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Fate får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; no, not; öð as in good;

ELIZABETH City, a co. in the E. part of Va., on the Chesa peake Bay, at the mouth of James r. Pop. 3,706. Co. t. Hampton.

ELIZABETH City, a port of entry of N. C., cap. of Pasquotank co., on the r. Pasquotank, 20 m. from its mouth. Pop. about 2,000.

Elk, a co. in the N. N. W. part of Pa., on the sources of the W. branch of the Susquehanna.

ELKI-HART, a co. in the N. part of Ind., bordering on Michigan. Pop. 6,660. Co. t. Goshen.

ELLSI-worth, a port of entry of Maine, cap. of Hancock co., on Union r., at the head of tide water, 22 m. in a straight line N. E. of Castine.

ELÄ-SIN-ORE' or ELSINEUR (Dan. Hel'-sing-öl-er), an important sea port t. of Denmark, in the N. E. part of the island of Zealand, at the parrowest part of the strait between the Cattegat and the Baltic. It is at this place that the Danish government collects certain dues on every vessel passing through the sound. Lat. 56° 2' N., Lon. 12° 33' E. Pop. 7,000. (B.)

Èu-vas, a fortified t. of Portugal, in Alentejo, about 11 m. W. of Badajoz, in Spain. Lat. 38° 53' N., Lon. 6° 57 W. Pop. about 10,000. (B.)

El-ly, a small t. named the City of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, in a fenny district called the Isle of Ely,* 16 m. N. N. E. of Cambridge.

E-MAN-U-el, a co. in the E. part of Ga., bordering on the Ogeechee r. Pop. 3,129. Co. t. Swainsborough.

ÉM-BRUN' or åm'-brun', (Anc. Ebrodu'num,) a fortified t. of France, in the dep. of Upper Alps. Before the French revolution, it was the seat of an archbishopric. Lat. 44° 34' N., Lon. 6° 26' E. Pop. in 1832, 2,392. (P. C.)

EM'-DỆn or EMBDEN, a fortified and walled t. of Hanover, a little below the entrance of the Ems into the Dollart, a bay of the German Ocean, and connected with that river by a canal two miles long, called the Delf canal. It is the principal commercial place in Hanover. Among its literary and scientific institutions, may be mentioned a gym. nasium and a society of natural history. Lat. 53° 22' N., Lon. 7° 11' E. Pop. about 12,500. (P. C.)

EMESA. See Homs.

EMMERICH, em!-mor-ik, or EMRICH, a walled t. of Germany, belong-. ing to Prussia, on the Rhine. It was formerly in the Hanseatic league, and has recently been declared a free port.' Lat. 51° 50' N., Lon. 6° 15' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

EMMET (Tonedagana), a co. at the N. extremity of the southern peninsula of Mich.

Ems, a r. in the N. W. part of Germany, which flows into the Dollart Its whole length is estimated at 210 m.

The name island appears to have formerly been applied to any spot elevated above the general level of the sens, in this and other parts of England

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Enghien, ån-ghe-án, a t. of Belgium, in the prov. of Hainault, 22 m. S. W. of Brussels. Pop. near 4,000. (B.)

ENGLAND, ing'-gland, (originally, Engla-land, i.e. the land of the Angles, Acngles, or Engles,) the S. part of the island of Great Britain, situated between 55° 47' and 49° 57}' N. Lat., and between 1° 46' E. and 5° 42 W. Long.; bounded on the N. by Scotland, N. E. and E. by the North Sea, S. by the English Channel

, and W. by the Atlantic, Wales, and the Irish Channel. Its length, from N. tó S., from Berwick to St. Alban's Head, is about 368 m.; its greatest breadth, from Land's End to the most eastern part of Kent, is about 311 m. The area amounts to 50,387 sq. m. The pop., according to the census of 1841, was 14,995,135. England is divided into 40 counties. The capital is London. (See Great Britain.)—Adj. Englisu, ing/-glish: inhab. ENGLISH-MẠN.

English CHANNEL, the narrow sea which separates England from France. It is above 300 m. long; at its narrowest part, in the strait of Dover, it is only about 20 m. wide; its greatest breadth is near 140 m.

ENKHUIZEN, enk-hoil-zen, a t. of Holland, on the W. shore of the Zuyderzee. Lat. 52° 43' N., Lon. 5° 17' E. The inhabitants, amounting to 7,000, are engaged, for the most part, in the herring fishery. (B.)

En'-Nis-CORI-Thy, a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Wexford, about 60 m. S. of Dublin. Pop. in 1831, 5,955. (P. C.)

Ex-NIS-KIL/-Lex, the cap. of the co. of Fermanagh, in Ireland, situ. ated on an island in the narrow channel which connects the upper and lower lakes of Lough Erne, 89 m. N. N. W. of Dublin. Pop. in 1831, 6,056. P.C.)

Ens, a r. of Austria, which flows into the Danube. Ens, THE PROVINCES OF THE, a name sometimes given to the archduchy of Austria. (See Austria, ARCHDUCHY OF.)

ENTRE DOURO E Minho, én'-trå dô-ro (or dool-ro) à meen/-yo, i. e. " between the Douro and the Minho," a prov. in the N. W. part of Portugal, named from its situation, being bounded on the N. by the Minho, and S. by the Douro ; length 73 m.; greatest breadth 46 m. It is sometimes simply called “the province of the Minho.”

EPERIES, 4-perl-e-és, (Hung. pron. 4-pér-e-esh,) a fortified royal free of Upper Hungary, cap. of the circle" on this side of the Theiss and of the co. of Sáros (shia-rosh'). In its vicinity is a celebrated opal mine. Lat. 48° 58' N., Lon. 21° 15' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

Epernay, d'-pér'-nál, a handsome t. of France, in the dep. of Marne, situated on the i. Marne, 73 m. E. by N. of Paris. The ancient name is said to have been Aquæ Perennes, which was first corrupted into Aixperne, and afterwards into Epernay. Pop. in 1832, 5,318. (P. C.)

EPHESUS. See AYASOOLOOK. Erfurt, irl-fõõrt, a fortified t. of Prussian Saxony, cap. of a circle of the same name, and formerly of Thuringia, situated on the Gera. It has a number of literary and scientific institutions, among which we may mention a Catholic and a Protestant gymnasium, a high-school for girls (höhere Töchterschule), a royal academy of sciences, and a public

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Fåte, får, fall, fåt; m', m't; pive or pine, pin; n), not; oo, as in good; library of about 50,000 vols. Lat. 50° 59' N., Lon. 11° 4' E. Pop. above 25,000. (B.)

Ericht, &rl-ikt, a narrow lake of Scotland, in Perthshire, about:14 m. long:

E-RJE, a lake of N. America, situated between 41° 25' and 42° 55 N. Lat., and 78° 55' and 83° 34' W. Lon. Its extreme length is about 245 m.; its greatest breadth is near 60 m. The circumference is compated at 658 m. The surface of the lake is 565 ft. above the level of ihe sea, and its greatest depth is about 100 ft. It is connected, by the r. Detroit, with L. Huron, and by the Niagara, with L. Ontario.

Erie, a co. in the W. part of N. Y., bordering on L. Erie. Pop. 62,465. Co. t. Buffalo.

Erie, a co. forining the N. W. extremity of Pa., and bordering on L. Erie. Pop. 31,314.

Erie, a port of entry, cap. of the above co., is situated on L. Erie, with a good harbour. Pop. 3,412.

ERIE, a co. in the N. part of Ohio, bordering on L. Erie. Pop. 12,599. Co. t. Huron.

Erivan, ér-e-vån', a fortified t. in the Russian government of Georgia, formerly belonging to Persia, near the frontiers of Persia and Turkey, situated on the Zanga or Zengin, the outlet of Lake Erivan, which flows into the river Arras. Lat. 40° 5' N., Lon. 44° 30' E. Pop. estimated at 14,000. (B.)

ERLANGEN, Črl-lång-en, a walled t. of Bavaria, with a celebrated protestant university, founded in 1743. There are, connected with this, an ecclesiastical seminary, a polytechnic school, a fine chemical laboratory, a library of above 100,000 vols., besides other literary and scientific establishinents. The newer portion of Erlangen may vie with the best-built towns of Germany. Lat. 49° 36' N., Lon. 11° 4' E. Pop. about 12,000. (B.)

Erlau, érl-lou, (Hung. Egl-er; Lat. Ag/ria,) a fortified archiepiscopalt. of Upper Hungary, cap of the co. of Heves (hev-esh), is situated in the midst of a beautiful and richly-cultivated country, rather more than 70 m. N. N. E. of Pesth. Lat. 47° 55' N., Lon. 20° 23' E. Pop. above 17,000. (B.)

ERNE, LOUGH, Iðu çrn, a L. of Ireland, situated principally in the co. of Fermanagh. It is usually considered as divided into the Upper and Lower Lake. The two are connected by a narrow channel, perhaps 7 m. long, which inight properly be called the river Erne. The lower lake is about 10 m. long and 5 m. wide; the other is not above 18 m. long.

ERZROOM (Erzrum) or Ardz-Room; i. e. the “land of Rome,"* an

• The name was probably given by the Turks, in contradistinction to other con. quests made near the same time, among nations who had no connexion with Rome. It will be recollected that the Byzantine empire, from which this part of Asia was wrested, was originally a portion of the great Roman empire; and it apo pears to have been still regarded in that character by the surrounding nations.

the above r.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. important commercial t. of Turkish Armenia, cap. of a pashalic of the same name, situated in an extensive and fertile plain, not far from the Kara Soo, or W. branch of the Euphrates. In the early part of the present century, the pop. of this city was estimated at 100,000, but, after being occupied by the Russians, a few years ago, it was almost deserted by its inhabitants. Since its restoration to the Turks, however, it has been gradually recovering its population and prosperity. Lat. 39° 57' N, Lon. 41° 15' E.

ERZGEBIRGE, Értsl-ga-béērl-Geh, i. e. "ore mountains," a chain of mountains in Germany, which extend along the boundary line between Bohemia and Saxony. It is rich in metals of almost every kind.

Silver is obtained in considerable quantities ; lead and cobalt are abundant. The tin mines of Saxony, in this region, are the most valuable on the continent of Europe, and yield annually 140 tons. Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, manganese, calamine, copper, and mercury, are found here. Gold, also, occurs, but in very small quantities. The length of the chain is about 100 m.

Es-CAM-B1-A, a r. which rises in Ala., and, passing into Florida, joins the Conecuh. The river thus formed, falls into Pensacola Bay. It is usually called the Escambia, though above the junction the Conecuh is the principal stream. ESCAMBIA, a co. forming the W. extremity of Florida, bordering on

Pop. 3,993. Co. t. Pensacola. Escurial, és-koo-re-al, a small t. of Spain, situated in the kingdom of Toledo, 27 m. N. W. of Madrid, remarkable for a vast and magnificent edifice, founded by Philip II., in commemoration of the victory gained over the French, at St. Quentin, in 1557. It is laid out in the form of a gridiron; the royal residence forms the handle, which is attached to a rectangle 640 ft. long, and 580 wide; in this part the avetage height, to the roof, is 60 ft. At each angle, there is a square tower, 200ft. high. The whole number of windows in the establishment is not less than 4,000. The Escurial comprises a royal residence, a monastary, a college, a rich library, and a noble church, of which the dome is 330 ft. in height, besides several other minor compartments. It was built in the form of a gridiron, it is said, because St. Lawrence, on whose anniversary the victory was won, suffered martyrdom on an instrument of that kind. Lat. 40° 36' N., Lon. 4° 8' W.

ESNÉ, esl -nêh' or es'-nd, (Anc. Latop/olis,) a commercial t. of Upper Egypt

, on the left bank of the Nile, remarkable for its ruins, especially for those of an ancient temple, with a supposed representation of the Zo

diac, which (as the position of the constellations therein figured does "not at all correspond to the present appearance of the heavenly bodies)

has led some philosophers to infer, that it must have been constructed at an extremely remote epoch. One celebrated savant, M. Dupuis, came to the conclusion that this temple, as well as that of Denderah, could not be less than 15,000 years old. It was, however, supposed that the Zodiac of Esné was the more ancient by several centuries. But M. Champollion, who is so justly distinguished for having


Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; nd, nôt; oo as in good; the mysteries so long concealed in the Egyptian bieroglyphics, considers himself authorized, by a number of facts, to infer that this, on the contrary, is the newest of all the ancient temples which still exist in Egypt. It is probably not 2,000 years old. Lat. 25° 19' 39" N., Lon. 32° 34' 30'' E. Pop. estimated at 4,000. (B.)

Esquimaux, es-ke-mo', a nation consisting of various tribes, who inhabit the northern portions of America. They differ greatly from the other savage tribes of this continent, both in language and personal appearance. In stature they are diminutive, seldom exceeding five feet. Their faces are broad, and approach more to the rounded form than those of Europeans. They have high cheek bones, large mouths, and thick lips. They are said not to be deficient in mechanical ingenuity.

Es/-SEN, a t. of the Prussian states. Lat. 51° 28' N., Lon. about 7° E._Pop. 5,300. (B.)

Esl-sex, a co. in the E. part of England, N. of, and bordering on the Thames. Pop. 344.979.

Essex, a co. forming the N. E. extremity of Vt. Pop. 4,226. Co. t. Guildhall.

Essex, a co. forming the N. E. extremity of Mass. Pop. 94,987. Co. towns, Salem, Newburyport, and Ipswich.

Essex, a co. in the N. E. part of N. Y., bordering on L. Champlain. Pop. 23,634. Co. t. Elizabethtown.

Essex, a co. in the N. E. part of N. J., bordering on the Passaic r. Pop. 44,621. Co. t. Newark.

Essex, a co. in the E. part of Va., bordering on the Rappa hannock. Pop. 11,309. Co. t. Tappahannock.

Es-Sioot. See Sioot. Ess/-LING-EN, a manufacturing t. of Würtemberg, in Germany. Lat. 48° 44' N., Lon. 9° 19' E. Pop. 6,000. (B.)

Esl-te or esl-tà (Anc. Ates/te), a t. of Austrian Italy, 15 m. S. W. of Padua. This little place, the pop. of which does not exceed 9,000, (B.), is chiefly remarkable for having given its name to the house of Este, whose princes subsequently resided at Ferrara, and acted so conspicuous a part in the history of Italy during the middle ages.

Es-THOP-NI-a, a prov. of European Russia, bordering on the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic, and Lake Peipus.—Adj. and inhab. Es-Tho'-NI-AN.

Esl-till, a co. in the E. part of Ky., intersected by the Kentucky r. Pop. 5,535. Co. t. Irvine.

ĒSTREMADURA, es-tra-må-dool-rå, a prov. in the W. part of Spain, bounded on the N. by Salamanca, E. by New Castile, S. by Andalusia, and W. by Portugal. Its length, from N. to S., is about 180 m.; its average breadth about 90 m. Badajoz is the capital. The name Estremadura is said to be derived from the Latin extrema ora (extreme region), it being the farthest and latest conquest of Alonzo IX. over the Moors, in the 13th century.-Adj. and inhab. Es-TRE-ME-NI-AN. The Spanish ESTREMEños, es-tra-mane-yoce, is also sometimes employed by English writers to designate the inhabitants.

ESTREMADURA, a prov. of Portugal, bounded on the N. by Beyra, E.

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