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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. The Bulgarians are descended from a Slavonic horde who established themselves here in the 7th century. The present race have laid aside the military character of their ancestors, and are represented as hospitable and benevolent: the woman are said to be handsome, industrious, and neatly dressed.-Adj. and inhab. Bulgarian, boðl-gd-re-an.

Bullets, bool-it, a co. in the N. part of Ky., S. of Louisville. Pop. 6,334. Co. t. Shepherdsville.

BULLOCK, bóóll-luk, a co. in the E. part of Ga., bordering on the r. Ogeechee. Pop. 3,102. Co. t. Statesborough.

BUNCOMBE, bunkl-um, a co. in the W. part of N.C., bordering on Tenn. Pop. 10,084. Co. t. Ashville.

Bunker Hill, a hill in Charlestown, a suburb of Boston, famous for the battle fought in its vicinity, June 17, 1775. A magnificent monument has recently been erected here in commemoration of that event. It consists of an obelisk of granite, 30 ft. square at the base, and 221 ft. in height. From its summit is obtained one of the finest and most extensive views in the United States.

BURD'-WẢN, a t. of Bengal; cap. of a dist. of the same name. Lat. 23° 15' N., Lon. 87° 57' E. Pop. 51,000. (B.)

BUREAU, bul-ro, a co. in the N. part of Ill., bordering on Illinois r. Pop. 3,067.

Burg, bóÕRG, a manufacturing t. of Prussian Saxony, surrounded by a wall, with five gates, about 65 m. S. W. of Berlin. Pop. above 12,000. (B.)

BURGOS, DOOR -goce, an ancient archiepiscopal city of Spain, situated 136 m. N. of Madrid. It is nominally the cap. of Old Castile, but since the seat of royalty was transferred to Madrid, by Charles V., in the beginning of the 16th century, its prosperity has greatly declined, and the pop. has dwindled to less than one-third of its former number. Lat. 42° 21' N., Lon. 3° 43' W. Pop. 12,080. (B.)

Buel-GUN-DY, (Fr. Bourgogne, boor -goñ',) an old prov. of France, now principally divided among the departments of Saône and Loire, Côte d'Or, and Yonne.-Inhab. BUR-GUN-DI-AN.

BURKE, a co. in the W. part of N. C., lying on both sides of the Catawba. Pop. 15,799. Co. t. Morgantown.

Burke, a co. in the E. part of Ga., between the rivers Ogeechee and
Savannah. Pop. 13,176. Co. t. Waynesborough.

BURLINGTON (England). See BRIDLINGTON.
BURI-LING-TỌN, a port of entry, the most commercial t. of Vt., cap.
of Chittenden co., on L. Champlain, a few miles S. of the mouth of the
Onion r.

It is the seat of the University of Vermont, founded in 1791.
Lat. 44° 27' N., Lon. 73° 10' W. Pop. of the township, 4,271.

BURI-LING-Tọn, a co. of N. J., stretching across the state, from the Delaware to the Atlantic. Pop. 32,831. Co. t. Mount Holly.

BURLINGTON, a t. of N. J., in the above co., situated on the left bank of the Delaware, 12 m. below Trenton. Lat. 40° 5'N., Lon. 74° 52' W. Pop. about 2,600.

BURMA. See BIRMA.

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Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; pine or pine, pin; nò, not; oo as in good;

Burnl-ley, a t. of Lancashire, England, 40 m. E. N. E. of Liverpool. Pop. 10,699.

BURRAMPOOTER. See BRAHMAPOOTRA.

Bursa, boor/-sả, or Bausa, broo-sả, (Anc. Pru'sa,) a flourishing manufacturing and commercial t. of Asiatic Turkey, once the cap. of Bithynia, beautifully situated at the foot of Mount Olympus, in Asia Minor. It is abundantly supplied with the purest water, so that every house has its own fountain. Most of the streets are very clean, and well paved. The most remarkable edifices in the place, are the thermal baths; the mineral waters which supply them, range in temperature from 167° to 190° Fahrenheit. Bursa is the residence of a Greek metropolitan and an Armenian archbishop. Lat. 40° 11' N., Lon. 29° 12 E. Pop. 100,00. (B.)

BURSCHEID, boor/-shite, (Fr. Bor'-cette',) a t. of the Prussian states, in the immediate vicinity of Aix-la-Chapelle, remarkable for its warm springs and baths. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

BURS'-LEM, a t. of Staffordshire, England, 24 m. N. N. E. of Newcastle, with extensive potteries. Pop. of the township, 12,631.

Bury, bér/-re, a manufacturing t. of England, in Lancashire, 9 m. N. N. W. of Manchester. Pop. of the township, including an arca of near 4 sq. m., 20,710.

Bury Sr. EDMUND's, a t. of England, in the co. of Suffolk, 62 m N. E. by N. from London. The name is derived from Edmund, king of East Anglia, who was, in 870, cruelly put to death by the Danes, then pagans. His remains were deposited in the monastery of this place. Pop. of the borough, including an area of near 5 sq. m., 12,538.

BUSHIRE. See ABOOSHEHR.

BUTE, an i. of Scotland, in the Frith of Clyde, 16 m. long and 5 wide.

Bute/-SHỊRE, a co. in the S. W. part of Scotland, consisting of the islands of Bute, Arran, Inchmarnock, and the Cumbraes. Pop. 15,740.

Bur/-LÆR, a co. in the W. part of Pa., N. of Pittsburg. Pop. 22,378. Co. t. Butler.

BUTLER, a co. in the S. part of Ala. Pop. 8,635. Co. t. Greenville

BUTLER, a co. in the W. part of Ky., intersected by Green r. Pop 3,898. Co. t. Morgantown.

BUTLER, a co. in the S. W. part of Ohio, intersected by the Great Miami r., and bordering on Ind. Pop. 28,173. Co. t. Hamilton.

Bur'-TER-MERE, a beautiful lake of England, in the co. of Cumberland, about 10 m. long, and ) m. broad.

Butts, a co. in the central part of Ga., W. of and bordering on the Ocmulgee r. Pop. 5,308. Co. t. Jackson.

Buxl-rọn, a small t. of Derbyshire, England, 20m. S. of Manchester, celebrated for its warm mineral springs and baths. It is visited by from 12,000 to 14,000 persons annually. (P. C.)

Buzl-Zərd's Bay, on the S. coast of Mass., is situated between the countries of Bristol and Barnstable.

BYZANTIUM, biz-and-she-um, (Gr. Bu šuvtrov or Buoavtiovo) an ancient

ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. city on the site of the modern Constantinople. (See CONSTANTINOPLE.) -Adj. and inhab. BYZ-AN-Ting, and BYZANTIAN, biz-an/-she-an.

CA-BABI-RẠS, a co. in the S. W. part of N. C., between the rivers Catawba and Yadkin. Pop. 9,259. Co. t. Concord.

CAB'-ELL, a co. in the W. part of Va., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 8,163. Seat of justice, Cabell c. h.

CAB-001/,1 (Cabul or Caubul), an important city of Asia, the cap. of Afghanistan, situated on the Cabool r., in a large, well-watered plain, and surrounded with beautiful gardens. The town, though not large, is handsome and compact; the houses are mostly built of wood, to avoid the consequences of the frequent earthquakes. It is surrounded with walls, and strongly fortified. Lat. 34° 26' N., Lon. 69° 5' E. Pop. formerly estimated at 80,000, but it does not probably at present amount to more than 60,000. (B.)

CABOOL or Cabul, a r. of Afghanistan, flowing into the Indus.

CACERES, kål-tha-rés, (Lat. Cas/tra Cæcillia,) an ancient t. of Spain, in Estremadura. Lat. 39° 25' N., Lon. 6° 15' W. Pop. 10,000. (B.) CACHOEIRA. See CAXOEIRA. Cabl-do, a parish forming the N. W. extremity of La. Pop. 5,282.

CADIZ, cà-diz, (Sp. pron. kål-pith,) the principal commercial city of Spain, situated in the prov. of Andalusia, on the S.W. coast. It stands on a tongue of land, projecting from the island of Leon. This town was founded by the Phænicians, many centuries before the Christian era; the exact time is not known. It was called by them Gadir or Gadeira, which was afterwards changed to Gades by the Romans, under whom it became a municipium, or free town, and one of the richest provin. cial cities in the empire. Nature and art have combined to render this place one of the strongest fortresses in Europe. Lat. 36° 31' N., Lon.

* These are sometimes employed to designate an inhabitant of the modern Turkish capital. The eastern Roman empire, the seat of which was at Constantinople, is frequently called the Byzantine empire,

t 'The French write this name "Caboul, while the Germans, Italians, Spaniards, and Portuguese, write it Cabul, but pronounce the latter syllable bool. Nevertheless, we are assured, on the best authority, that the native inhabitants write and pronounce it without any vowel between the band l, which might be represented in English thus–Kab'l.' The European pronunciation, however, seems unaltera. bly fixed; and we ought, perhaps, to acquiesce the more willingly because the ori. ginal name could not be restored without some loss of euphony Moore writes the name Caubul, but accentuates the last syllable.

Pomegranates full
of melting sweetness, and the pears
And sunniest apples that CAUBUL

In all its thousand gardens bears."Lalla Rookh.
Rogers adopts the same accentuation.

“From Alexandria southward to Sennaar,
And eastward through Damascus, and CABUL,
And Samarcand, to thy great wall, Cathay.”.

Italy, Part Second, X

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; m', mit; plne or pine, pin; no, not; oo, as in good; 6° 17' W. Pop. estimated at 53, 00. (B.)—Inhab. GAD'-I-TA'-NI-AN. (Borrow.)

Caen, kản, a l. of France; cap. of the dep. of Calvados, situated on the Orne, 127 in. W. by N. of Paris. Among its numerous scientific and literary institutions, we may mention the Académie Universitaire, the Royal College, and the Public Library, coptaining 40,000 vols. Lat. 49° 11' N., Lon. 0° 22' W. Pop. 39,000. (B.)

CAERMARTHEN, ker-marl-Then, a t. of Wales, cap. of Caermarthenshire, is about 190 m. nearly W. from London. There is here a Presbyterian college, for the education of young men for the ministry. Caermarthen forms a little co. of itself, of which the entire pop. is 9,526. Lat. 51° 51' N., Lon. 4° 19' W.

CAERMARTHENSHIRE, ker-marl-Then-shịr, a co. of S. Wales, on a bay of the same name. Pop. 106,326.

CAER-NARl-vọn, a t. of Wales; the cap. of Caernarvonshire. Lat. 53° 9' N., Lon. 4° 14' W.

CẠER-NARI-VỌN-SHIRE, a co. in the N. W. part of Wales, bordering on the sea, and the Menai Strait. Pop. 81,093.

Car-FrAl-R1-4 or Carl-FRE-LAND, a name given by Europeans, to a country in the S. E. part of Africa, extending about 600 m. along the coast, from the Great Key r. to Lagoa Bay. Ïhe name is derived from the Arabic word Kafir, which signifies " unbeliever.” This country is occupied by four principal nations, originally of one stock. One of these, the Zoolas or Vatvahs, are a fine athletic race, and very warlike, and have overpowered, dispersed, or destroyed all the surrounding tribes, from King George's r. to Port Natal, a tract of above 300 m. in length, from N. to s. The Caffres acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being, but have no form of worship. Some tribes are industrious, and cultivate millet, beans, pumpkins, sweet potatoes or yams, maize and tobacco. The complexion of the Caffres varies from a cop per hue to a deep black. Their nose is arched; they have thick lips and curly hair, but less woolly than the negroes. The Caffre women are considered to be among the handsomest in Africa. - Adj. and inhab. CAF-FRE.

Cagliari, kål/-yå-re, (Anc. Callaris), a fortified archiepiscopal city, the chief port of Sardinia, and cap. of the vice-royalty of Sardinia, is situated in the S. part of the island, on a bay of the same name. It has a fine harbour, and an extensive commerce : also a university, with the four faculties of theology, law, medicine, philosophy and belleslettres. Lat. 39° 13' N., Lon. 9° 7' E. Pop. in 1625, 27,300. (P. C.)

CA-HAW!»e», a r. of Ala., which flows into the Alabama r. At its influx is situated the town of Cahawba, the former cap. of the state.

Caur or Caher, Kahl-her or kare, a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Tipperary, on the Suir, 40 m. N. E. of Cork. Pop. in 1831, 3,408. (P.C.)

Cahors, kả -OR!, (Divona Cadurcorum,) a city of France; cap. of the dep. of Lot, on the right bank of the r. Lot. This town is very ancient; it was the cap. of the Cadurci, under the Romans, and after wards of the prov. of Querci, which name, as well as Cahors, is derived

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. from Cadurci. Many ancient ruins are found in it and its vicinity. Lat. 44° 25' N., Lon. 1° 27' E. Pop. 12,000. (B.)

Caicos (ki'-koce) Islands, one of the groups comprehended under the general name of Bahamas, situated between 21° and 22° N. Lat., and 71° and 73° W. Lon.

CAIRO, kil-ro, a celebrated city, the metropolis of modern Egypt, situated about half a mile from the right bank of the Nile, and about 100 m. in a straight line from the entrance of the E. branch into the Mediterranean. The Arabs formerly called it El-Kahira, el-kål-be-rå, i e. "the victorious," but Musr (or Másr) is the name by which it is now commonly known among the natives. The streets of Cairo are winding, narrow, and unpaved. The houses, not being lighted except from windows opening on the courts in the interior, present, from the street, the appearance of prisons. But, though the exterior of the houses is gloomy, many of the exhibit

, within, conveniences and luxuries suitable to the climate. Here everything is arranged with a view to coolness; the floor is inlaid with marble and coloured earthenware, and fountains spring up into marble basins. The commerce of this city is very extensive. Through it the productions of Asia and the East Indies, and partly also those of Europe, are transmitted into the vast regions of interior Africa. Boolak (boo'-lák!), the principal port of Cairo, is on the right bank of the Nile, N. N. W. of the metropolis. Pop. estimated at above 18,000. (B.) The other port, Old Cairo, is situated on the Nile, S. S. W. of New 'or Great Cairo.

The Egyptian capital is in about 30° 3' N. Lat., and 31° 18' E. Lon. Pop. estimated at 330,000, previously to the recent ravages of the cholera and plague; but, at present, it probably does not exceed 270,000. (B.)— Adj. and inhab. Cairine, ki-reen'. (Arab. Mus/-ree.)

CAITH'-NESS, a co. occupying the N. N. E. extremity of Scotland. Pop. 36,343.

CA-LA-BR1-9, or kå-lål-bre-å, a territory of the kingdom of Naples, occupying the southern extremity of Italy. It extends from 37° 56' to about 40° N. Lat., and is divided into Calabria Citra (cheel-tra), which forms the N., and Calabria Ultra (ool/-trå), the S. part of the territory.-Adj. and inhab. CA-LA-BRI-AN.

CALAHORRA, kå-lå-or-rå, (Anc. Calagur/ris,) a t. of Spain, in Old Castile, remarkable for the ruins which aitest its ancient splendour. Calagurris was the birth-place of Quintilian. Lat. 42° 15''N., Lun. 2° W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)

Calais, kall-is, (Fr. pron. kå'-1),) a fortified sea port t. of France, in the dep. of Pas-de-Calais, situated on the Pas-de-Calais or Strait of Dover, 150 m. nearly N. from Paris. A steamboat runs daily from this place to Dover, which is about 25 m. distant. Calais was taken by Edward III. in 1347, and reinained in the possession of the English till 1558. Lat. 50° 58' N., Lon. 1° 51' E. Pop. in 1832, 10,437. (P. C.)

CALAIS, STRAIT OF. See PAS-DE-CALAIS.

CALATAYUD, kå-18-tå-yood, a t. of Aragon, Spain. Lat. 41° 25' N., lon, 1° 36' W. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

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