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Fate, får, fill, fit; m', m't; pine or pine, pin; n), nit; õó, as in good;

Calcasieu, kili-kv--shu', or kull-ku-shu', as it is commonly pronounced, a r. in the W. part of La., which, after flowing through a lake of the same name, empties itself into the Gulf of Mexico. The lake is about 30 m. in length, and 10 m. in breadth.

Calcasieu, a parish forming the S. W. extremity of La. Pop. 2,057.

Cal-curl-ta, the cap. of Bengal, and the seat of the supremne government in British India, is situated on the E. side of the Hoogly, an arm of the Ganges, about 100 m. from the sea. In the beginning of the last century, Calcutta was only an insignificant village, and a great part of its present site was completely covered with jungle. The spot appears not to have been wisely chosen, as it is surrounded by a marshy and unhealthy country; and, though something has been done to remedy the evil, by draining the water off the surface, near the town, and by clearing a way the surrounding jungle, the air is still far from being salubrious. The city may be considered as consisting of two distinct parts; that portion which is inhabited by the Hindoos and Mahometans of the lower classes, is, in general, badly built, with narrow and dirty streets, the dwellings being, for the most part, mud hovels, and the walls frequently consisting of mats and bambous; while that quarter where the English and other Europeans reside, presents a very different aspect. This is finely, and even magnificently built, so that the houses are said to resemble palaces. The citadel, called Fort William, stands on the bank of the Hoogly, about a quarter of a mile below the city. The Europeans of Calcutta have established a number of literary and scientific institutions; among others, a Mahometan, a Sanscrit, and an Anglo-Indian college. About one-third of the native inhabitants of this town are Mahometans, and nearly all the remainder Hindoos. The number of Christians, in 1822, was stated to be 13,138. The commerce of Calcutta is very extensive; through it nearly all the external trade of the prov. of Bengal is carried on. Lat. 22° 34' N., Lon. 88° 26' E. Pop. estimated at 625,000. (P. C.)

CALDAS DA RAINHA, kåll-dås då rå-een/-yå, a small i. of Portuguese Estremadura, much resorted to on account of its warm sulphurous baths. Lat. 39° 22' N., Lon. 9° 5' W. Permanent pop. 1,510. (B.) Caldas, signifying “warm baths," is a name given to a number of other places in Portugal and Spain.

C.1/-DER, a small r. of Yorkshire, England, which flows into the Aire at Castleford, near Pontefract.

CALD'-WELL, a parish in the N., or N. central part of La., intersected by the Washita. Pop. 2,017.

CALDWELL, a co. in the W. part of Ky., E. of, and bordering on the Tennessee r. Pop. 10,365. Co. t. Princeton.

CALDWELL, a co. in the N. W. part of Mo. Pop. 1,458. CAL-E-DO-N1-4, the ancient and poetical name of Scotland.-Adj. and inhab. Cal-E-DO-NI-AN.

CALEDONIA, a co. in the N. E. part of Vt., bordering on the Connecticut r. Pop. 21,891. Co. t. Danville.

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ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Calhoun, kąl-hoon', a co. in the W. part of Florida, bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. Pop. 1,142.

CALHOUN, a co. in the S. part of Mich., intersected by the Kalama200 T. Pop. 10,599. Co. t. Marshall.

Calhoun, a co. in the W. part of Ill., situated in the fork formed by the Mississippi and Illinois rivers. Pop. 1,741. Co. t. Guilford.

Cal'-I-CUT', a sea port t. of Hindostan, in the prov. of Malabar. Lat. 11° 15' N., Lop. 75° 50' E. It is estimated to contain 5,000 houses. (P. C.)

CAL-I-FOR-N]-4, LOWER, a peninsula of Mexico, on the Pacific, separated from the main land by the Gulf of California. Upper California extends from the extremity of the gulf to the territory of the U. S.

CALIFORNIA, GULF OF, on the W. coast of Mexico, extends from about 23° 30' to 32° N. Lat. Its length is above 700 m.; its breadth varies from about 40 to 150 m.

CALLAO, kål-lal-o or kål-yål-o, on the coast of Peru, is the 'sea port of Lima, from which it is 7 m. distant, by a good level road. It is the best fortress and the most convenient and safest port in Peru. Lat. 12° 3 S., Lon. 77° 14' W. Before the war of independence, it had a pop. of 4,000. (B.)

Caul-LA-WAÝ, a co. in the S. W. part of Ky., bordering on the Tennessee r. Pop. 9,794. Co. t. Wadesborough.

CALLAWAY, a co. in the E. central part of Mo., bordering on the r. Missouri. Pop. 11,765. Co. t. Fulton.

Calmar, kåll-mår, or KALMAR, a commercial t. of Sweden, in the ancient prov. of Småland. Lat. about 56° 40' N., Lon. 16° 26' E. Pop. 6,000. (B.)

Calne, kản, a t. of England, in Wiltshire, 83 m. W. of London. Pop. 2,483.

CALTAGIRONE, kål-tá-je-rol-na, a manufacturing and trading t. in the interior of Sicily. Lat. 37° 14' N., Lon. 14° 32' E. Pop. estimated at about 20,000. (B.)

CALTANISETTA, kål-tå-ne-set-tå, an important inland t. of Sicily. Lat. about 37° 26' N., Lon. 14° 4' E. Pop. 16,000. (B.)

Cal/-U-MET', a co. in the E. part of Wisconsin, bordering on L. Winnebago. Pop. 275.

CALVADOS, kål-vål-dos or kål -vå-dos, a dep. in the N. of France, bordering on the English Channel. Pop. 501,775. (B.) Capital, Caen.

CALI-VERT, a co. in the S. central part of Md., between the r. Patuxent and the Chesapeake. Pop. 9,229. Co. t. Prince Frederick.

Cam, a small r. of England, which flows by Cambridge, and falls into the Ouse.

CAM-BAX!, an ancient t. on the N. W. coast of Hindostan, on a gulf of the same name. Lat. 22° 21'N., Lon. 72° 48' E.

CAM-BO-DJ-A, CAM-BO'-DJẠ or CAM-BOGE', an extensive country of Asia, in Chin-India, a part of which is now subject to Cochin China,

Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; plne or pine, pin; no, nðt; õò as in good : the remainder to the Siamese. The Chinese call it Kan-phu-tche, from which the European name is derived.

CAMBODIA, called also Meinam-Kong, a large r. of S. Asia, flowing into the China Sea. It is navigable for the largest vessels, 40 leagues from its mouth. Length estimated at 1,700 m.

CAM-BOGE' or Cambodia, one of the chief cities of Cambodia, situated on the r. Meinam-Kong, above 150 m. from the sea. Lat. 12° 30% N., Lon, 105° 4' E.

Cam'-Bray or CAMBRAI, (Fr. pron. kår'-bra!, Lat. Camaricum,) a fortified commercial t. of France, in the dep. of Nord, on the E. bank of the Escaut or Scheldt, with a college and a school of anatomy. Lat. 50° 10 N., Lon. 3° 14' E. Pop. 17,000. (B.)

CAM-BRI-4, a co. in the S. W. central part of Pa., near the sources of the Juniata. Pop. 11,250. Co. t. Ebensburg. CAMBRIDGE, kamel-brij

, (Lat. Canta'bria,) the cap. of Cambridgeshire, England, on the r. Cam, about 48 m. N. by E. from London, is the seat of an ancient and celebrated university. This consists of 17 colleges, 4 of which are termed halls. The observatory is in Lat. 52° 12' 52" N. Lon. 0° 5' 53'' E. Pop. including that of the university, 24,453.-A student at the university is called a Can-tal, which is evidently an abbreviation of Cantabrian, derived from the Latin name of Cambridge.

CAMBRIDGE, a t. of Middlesex co., Mass., about 3 m. W. N. W. of Boston, the seat of Harvard University, which is the oldest and most richly endowed collegiate institution in the U. S. It was founded in 1638, has numerous professors, and contains a library of 61,000 vols. In connexion with the collegiate department, there are schools of law and medicine, and a theological seminary. Lat. 42° 22' 21" N., Lon. 71° 7' 38" W. Pop. 8,409.

CAMBRIDGESHIRE, kamel-brij-shịr, a co. in the E. part of England, N. of London. Pop. 164,459.

Cam'-DEN, a co. in the N. E. part of N. C., bordering on Va. Pop. 5,663. Co. t. New Lebanon.

Camden, a co. forming the S. S. E. extremity of Ga., bordering on the sea and St. Mary's r. Pop. 6,075. Co. t. Jeffersonton.

CAMPAGNA di Roma, kảm-pån -yå de rol-må, a prov. of Italy, in the S. part of the Papal State, nearly corresponding in limits with the ancient Latium.

CAMPBELL, kaml-el, a co. in the S. part of Va., bordering on James r. Pop. 21,030. Seat of justice, Campbell c. h.

CAMPBELL, a co. in the N. W. central part of Ga., intersected by the Chattahoochee r. Pop. 5,370. Co. t. Campbellton.

CAMPBELL, a co in the N. part of Tenn., bordering on the Clinch r. and Ky Pop. 6,149. Co. t. Jacksborough.

CAMPBELL, a co. in the N. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 5,214. Co. t. Newport.

CAMPBELLTOWN, kam'-el-town, a seaport of Scotland, in Argyleshire, 65 m. W. by S. from Glasgow. Pop. 5,028.

CAMPEACHY, kam-peel-che, (Mex. Campeche, kåm-pdl-chan) a forti.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. fied t. of Yucatan, Mexico, on a bay of the same name. Lat. 20° N., Lon. 90® 30 W. Pop. 18,000. (P. C.)

Campo-Basso, kảm/-po-bås -so, an important commercial and manufacturing t. of Naples ; cap. of the prov. of Molise (mo-leel-sd). The best cutlery made in the kingdom is produced here. Lat. 41° 37' N., Lon. 14° 27' E. Pop. 8,000. (B.)

CAN'-A-DA, an extensive country of N. America, belonging to Great Britain, extending from 64° 15' to near 91° W. Lon. Its southern extremity (the S. point of Pelee Island, in Lake Erie), is in about 41° 45' N. Lat. On the N. its limits are not defined. It is usual to consider all the territory N. of the great lakes, which is drained by the rivers that fall into the St. Lawrence, as belonging to Canada. It is bounded on the N. by the British possessions round Hudson's Bay and by Labrador, E. by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, S. by New Brunswick and the United States, and W. by the British territories, between which and Canada the limits do not appear to be accurately defined. Canada was formerly divided into Upper and Lower, but the two provinces were united in 1841, by an act of the British parliament. As, however, this country has been so long known by the names of the former provinces, it may not be improper to give these a passing notice. Upper Canada (now called Canada West) is situated on the right of the r. Ottawa, by which it is separated from Lower Canada, and extends westward along the chain of the great lakes. Area vaguely estimated at 140,000 sq. m. Pop. in 1835, 336,461. Capital, Toronto. Lower Canada (Canada East) lies chiefly on the left of the Ottawa, and extends on both sides of the St. Lawrence, to its mouth, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Area estimated at 200,000 sq. m. Pop. in 1830, 511,917. (M.) More than three-fourths of the inhabitants of Lower Canada are of French descent, and French is the prevailing language. Quebec was formerly the capital of this province and of all the British possessions in N. America. The entire pop. of Canada, according to the recent census, is about 1,300,000. Montreal is the present seat of gow verninent.—Adj. and inhab. CAN-A-DI-AN.

Can'-»-JO-HARI-IE (-hårl-re), the cap. of Montgomery co., N. Y., on the Erie Canal, 50 m. W. of Albany. Pop. of the township, 5,146.

CAN-AN-DAI-GUẠ, a beautiful village of N. Y.; cap. of Ontario co., 208 m. W. of Albany. It is situated near the N. extremity of a lake of the same name, which is about 17 m. long. Pop. of the township, 5,652.

CAN-A-RẠ, a prov. on the W. coast of Hindostan, between 12° and 15° N. Lat., and 74o and 76° E. Lon.

CA-NAI-RJES (Sp. Canarias, kả-nå-re-ås), a group of islands belonging to Spain, in the Atlantic, lying off the coast of Africa, between 270 40 and 29° 30' N. Lat., and 13° 30' and 18° 20' W. Lon. The principal islands are Canary, Teneriffe, Palma, Ferro, Gomera, Fuertaventura, and Lanzarote, which will be treated of under their respective namnes. -Inhab. CA-NA-RA-AN.

Canary, GRAND, (Sp. Gran Canaria, grån kå-nål-re-å,) the second in

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oč as in good, point of size and population of the group of islands to which it gives its name.* It is intersected by the 28th parallel of N. Lat., and the meridian of 15° 30' W. Lon. The form is nearly circular. Length 33 m.; greatest breadth, 30 m. Area about 800 sq. in. Pop. in 1835, 64,040. (P. C.)

Can'-DA-HAR! or Kandahar, a city, formerly the cap. of Afghanistan, and now of a kingdom or prov. of its own name. It is regularly built, and is one of the finest towns in Asia. Lat. 32° 10' N., Lon. 66° 30' E. Pop. 100,000. (B.)

Can-di-9 or CRETE (Anc. Cre/ta), one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean, situated S. E. of the Morea, between 35° 55' and 36° 42' N. Lat., and 23° 30' and 26° 20' E. Lon. Length about 160 m. ; greatest breadth, near 40 m. A ridge of hills runs through the whole length of the island, near the middle of which Mount Ida rises far above the rest, to the height of about 7,800 ft. Pop. estimated at 300,000. (P. C.)—Candia, the capital, is still a strong place, though much decayed, compared with what it was under the Venetians. It is the seat of a Greek archbishopric. Lat. 35° 16' N., Lon. 25° 18' E. Pop. 12,000. (M.) Adj. and inhab. Can'-Dl-or' and Can'-DI-AN.

Can-El-», pronounced by the Turks Hå-neel-i, a t. in the i. of Candia, on the site of the ancient Cydonia. Lat. 35° 29' N., Lon. 24° 2' E. Pop. estimated at 12,000. (B.)

Cannes, kånn, a small commercial t. of France, in the dep. of Var, on the Mediterranean, 16 m. N. E. of Frejus. Pop. in 1832, 3,720. (P. C.)

Canl-NỌN, a co. near the centre of Tenn. Pop. 7,193.

CAN-ONS-BURG', a t. of Pa., in Washington co., the seat of Jefferson College, which was incorporated in 1802.

Cantal, kản'-tål', a dep. in the S. central part of France, bordering on the r. Dordogne. Pop. 262,117. (B.) Capital, Aurillac.

CANTERBURY, kan'-ter-ber'-re, a city of Kent, and the metropolitan see of all England, on the Stour, 56 m. from London. Lat. 51° 17 N., Lon. 1° 5' E. Pop. including an area of 5 sq. m., 15,435.


Can'-ton', a city of China, in the prov. of Quang-tong, of which Canton is a European corruption. It is situated on the Choo-kiang (ke-ang'), or Pearl River, 32 m. from its mouth. Like other Chinese towns, it is divided into two distinct parts, separated by a wall, called the Chinese or Old City, and the Tartar or New City. The streets of Canton are paved, and ordinarily very clean, but very narrow. The houses have but one story, and are built mostly of brick. This town is remarkable for having been, till recently, the only emporium of maritime commerce in China, to which Europeans were admitted. It is

. Several works on geography, of high character, describe this island as the largest of the Canaries. The epithet Grand may have been given to it, before the relative size of the different islands was accurately known. Teneriffe exceeds it in superficial extent by nearly 150 sq. m., and in population by above 16,000.

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