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Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, mét; pine or pine, pln; nd, not; oo, as in good : Hanseatic league, when its pop. amounted to 150,000. It ceased to be a free town in 1792. A bridge of boats, 1,250 paces in length, connects Cologne with Deutz (doits), which is regarded as one of its suburbs. The town has been declared a free port, and carries on an active commerce. Besides other articles, it manufactures, on a very extensive scale, the aromatic water which bears its name. Lat. 50° 55' N., Lon. 6° 55' E. Pop., including that of Deutz and the military, 65,000. (B.)—Adj. and inhab. COLOGNESE, kol-o-nezel.

COLOMBIA, ko-loml-be-8 is the name which was adopted by the northern countries of S. America in 1819, when New Granada and Venezuela united, and established one central government, for the purpose of resisting the power of Spain. In 1829, Venezuela renounced the union, and constituted itself a separate republic. After the resignation of Bolivar, in 1830, it again joined New Granada, but this union lasted only a short time. In November, 1831, a new separation took place: at the same time it was decided that the former prov. of Quito should constitute a separate government, under the name of Ecuador. Thus com lombia was divided into the three republics, Venezuela, New Granada, and Ecuador.

Co-lom'-Bo or COLUMBO, the cap. of the i. of Ceylon, situated on the W. coast. It is, for the most part, well built, and resembles a European rather than an Indian town. Though its harbour is very insecure during some seasons of the year, it is the centre of the foreign commerce of the whole island. Lat. 6° 59' N., Lon. 79° 55' E. Pop., according to the census of 1832, 31,519. (P. C.)

Coul-on-sa or Coul-on-SAY', a sınall i. on the W. coast of Scotland, N. of Isla.

COLORADO, kol'-o-rål-do, a r. of Mexico, which flows into the N. extremity of the Gulf of California. Its length, according to Humboldt, js 230 leagues, or about 640 English miles, but the quantity of water carried down its channel, during the dry season, is extremely small. It is called Rio Colorado, or Red River, because, owing to the fall of rains upon a soil of red clay, its waters often assume that colour.

Colorado or Cobu ko-bool, a r. of S. America, in the republic of La Plata, which flows into the Atlantic, near 40° S. Lat., and 62° W. Lon. Its length is above 600 m.

COLORADO (Texas). See Rio COLORADO.

Co-LUM-B!-A, DISTRICT OF, a tract, 10 m. square, lying on both sides of the Potomac, 120 m. from its mouth. It is the seat of the federal government, and under the particular jurisdiction of Congress. This district was till recently divided into two counties, Washington and Alexandria. It was ceded to the general government by the states of Maryland and Virginia, in 1790. Pop. 43,712. Alexandria city and county, including the whole of that portion of the District lying on the right side of the Potomac, were retroceded to Virginia, during the Congress of 1845-6.

Columbia, a co. in the E. S. E. part of N. Y., E. of, and bordering on the Hudson r. Pop. 43,252. Co. t. Hudson.

COLUMBIA, a co. in the N. E. central part of Pa., intersected by the E. branch of the Susquehanna. Pop. 24,267. Co. t. Danville.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. COLUMBIA, a co. in the E. part of Ga., bordering on the Savannah r. Pop. 11,356. Co. t. Applingville.

COLUMBIA, a co. in the N. part of Florida, bordering on the Suwanee r. Pop. 2,102.

COLUMBIA, the cap. of S. C., and seat of justice of the dist. of Richland, situated at the confluence of the Broad and Saluda rivers. It is the seat of the South Carolina College, founded in 1804. Lat. 33° 57 N., Lon. 81° 7' W. Pop. 4,340.

COLUMBIA RIVER. See OREGON. Co-LUM-BL-AN-A, a co. in the N. E. part of Ohio, bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 40,378. Co. t. New Lisbon.

Co-LUM-BUS, a co. in the S. part of N. C., bordering on S. C. Pop. 3,941. Co. t. Whitesville.

COLUMBUS, the co. t. of Franklin co., Ohio, and the cap. of the state. It is situated on the Scioto r., about 100 m., in a straight line, N. E. of Cincinnati, and 350 m. from Washington. Lat. 39° 57' N., Lon. 83° 3' W. Pop. 6,048.

COLUMBUS, the cap. of Muscogee co., Ga., situated on the Chattahoochee, at the head of steamboat navigation. It is a flourishing and rapidly increasing town. The pop. in 1830 was only 1,152; in 1840, it amounted to 3,114.

Comayagua, ko-mi-l-ġwå, called also New Valladolid, the cap. of the state of Honduras, in Central America. It has a college, and about 18,000 inhabitants. (B.) Lat. 14° 32' N., Lon. 87° 35' W.

Co-Mo (Lat. Comum), a manufacturing and coinmercial t. of Austrian Italy, the cap. of a prov. of the same name, situated at the S. W. extremity of the Lake of Como, 22 m: N. by W. of Milan. Its cathedral, built in the middle ages, is regarded as one of the finest churches in the N. of Italy. Comum was the birth-place of the two Plinys. Lat. 45° 48' N., Lon. ģ' 6' E. Pop., including that of the suburbs, 16,000. (B.)

Como, LAGO DI, lå-go de ko-mo, or Lake of Como, (Anc. La'rius,) a lake in the N. of Italy, intersected by the 4th parallel of N. Lat. It is long, narrow, and of very irregular and tortuous shape.

Com'-O-RIN' CAPE, the S. extremity of Hindostan. Lat. 8° 4' N., Lon. 77° 37' E.

Col-BORN or KOMORN (Hung. Komárom, ko-måå-rom,) a royal free t. and fortress of Hungary, the cap. of a co. of the same name, situated on the i. of Schütt, at the entrance of the Waag into the Danube. Lat. 47° 45' N., Lon. 18° 8' E. Pop. 11,000. (B.)

Com'-o-ro ISLANDS are situated in the channel of Mozambique, between 11° 20' and 13° 10' S. Lat., and 43° 10' and 45° 30° É. Lon. They are four in number, of which Comoro is the largest. The most important, and the only one visited by European vessels, is ANZOOAN, which see.

COMPIÈGNE, kom'-pe-ain), a t. of France, in the dep. of Oise, on the r. Oise, 43 m. N.N. E. of Paris, with a magnificent royal château. Lat. 49° 25' N., Lon. 2° 47' E. Pop. in 1832, 8,879. (P.C.)

COMPOSTELA, SANTIAGO DE, sån-te-d-go da kom-po-stà-là, an archi

same name.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mit; plne or pine, pin; nd, ndt; oo as in good; episcopal t. of Spain, cap. of Galicia. Its university ranks among the first in Spain. Lat. 42° 49' N., Lon. 8° 27' W. Pop. 28,000. (B.)

Concan, konkl-kan, a dist. of Hindostan, extending along the Malabar coast, between 15° 50' and 20° 15' N. Lat., and divided into Northern and Southern Concan.

CONCEPTION, con-sep-shun, (Sp. Concepcion, kon-thep-the-one',) a t. of Chili, situated about 7 in. from the shores of an extensive bay of the

In 1835 the whole town was laid in ruins by an earthquake. Previously to this catastrophe, the pop. was estimated at above 10,000. (B.) Lat. 36° 49' S., Lon: 73° 5' W.

CONCORD, kong'-kord, the seat of justice of Merrimack co., N. H., and the cap. of the state, is situated on the W. bank of the Merriinack r., 62 m. N. N. W. of Boston. Lat. 43° 12' 29" N., Lon. 71° 29' W. Pop. 4,897.

Con-Cor!-D1-4, a parish in the N. E. part of La., bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 9,414. Seat of justice, Concordia.

CONDĖ, Kon'-De or kon'-da, an important fortress on the northern frontier of France, in the dep. of Nord, situated on the Escant (Scheldt), 124 m. N. N. E. of Paris. Lat. 50° 28' N., Lon. 3° 35' E. Pop. in 1832, 3,498. (P. C.)

Conecuh, ko-neel-kah, a co. in the S. part of Ala., intersected by a river of the same naine, and bordering on Florida. Pop. 8,197. Co. t. Sparta.

CONGAREE, kong'-ga-reel, a r. of S. C., formed by the union of the Saluda and Broad rivers, which unites with the Wateree to form the Santee.

CONGLETON, kong/-g'l-ton, a t. of England, in Cheshire, 30 m. E. of Chester. Pop., including an area of about 4 sq. m., 9,222.

Congo, kong/-go, a name which, in its most extensive application, comprehends the whole region lying along the W. coast of Africa, including Loango, Congo Proper, Angola, and Benguela. Congo Pro per extends from the r. Congo, in about Lat. 6° S., to the r. Dando, in Lat. 8° 20' S. Its interior limits are not known. The climate of this country, though sometimes very fatal to the European constitution, appears not to be subject to great extremes of temperature. The soil, in some parts, is represented as very fertile, and produces yams, maize, sugar-cane, and other tropical plants.

Congo, otherwise called the Zaïre, zå-eel-ra, a large r. in ibe S.W. part of Africa, flowing into the Atlantic, in about 6° S. Lat. It was partially explored by Captain Tuckey in 1816. Its breadth, for some distance from the sea, is not less than 5 or 6 m.; at the mouth, no bottom was found in the middle of the stream with a line of 160 fathoms. He ascended it to the distance of about 280 m., and was surprised to find that it did not receive the water of any other stream in the whole distance along which the survey extended; he was inclined to believe that there must be some under-ground communication, by which it was supplied with water. CONnaught, kon/-naut, a prov. in the W. of Ireland, comprising tbe

ou, as in our ; th, as n thin; ti, as in this; n, nearly like ng. counties of Galway, Mayo, Roscommon, Leitrim, and Sligo. Pop. in 1831, 1,340,914. (P. C.)

CONNECTICUT, kon-net-e-kut, the largest r. of New England, rises on the borders of Canada, and, running S., divides New Hampshire from Vermont, then passing through Massachusetts and Connecticut, fows into Long Island Sound. Its whole length is about 400 m.; it is navigable for sloops to Hartford, about 50 m.

CONNECTICUT, one of the thirteen original states of the Union, situated between 41° and 42° 3' N. Lat., and 71° 55' and 73° 50' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. by Massachusetts, E. by Rhode Island, S. by Long Island Sound, and W. by New York; and divided into 8 counties.* Its length, from E. to W., is about 93 m.; its greatest breadth, from N. to S., about 68 m. Area, 4,664 sq. m. Pop. 301,015. The seat of government is divided between Hartford and New Haven.

Con -STANCE, (Ger. Constanz, kon-stånts; Lat. Constan/tia,) an ancicnt fortified t. in the S. of Germany, belonging to Baden, situated on the S. bank of the Lake of Constance. It was a very important place in the middle ages, but is now much decayed. The name is derived from Constantius (father of Constantine the Great), by whom it is said to have been founded. Lat. 47° 36' N., Lon. 9° 9 E. Pop. 5,300. (B.)

ConsTANCE or CONSTANZ, called also Bodensee, bol-den-sal, i.e. the lake or sea of Bodmann, (an ancient castle on its banks,) a large lake lying between Switzerland and Germany, extending from 47° 28' to 47° 47' N. Lat., and from 9° 2' to 9° 45' E. Lon. Its length is about 45 m.; its greatest breadth about 13 m. It is 1,283 ft. above the level of the sea, and its greatest depth is stated at 964 ft. It was anciently called La/cus Briganti/nus, from the Brigan/tii who dwelt on its banks. There was a Roman station near the S. E. extremity of the lake, called Brigantium or Brigantia ; the modern name is Bregenz (bral-gents).

CON-STAN-TI-NO-PLE, (Turk. Ståm-bool' in common language, and Constantinieh, kon-stån-te-neel-eh, in documentary writing ; Gr. KwvGTQVTWOROLS ; Lat. Constantinop'olis; i. e. the city of Constantine;") a great and celebrated city, the imperial seat of the Ottoman government, situated between the Euxine and the Sea of Marmora, on a triangular promontory which projects from Europe into the Bosporus. Its situation combines the advantages of great strength as a fortress, with great convenience and security as a seaport, and is, at the same time, healthy and beautifully picturesque. Constantinople is built upon the site of the ancient By zantium, having been founded about the year 328, by Constantine the Great, who made it his own residence and the cap. of the Eastern Empire. It was taken by the Turks, under Mahomet [I., in 1453, since which time it has been the cap. of the Ottoman dominions. Among a great number of magnificent edifices which this city contains, the Mosque of St. Sophia is perhaps the most deserving

Fairfield, Hartford, Litchfield, Middlesex, New Haven, New London, Tol. land, Windham.

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; me, mét ; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; öö, as in good; notice. It was a church, founded, more than 13 centuries ago, by the emperor Justinian, but afterwards, when the Turks acquired possession of Constantinople, was converted into a mosque. It is an immense building, and will conveniently contain, it is said, 100,000 persons. Its cupola has served as a model for those which have since been erected at Venice, Pisa, and Rome. The mosque, however, of the sultan Ahmed surpasses that of St. Sopbia, both in beauty and grandeur, and is regarded as altogether the most magnificent structure in the Turkish metropolis. Constantinople is protected on the land side by walls, which are so lofty, that from the road, which passes under them, the eye can scarcely catch a glimpse of the mosques and minarets of the city. On this side there are six gates. The town was formerly defended, it is said, by 180 towers, of which not more than 120 are now standing. The harbour of Constantinople, called the port of the Golden Horn, is safe, capacious, and beautiful. It is formed by an arm of the Bosporus, which projects on the European shore, between the city and its suburbs, Galata (gå -lå-tá), and Pera (pdl-rå). The Mosque of St. Sophia is in Lat. 41° 1'27" N., and Lon. 28° 55' 4" E. Pop. estimated by Balbi at 600,000.-- Adj. and inhab. CoN-STAN-TI-NO-POI. -1TẠN, BYZANTINE, and BYZANTIAN. (See BYZANTIUM.) (Turk. Ståmbool-leel.)

CONSTANTINOPLE, STRAIT OF. See Bos PORUS.

Conl-way or Con-wy, a r. of Wales, which flows into the Irish Sea, at Aberconway, in Lat. 53° 18' N., Lon. 3° 50' W.

Conway, a co. in the N. part of Ark., bordering on the Arkansas r. Pop. 2,892. Co. t. Lewisburg.

Cooch Bavar (bå-har'), a principality of Hindostan, occupying the N. E. extremity of the prov. of Bengal.

Cook, a co. in the N. E. part of Ill., bordering on L. Michigan. Pop. 10,201. Co. t. Chicago.

Coo-mas-8JE, a large t. in the W. of Africa, cap. of the empire of Ashantee. It is nearly 4 m. in circuit. The streets are wide, regular, and very clean, but the houses are for the most part built of reeds. Lat. 6° 51' N., Lon. 1° 42' W. Pop. estimated by the Ashantees at above 100,000, but this is probably an exaggeration. (P. C.).

COOPER, a co. in the W. central part of Mo., bordering on the Mis souri r. Pop. 10,484. Co. t. Booneville.

Coos, a co. forming the N. extremity of N. H. Pop. 9,849. Co. L. Lancaster.

Cool-sa, a r. of Ala., which unites with the Tallapoosa to form the Alabama r.

Coosa, a co. in the E. central part of Ala., bordering on the r. Coosa. Pop. 6,995. Co. t. Rockford.

Co-PÆN-HA'-GEN (Dan. Kjöbenhavn, kyöl-ben-houn'; Lat. Haf!nia); the metropolis of Denmark, is situated partly on the E. coast of the i. of Zealand, and partly on the N. coast of the i. of Amager. This por. tion is called Christianshavn (kris-te-áns-houn'). That on the i. of Zealand, called Kjöbenhavn, or Copenhagen proper, is divided into the

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