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Fate, får, fall, fàt; mė, mét; plne or pipe, pin; no, not; öð as in gool;

CHESHIRE, a co. forming the S. W. extremity of N. H. Pop. 26,429. Co. t Keene.

CHESİ-TER, an ancient walled city of England, the co. t. of Cheshire, situated on the Dee, near its mouth. It was probably an important military station, under the Romans, as a great many Roman remains have been discovered here. The name is derived from the Latin, Castra, a "camp," and there is reason to conclude that the present fortifications rest upon a Roman basis. Lat. 53° 11' N., Lon. 2° 53' W. Pop., including an area of above 4 sq. m., 23,115.

CHESTER, a co. in the S. E. part of Pa., bordering on the Schuylkill and on Maryland. Pop. 57,515. Co. t. Westchester.

Chester, a dist. in the N. part of S. C., on the Catawba r. Pop. 17,747. Seat of justice, Chester c. h.

CHESI-TER-FIELD', a t. of Derbyshire, England, 132 m. N. by W. from London. Pop. of the parish, 6,212.

CHESTERFIELD, a co. in the E. part of Va., bordering on the Appo mattox and James rivers. Pop. 17,148. Seat of justice, Chesterfield c. h.

CHESTERFIELD, a dist. in the N. E. part of S. C., W. of and bordering on the Great Pedee r. Pop. 8,574. Seat of justice, Chesterfield c. b.

CHE-SUN-COok, a lake of Maine, communicating with the Penobscot r.

CHE-TIM-ACH-Es, or shet'-måsh', a lake in the S. part of La., above 30 m. in length, communicating with the Atchafalaya r.

Cheviot, chivi-e-ot. The Cheviot Hills run from N. E. to S. W., and form part of the boundary between Scotland and England. The highest summit is 2,653 ft. above the sea.

Chiari, ke-il-re, a t. of Austrian Italy. Lat. 45° 32' N., Lon. 9° 55 E. Pop. 8,000. (B.) CHIAVARI, ke-ål-vå-re, a t. of the Sardinian states, in a prov. of the

Lat. 44° 21' N., Lon. 9° 23' E. Pop. 9,800. (P. C.) Chicago, she-kaul-go, a t. of II., the cap. of Cook co., on L. Michigan, at the mouth of a river of the same name. It is the most commercial and populous town in the state. Lat. 42° N., Lon. 87° 35' W. Pop. 4,470.

Chic'-A-PEE', a r. of Mass., which flows into the Connecticut, about 4 in. above Springfield.

CHICH-ES-TER, an ancient walled city of England, the cap. of the co. of Sussex, 56 m. S. W. by S. from London. The name is said to be a contraction of Cissanceaster, the city or castle of Cissa, an AngloSaxon chief who repaired and partly rebuilt it, after it had been de stroyed in a siege. Pop. 8,512.

CHICK'-A-8Aw/ a co. in the N. part of Miss., intersected by the Oktibbewha r. Pop. 2,955. Co. seat, Houston.

CHICKASAW's, a tribe of Indians formerly inhabiting the northern part of Miss. and Ala., who have made considerable progress towards civilization.

same name.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Carcot, sheel-ko, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Ark. Pop. 3,806. Co. t. Columbia.

CHIEM SEE, keem si, a lake in the S.E. part of Bavaria, 45m. E.S.E. of Munich. It is about 10 m. in length.

CHIETI, ke-d-e, an archiepiscopal t. of Naples, the cap. of Abruzzo Citra, on the Pescara. Lat. 42° 22' N., Lon. 14° 9' E. Pop. 13,000. (B.)

Chwuahua, che-wål-wå, a large and handsome t. of Mexico, thé Cap. of a state of the same name, with a flourishing military academy. Lat. 28° 37' N., Lon. 105° 4' W. Pop. about 30,000. (B.)

Chili, chill-le, (Sp. Chile, cheel-la,) one of the new republics of S. America, lying along the coast of the Pacific, between 25° and 42° S. Lat; but the archipelago of Chiloë, which belongs to it, extends about two degrees farther S. It is bounded on the N. by the desert of Atacama, which belongs to Bolivia, E. by the republic of La Plata, from which it is divided by the Andes, and on the S. by Patagonia.. But the southern limit of Chili, properly speaking, is the r. Bio-bio, by which it is separated from Araucania, which is still independent. Length near 800 m.; breadth varying from 90 to 200 m. Area estimated at 130,000 sq. m.

Pop. 1,400,000. (B.) The climate of the central part of Chili may, with respect to temperature, be compared to that of Italy; though it varies much in different districts, it is everywhere healthy. This country, however, is subject to strong periodical gales. In the beginning of the rainy season (May and June), the wind often blows with great violence from the N. W. During eight or nine months it blows from the S., and frequently with great force, especially in autumn, that is from February to April. The vegetable productions of Chili do not, for the most part, materially differ from those of other countries within similar latitudes; the extreme dryness, however, of the air in the northern districts is unfavourable to the sugarcane and to most intertropical plants. Probably no country is more subject to earthquakes than this.' In the northern district slight shocks are felt almost every day; they occur more frequently along the coast than in the interior. This republic became independent in 1818. The cap. is Santiago.- Adj. and inhab. CHIL/-1-ẠN. The Spanish appellation CHILENOS, che-la-noce, is also employed by some English writers to designate the inhabitants.

CHIL'-LJ-COTH'-E, the cap. of Ross co., Ohio, situated on the Sciotor. and the Ohio and Erie Canal, 85 m. E. by N. from Cincinnati. Pop.

CHILOE, cheel-o-d', almost chil-way', an i. on the W. coast of S. America, belonging to Chili, between 41° 48' and 43° 50' S. Lat., and 73° 20' and 74° 30' W. Lon. Its length is about 120 m.; its greatest

CHIMBORAZO, cheem-bo-rål-so, a mountain in Ecuador, till recently regarded as the highest in S. America; but it is now ascertained that the Nevado de Sorata exceeds it by nearly 4,000 ft. The Chimborazo is about 3,350 toises, or 21,426 English it. above the level of the sea. Lat. about 1° 30' S., Lon. 79° 5' W.

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Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mė, m't; płne or pine, pin; nd, not; öð as in good;

Chil-NẠ, an extensive country in Eastern Asia, bordering on the Pacific, and constituting the principal portion of the Chinese empire. It lies between 18° and 41° N. Lat., and 98° and 124° E. Lon. Its length, from S. E. to N. W., is above 1,400 m.; breadth from 900 to 1,30 m. The area is estimated at about 1,298,000 sq. m. On the northern frontier, China is inclosed by the great wall, about 1,400 long, and 20 ft. high; it is believed to have been built about 200 years before the Christian era. Before the arrival of Europeans, the norther portion of China was called by the neighbouring nations of central Asia, CATH-Ay!, under which name it became known to the Russians, while the inhabitants of India called the southern part Chin, whence is derived the ordinary European name. The Chinese name it Chon-Koo, or the “centre of the world.” The climate of this country differs greatly from that of Europe within the same latitudes. The mean temperature is considerably lower, while the extremes of heat and cold in the different seasons are much greater. In this respect, the climate of China may be considered as bearing a general resemblance to that of the United States. _If the difference in temperature in the same latitudes between the E. and W. coast of N. America, is less striking than between China and the western part of Europe, it may, perhaps, be attributed to the greater breadth of the eastern continent, in consequence of which, those influences that cause the western sides of continents to be warmer than the eastern, manifest themselves in their fullest force. The gulf stream, also, in all probability contributes something towards moderating the temperature of our climate, especially along the coast. The soil of China is, in general, productive, and some parts are extremely fertile. The country is watered by numerous rivers. The Imperial Canal, a work which excites the admiraration of travellers, commences in about 30° N. Lat., at Hang-tcbeoofoo, and extending, in a northerly direction, perhaps 700 m., terminates at Lin-ichin-checo. It appears to have been constructed both for the purpose of internal navigation and of draining, and irrigating some parts of the adjacent country. The vegetable productions of China are highly interesting; among them we may mention a superior species of orange, which, when ripe, has a deep crimson rind, quite detached from the fruit; the Nelumbium, a beautiful flower, of which the seeds resemble, in form and size, acorns without their cups, and have the flavour of nuts, while the root is sliced and eaten as fruit; and the tallow tree, the Croton sebiferum, from the seeds of which the vegetable oil is obtained; it is like wax, and, in its natural state, is of snowy white

Silver mines are abundant in China, but are little worked ; gold is obtained from the sands of some of the rivers, but no gold or silver money is coined. (M. B.) The government of China is an absoluto despotism. The emperors of the present or Mantchoo dynasty, sprung from a union of the eastern Tartars and Mongols, have been in possession of the sovereignty since the year 1644. Of the population of this great country, the estimates vary exceedingly. According to a census which is stated to have been taken by the Chinese government in 1812,


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oj, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. the entire population of the empire amounted to more than 360,000,000. Balbi estimates it at 170,000,000.

The Chinese empire comprises, besides China proper, Chinese Tartary, including the countries of Mongolia and Mantchooria, Little Bucharia, Thibet, and the peninsula of Corea. Peking is the capital of China proper, and of the whole empire.—Adj. and inhab. Chi-nes' and CathAYAN (poetical).

CHIN India, a name given to the region situated between China and Hindostan, comprehending the Birman empire, the kingdoms of Tonquin, Cochin China, Cambodia, Laos, Siam, and the peninsula of Malacca. It is often called the Peninsula beyond the Ganges. Little is known of these countries, and their political divisions and boundaries are very uncertain.

CHINCHILLA, chin-cheel-yå, a t. of Spain, in the prov. of Murcia. Lat. 39° 56' N., Lon. 1° 47' W. Pop. 11,000. (B.)

CHIPPENHAM, chip’-num, a small t. of England, in Wiltshire, 86 m. W. from London.

CHIPPEWA, chip-pe-wa', a large co., forming the N. extremity of Mich., and bordering op L. Superior. Pop. 534. Co. t. Sault St. Mary.

CHIP -PE-WAY', a r. of Wisconsin Territory, flowing into the Mississippi.

CHIPPEWAYS, written also OJIBBEWAY, a numerous tribe of Indians, chietly inhabiting Wisconsin.

CHIQUITOS, che-keel-toce, a tribe of S. American Indians, inhabiting the E. part of Bolivia.

CHIT -TEN-DEN, a co. in the N. W. part of Vt., bordering on L. Champlain. Pop. 22,977. Co. t. Burlington.

Choc'-TAW, a co. in the N. central part of Miss., intersected by the Big Black r. Pop. 6,010. Co. seat, Greensborough.

CHOC'-Taws, a tribe of Indians, formerly inhabiting the middle portion of Miss., on both sides of the river Yazoo. · They have made considerable progress towards civilization.

Cholula, cho-loo-18, a l. of Mexico, about 20 m. from Puebla. Lat. 19° 2N., Lon. 98° 15' W. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)

CHOR!-LEY, a t. of Lancashire, England, 22 m. N. W. from Manchester. Pop. of the parish, with an area of above 4 sq. m., 13,139.

C10-wÀN', a r. of N. C., formed by the union of the Notta way, Meherrin, and Blackwater rivers, which falls into Albemarle Sound.

Cowan, a co. in the N. E. part of N. C., bordering on Chowan r. and Albemarle Sound. Pop. 6,690. Co. t. Edenton.

a co. in the S. W. part of Ky., bordering on Tenn. Pop. 15,587. Co. t. Hopkinsville.

CHRISTIAN, a co. near the centre of Ill. Pop. 1,878.

Cyristj-AN/-A Creek, in the S. E. part of Pa., flows into the Delaware, below Wilmington.

CHRISTIANIA, kris-te-åp'-exå, the cap. of Norway, situated in a prov. of the same name, on Christiania Fiord (fe-ord'), á bay which extends


Fate, får, fäll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; nd, nðt; oo as in good about 60 m. inland. It is the seat of a university, founded in 1811, which has a library of 10,000 vols., and about 500 students. Lat of the Observatory, 59° 54' 5" N., Lon. 10° 44' 57'' E. Pop. above 21,000. (B.)

CHRISTIANSAND, kris-te-ån-sảnd', a t. of Norway, situated on the N. coast of the Skager Rack. Lat. 58° 10' N., Lon. 8° 20' E. Pop. in 1826, 7,488. (P. C.)

CHUQUISACA, choo-ke-sål-kå, formerly called La Plata, the cap. of Bolivia, situated in a plain at an elevation of 9,300 ft. above the sea. Lat. about 19° S., Lon. 64° 40' W. Pop. 13,000.

CIENFUEGOS, se-en-foo-d-gos, or fwa-goce, a flourishing t. on the S. coast of Cuba, on a bay called Xagua (Hål-ġwå), which forms one of the finest harbours in the world. It was founded about the year 1818, and named in honour of Cienfuegos, who was then captain-general of Cuba. Lat. about 22° 15' N., Lon. near 81° W. Pop. 3,500.

CIN-CIN-NAT/-1,* the largest t. in Ohio, cap. of Hamilton co., on the right or N. bank of the Ohio r., 20 m. above the mouth of the Great Miami. Since the beginning of the present century, its grow th has been very rapid. The pop. in 1800 scarcely exceeded 500; in 1840 it amounted to 46,335. The city is well built, principally of brick, and the streets cross each other at right angles. By the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, it has connexion with Pittsburg on the one hand, and New Orleans on the other; it also communicates, by means of canals, with L. Erie. It has two colleges, the Cincinnati College, founded in 1919, and the Woodward College, recently established. Lat: 39° 6' N., Lon. 84° 27' W. Distant from Washington, 497 m.

CINQUE Ports, sink põrts, ports on the S. eastern coast of England, which, in return for the enjoyment of certain peculiar privileges, were to furnish a certain number of ships, equipped and manned, to be at the disposal of the sovereign in any emergency:

As their name implies, there were originally but five; viz., Dover, Sandwich, Hithe, Romney, and Hastings. To these, Rye, Winchelsea, and Seaford, were afterwards added.

Cin-tra or seen'-trả, a small t. of Portugal, 15 m. W.N.W. of Lisbon, celebrated for its fine air and beautiful situation. It is a place of great resort in summer for the citizens of the capital. Many of the nobility and wealthy merchants have villas in the vicinity of Cintra. Pop. about 4,000. (B.)

CļR-Carş', NORTHERN, a large maritime prov. of Hindostan, between 15° and 20° N. Lat., and 80° and 86° E. Lon., extending along the W. side of the Bay of Bengal.

CIRCA 881A, sir-kash-e-a, (Russ. Tchêr-kåsl-că,) is situated along the N. declivity of Mount Caucasus, and comprehends the whole of this tract, from the Black Sea to the vicinity of the Caspian. It belongs nominally to Russia. The beauty of the Circassian women is much celebrated.—Adj. and inhab. Circassian, sir-kashl-e-ån.

CIRENCESTER, commonly pronounced sis/-e-ter, a t. of England, in

* This is frequently pronounced, contrary to all principles of correct pronuncia. tion sir-sin-at-lüh, an error which cannot be too carefully avoided.

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