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Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mé, init; plne or pine, płn; nò, not; öð, as in good;

CARROLL, a co. in the N. W. part of Mo., bordering on the r. Missouri. Pop. 2,423. Co. t. Carrollton.

CARTAGENA, kar-ta-jel-na, (Sp. pron. kar-ta-na-nå, Anc. Carthalgo Nolva,) a fortified seaport t. of Spain, in Murcia, with one of the finest harbours on the Mediterranean. Lat. 37° 36' N., Lon. 1° W. Pop. estimated at 37,000. (B.)

CARTAGENA, a sea port in the republic of New Granadu, on the northern coast of S. America, with one of the safest and most convenient harbours in all America. The entrance is so narrow that only one vessel can come in at a time. It is defended by two strong castles. Among the institutions for education, may be mentioned a university, a school of navigation, and a college. Its commerce is considerable, though less than it was before the war of independence. Lat. 10° 25° 48" N., Lon. 75o 30 W. Pop. about 18,000. (B.)

CARTER, a co. near the N. !. extremity of Tenn., bordering on N. C. Pop. 5,372. Co. t. Elizabethtown.

CARTER, a co. near the N. E. extremity of Ky. Pop. 2,905. Co. t. Grayson.

CARI-TER-ET, a co. in the S. E. part of N. C., bordering on the sea. Pop. 6,591. Co. t. Beaufort.

CASALE, kå-sål-là, a fortified t. of the continental Sardinian states; cap. of a prov. of the same name, on the S. bank of the Po, 35 m. E. of Turin. Pop. 16,000. (P. C.)

CASAL MAGGIORE, kå-sål' måd-jol-rà, a t. of Austrian Italy, on the left bank of the Po, 20 m. E. S. E. of Cremona. Lat. about 45° N., Lon. 10° 26' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

Cas -BIN* or KAZEIN (Pers. pron. kås'-been', whence the name is sometimes written CASBEEN), a manufacturing and commercial city of Irak, Persia, situated in the midst of a country rendered very fertile by an extensive system of irrigation, which is carried on by means of subterranean aqueducts. The grapes of Casbin are considered to be the finest in Persia. Lat. 36° 12' N., Lon. 49° 33' E. Pop. 60,000. (B.)

CASERTA or Caserta Nuova, kå-sêr'-tå nwol-vå, a t. of Naples, with a royal palace, one of the most magnificent in Europe, and a superb aqueduct, 27 m. long. It is 17m. N. by E. of Naples. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

Cal-sey, a co. in the central part of Ky., intersected by Green r Pop. 4,939. Co. t. Liberty.

CASH-EL, an ancient city of Ireland, in the co. of Tipperary, 108 m S. W. of Dublin. It was formerly the residence of the kings of Mun ster. Pop. in 1831, 6,971. (P. C.)

*" And Cassin's luscious grapes of amber bue."

SOUTHEY's Thalaba. Book VI.
“With grapes of gold, like those that shine
On Cassin's hills"-

MOORE's Lalla Rookh.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. CASH-MERE/* or KASHMIRE, an extensive valley in the southern part of Asia, surrounded by high mountains of the Himalaya range, between 33° 20' and 35° 40' N. Lat., and 74° 30' and 77° E. Lon. This country is remarkably well watered and productive. As it is 6,000 or 7,000 feet above the level of the sea, the climate is cool for the latitude. Cashmere was not long since in the possession of the Afghans, but more recently formed a part of the extensive dominions of Runjeet Sing, the sovereign of the Seiks. (See LAHORE.) The chief t. is Sirinagur.Adj. and Inhab. CASH-ME-RX-AN.

Cas'-PL-AN SEA (the Kaorla Darassa of the Greeks), a large inland sea, situated on the boundary between Europe and Asia, extending

from 47° 20' to 36° 40' N. Lát., and from 54° 10' to 46° 50' E. Lon. ER: Its length, following the curve of the sea, is about 900 m.; its average

breadth about 210 m. The waters of this sea are much less salt than put those of the Atlantic. Gmelin estimates the proportion as 1 to 4.

Though it receives the waters of the Volga and several other rivers of 5

considerable magnitude, the Caspian has no outlet. The surface of this sea is stated to be more than 300 ft. below that of the ocean.

Cars, a co. in the N. W. part of Ga., intersected by the Etowah r.
Pop. 9,390. Co. t. Cassville.

Cass, a co. in the S. W. part of Mich., bordering on Ind. Pop. 5,710.
Co. t. Cassopolis.

Cass, a co. in the N. central part of Ind., intersected by the Wabash and Erie Canal. Pop. 5,480. Co. t. Logansport.

Cass, a co. in the W. central part of Ill., bordering on the Illinois r.
Pop. 2,981. Co. t. Beardstown.

Cas'-sęl, a t. of Germany, the cap. of the electorate of Hesse-Cassel,
on the Fulda, about 108m. N. E. of Coblentz. It has numerous institu-

tions for the promotion of the arts and sciences, among which we may ** mention the Museum, one of the finest buildings in the place, the 06

servatory, the Academy of Antiquities, the Academy of Painting, Sculp. hture, and Architecture, and the Lyceum. Lat. 51° 18'N., Lon. 9° 30

E. Pop. above 26,000. (B.)

CASTELNAUDARY, kås -tel-no-då -rel, a t. of France, in the dep. of Aude. Lat. about 43° 19' N., Lon. 1° 53' E. Pop. in 1832, 8,471.

CASTEL VETRANO, cás-tell vå-trål-no, a t. of Sicily, remarkable for its

(P. C.)

* In familiar discourse, we very often hear this name accentuated on the first syllable ; e.g. in the phrase,

"a Cashmere shawl." Cashmere, in such cases, may be considered simply as an English word, having become thoroughly anglicized. (See Int. XII., Obs. 2.) When, however, the country itself is spoken of, the almost invariable practice of the best speakers, as well as the usage of the poets, will, we believe, be found to justify the pronunciation above given.

"Who has not heard of the Vale of CASHMERE,

With its roses the brightest that earth ever gave?
Its temples, and grottos, and fountains as clear
As the love-lighted eyes that hang over their wave ?"

MOORE's Lalla Rookh.

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Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo as in good : manufactures of coral, and for the ruins of the ancient Selinus found in its vicinity. Lat. 37° 40' N., Lon. 12° 46' E. Pop. about 13,000. (B.)

CASTIGLIONE, cis-teel-yol-n), a t. of Austrian Italy, about 20 m. N.W. of Mantua. Pop. above 5,000. (B.)

Castile, kasteel', (Sp. Castilla, kás-teell-yả,) an ancient kingdom of Spain, which has been divided into Old Castile (Castilla la Vieja, li ve-V-hå), and New Castile (Castilla la Nueva, -n wàl-vå). Old Castile borders on the Bay of Biscay, and extends in a south-westerly direction about 250 m. Its greatest breadth is about 110 m. Burgos is the capital. New Castile is S. of, and borders on the above; it is about 200 m. from N. to. S., and 230 m. from E. to W. Capital, Madrid. —Adj. and inhab. Castilian, kas-till-yun.

Castine, kas-teen', a port of entry of Me., in Hancock co.. on the E. side of Penobscot Bay, with an excellent harbour. Lat. 44° 22' 30" N., Lon. 68° 45' W. Pop. of the township, 1,188.

CASTLEBAR, kas'-sel-bar', a t. of Ireland, the cap. of Mayo co., 123 m. W. N. W. from Dublin. Pop. in 1830, 6,373. (P. C.)

CASTLETON, kas-sel-ton, a village of Rutland co., Vt., the seat of the Vermont Academy of Medicine, founded in 1818. Pop. of the township, 1,769.

CASTREs, kástr, the largest and most important town, though not the capital, of the French dep. of Tarn. Lat. 43° 37' N., Lon. 2° 15' E. Pop. 16,000. (B.)

CASTRO GIOVANNI, kås/-tro jo-vånl-ne, (Anc. En'na,) a t. of Sicily, nearly in the centre of the i., remarkable for its situation on the summit of an almost inaccessible mountain, more than 4,000 ft. above the

Enna was celebrated, in ancient times, as the birth-place of Ceres, and the site of her most sacred temple. Lat. 37° 31' N., Lon. 14° 18' E. Pop. 11,000. (B.) CASWEEN. See Casbin.

1 Cas/-WELL, a co. in the N. part of N. C., bordering on Va. Pop. 14,693. Co. t. Yanceyville.

Cat-A-HOOP-LẠ or CATAHOULA, a parish in the N. E. part of La., intersected by the r. Washita. Pop. 4,955. Co. t. Harrisonburg.

CAT-A-LO-N-A. (Sp. Cataluña, kåt--loon-ya) a prov. occupying the E. extremity of Spain, bordering on France and the Mediterranean. It is about 190 m. in length, and 126 m. in breadth. Capital, Barcelona.--Adj. and inhab. Carl-A-LẠN and Car-ALO'-NI-AN.

CATANIA, kå-tål-ne-å or kə-til-ne-a, (Gr. Karavn, Lat. Cat/ana,) the ! cap. of a prov. of the same name, and the handsomest t. in Sicily, is situated on the sea-coast, S. of Mount Ælna, near its base. Here may be seen the remains of an ancient amphitheatre, the largest of which we have any knowledge. It has a circumference greater, by nearly one-third, than the famous Coliseum of Rome. (B.) Catania has a university and several other public institutions. Lat. 37° 29' N., Lon 15° 5' E. Pop. about 40,000. (B.)-Adj. and inhab. CA-TAI-NI-AN.

CATANZARO, kå-tån-zål-ro, a t. of Naples, in Calabria Ultra. Lat. 38° 57' N., Lon. 16° 31' E. Pop. estimated at 11,000. (B.)


ou, as in our; th, as in thin; ti, as in this; n, nearly like ng. Cat'-TA-RAU-GUS, a co. in the S. W. part of N. Y., bordering on Pa. Pop. 28,575. Co. t. Ellicottsville,

CA-TAW!-BA, a r. wbich rises in N. C., and flowing into S. C,, takes the name of Wateree, and joins the Congaree to form the Santee.

CATAWBA, a co. in the W. part of N. C., on the above river.

Cat-MANI-Doo or KATMANDOO, the cap. of the kingdom of Nepaul, in Northern Hindostan. It stands at an elevation of 4,784 ft. above the level of the sea. Lat. 27° 42 N., Lon. about 85° E. Pop. estimated at 20,000. (P. C.)

Cats'-KILL, the cap. of Green co., N. Y., situated on the W. side of the Hudson, 34 m. below Albany, on a creek of the same name. Pop. . of the township, 5,339. The inhabitants of the village of Catskill may perhaps amount to half this number.

CATSKILL Mountains, a branch of the great chain of the Alleghanies, situated in the E. part of N. Y., W. of thc Hudson. The highest summit, Round Top, is about 3,800 ft. above the level of the sea.

CAT'-TE-GAT' or KATTEGAT, a large gulf which separates Denmark from Sweden and Norway. This name is of Dutch origin, and signifies " cat's hole.”

Caul-CẠs-UA, (Gr. Kavxago5.) an extensive mountain system, between the Black and Caspian Seas. The general direction of the range is from W. N. W. to S. S. E. The highest surmit, Elbrooz, is 2,800 toises, or about 17,908 English It. above the level of the sea.-Adj. Caucasian, kau-kal-she-an or kau-kal-shun.


Cava, kål-vå, a t. of Naples, 5 m. N. W. of Salerno. Pop. estimated at 19,000. (B.) Near it is the celebrated Benedictine Convent of La Trinità, with a fine library.

Carl-AN, an inland co. of Ireland, in the prov. of Ulster. Pop. in 1831, 228,040. (P. C.)

CAVERY, sometimes written, and always to be pronounced Caul-VER-Y, a r. in the S. of Hindostan, which rises among the Western Ghauts, and, flowing S. easterly, empties itself into the Bay of Bengal, by several mouths, near Tranquebar. Its whole course is about 450 m.

CAX-A-MARI-ca, kår-hå-mar/-kå, a t. of Peru, at the height of 9,363 st. above the level of the sea. Lat. about 7° 9' S., Lon. 78° 35' W. Pop. estimated at 7,000. (B.)

CAXIAS or Cachias, ká-sheel-ås, a t. of Brazil, in Maranham. Lat. 4° 52 S., Lon. 43° 25' W.

CAXOEIRA or CACHOEIRA, kå-sho-de-rå, a t. of Brazil, 60 m. N. W. of Bahia, with a flourishing inland trade. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)

CAYENNE, ki-enn', an island, river, and town of S. America, in French Guiana. The town is situated on the i., in Lat. 4° 56' N., Lon. 52° 15' W. Pop. about 2,000. (P. C.)

CAY-ul-GẠ, a co. in the western part of N. Y., bordering on the Cayuga Lake and L. Ontario. Pòp. 50,338. Co. t. Auburn. CAYUGA LAKE, situated in the W. central part of N. Y., is about 38 m.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; do as in good; long, and from 1 to 4 broad. Near its N. extremity it is crossed by a bridge, more than a mile in length. In the summer season, stea mboats ply constantly between this bridge and the town of Ithaca, at the S. end of the lake.

Caz-en-o/-vl-a, a village of Madison co., N. Y., 40 m. W. of Utica. Pop. of the township, 4,153.

Cecil, sis -sil, a co. forming the N. E. extremity of Md. Pop. 17,232 Co. t. Elkton.

Cel-Dar, a co. in the E. part of Iowa, intersected by Red Cedar r. Pop. 1,253.

CEFALU, chef-4-lool, a seaport of Sicily, on the N. coast. Lat. 39° N., Lon. 14° 5' E. Pop. about 9,000. (B.)

CEL-E-BEŞ, a large i., of singular shape, in the eastern seas, between 2° N., and 6° S. Lat., and 1190 and 125° E. Lon. Its extreme length, from N. to S., is near 500 m. Celebes is divided into a number of small independent states. The inhabitants are included in the great Malay race, though the different nations exhibit great diversity in character and language. The Bugis (bool-ghees) are the most numerous and powerful in the i., and are the most commercial people in all Oceanica. They have the character of being very fair dealers, and are said to possess a high degree of enterprise and intelligence. The Dutch have an extensive establishment, which they call the government of Macassar, on the S. W. coast of Celebes; and their influence extends to a great part of the island.

Cells or Zelle, tsell-leh, a t. of Germany, in Hanover, situated near the Aller. Lat. 52° 37' N., Lon. 10° 3' E. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

CENTRAL AMERICA comprehends the countries which, under the dominion of Spain, were known by the name of the kingdom of Guatemala. It forms the central portion of the long isthmus which unites N. and S. America, and extends from about 80 to 17° 30' N. Lat., and from 82° to 94° W. Lon. Its length is estimated at 1,000 m.; its breadth varies from 100 to 300 m. Area estimated at 185,000 sq. m. Pop. 1,650,000. (B.) It is bounded on the N. by the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Chiapa, and Yucatan, and by ìhe Caribbean Sea, E. by this sea and the territory of New Granada, and S. and S. W. by the Pacific Ocean. Exclusive of British Honduras, Central America forms a republic, divided into six sections, as follows: The Federal District,

Capital, New Guatemala. The state of Guatemala,

Old Guatemala.

San Salvador. • Honduras,

Comayagua. “ Nicaragua,

Leon. « Costa Rica,

San Jose de Costa Rica. The capital of the Federal District is also the seat of the general government.

CENTRE, a co. occupying the central part of Pa. Pop. 20,492. Co. I, Bellefonte.

CEPH-A-L0/-NI-4 (It. pron. chef-a-lonle-d, Mod. Gr. Kepanovia, kef-4,


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• Salvador,



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