. of Austrian Italy; cap. of a prov. of the same name. It is a bustling, lively, well-built town, with many fine edifices. The churches are adorned with numerous paintings by great masters, principally of the Venetian school. Next to Rome, Brescia has the greatest namber of fountains of any town in Italy. Its manufactures of cutlery and fire-arms deserve particular notice. Lat. 45° 32' N., Lon. 10° 13' E Pop. 34,000). (B.)
Bres'-LAU or bres-lou, a large manufacturing and commercial t. of Prussia; cap. of the prov. of Silesia, at the confluence of the Ohlau (o'-lou), with the Oder. It has, among many other literary and scientific institutions, a fine university, founded in 1702, containing a library of above 100,000 vols. Lat. 51° 7' N., Lon. 17° 5' E. Pop. upwards of 90,000. (B.)
BREST (Fr. pron. the same as the English), the most important naval port of France, in the dep. of Finistère, situated on a bay called the Road of Brest. Lat. 48° 23' N., Lon. 4° 29' W. Pop. 30,000. (B.)
BRETAGNE, brę-tảñ', (usually named by the English, Brit/tany,) an old prov. in the W. part of France, now divided into the five deps. of Ille and Vilaine, Lower Loire, Côtes du Nord, Morbihan, and Finistère. — Adj. and inhab. Breton, brit-on.
BRETON, CAPE. See Cape BRETON.
Briançon, bre'-N -SÓN', a small t. of France, in the dep. of the Upper Alps, situated on the Durance, near its source. Fortified as it is, both by nature and art, Briançon may be regarded as one of the strongest fortresses in the world. One of the forts, comprised within its system of fortifications, is situated 1,229 toises, or 7,860 English ft., above the level of the sea, and, next to the Hospice of St. Bernard, is probably the most elevated habitation in Europe. Lat. 44° 54' N., Lon. 6° 38' E.
BRIDGE-NORTH, a t. of England, in Shropshire, situated on the Severn, 118 m. N. W. of London. Pop. 5,770.
BRIDGE -PORT, a city and sea port of Conn., in Fairfield co., situated on Long Island Sound, 174 m. S. W. of New Haven. It is a neatlybuilt, flourishing town, with a good harbour. Pop. 3,294.
BRIDGE-Town, a small t. and port of entry; cap. of Cumberland co., N. J., on Cohansey creek, about 10 m., in a straight line, from the lighthouse at its mouth, and 35 m. S. from Philadelphia.
BRIDGETOWN. See BARBADOES. BRIDGE'-wÅ-TER, a t. of England, in Somersetshire, on the r. Parret, 29 m. S. W. of Bristol. It is remarkable as the birth-place of Admiral Blake. Pop. 9,899.
BRIDLINGTON or BRELLINGTON, commonly pronounced Burl-ling-ton, a t. of England, in the E. Riding of Yorkshire, situated about a mile