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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng ; G, like j.
GLOMMEN, gluml-men, the largest r. of Norway, rises in the high mountains to the S. E. of Drontheim, and flows into the Skager-Rack. It traverses several small lakes in its course.
GLOUCESTER, glos/-ter, (the Gle/vum of the Romans; Saxon, GleauCester, whence the present name is derived,) a city in the W. of England, the cap. of Gloucestershire, is situated on the left bank of the Severn, 90 m. W. N. W. from London. There are two stone bridges, each of a single arch, over the two channels of the Severn. Gloucester is remarkable for its superb cathedral, and for its immense manufacture of pins, which, however, was formerly much more extensive than at present. Lat. 51° 52' N., Lon. 2° 16' W. The city forms a little co. of itself, with an area of only 680 acres. Pop. 14,152.
GLOUCESTER, a port of entry of Essex co., Mass., on the S. side of the peninsula of Cape Ann, about 27 m., in a straight line, N. E. of Boston. It has a commodious harbour, and carries on extensive fisheries. Pop. 6,350.
GLOUCESTER, a co. in the S. W. part of N. J., bordering on the Delaware r. Pop. 25,438. Co. t. Woodbury,
GLOUCESTER, a co. in the E. part of Va., at the mouth of York r. Pop. 10,715. Seat of justice, Gloucester c. h.
GLOUCESTERSHIRE, glos'-ter-shịr, a co. in the W. of England, intersected by the r. Severn. Pop. 431,383.
GLÜCKSTADT, glückl-stått, a t. and free port of Denmark, cap. of Holstein (see KIEL), situated on the Elbe. Lat. 53° 48' N., Lon. 9° 27' E. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)
GLYNN, a co. in the S. E. part of Ga., bordering on the r. Altamaha and the sea. Pop. 5,302. Co. t. Brunswick.
GMUND, gmoont, or Gmün/-den, a small t. of Upper Austria, important on account of its salt-works, and the railroad which connects it with Linz and Budweis.
GMÜND, gmünt, a t. of Germany, in Würtemberg, 28 m. E. of Stuttgart, with an institute for the deaf and dumb, and for the blind, and other establishments for education.
GNESEN, gnal-zen, (Polish, Gniesno, gne-es-no,) a t. of Prussian Poland, 30 m. by E. by N. frorn Posen, considered as the most ancient town in all Poland. Pop. 5,600. (B.)
Gol-4, the cap. of the Portuguese possessions in India, situated in the prov. of Bejapoor, on an island formed by the r. Mandova. The ancient city is now almost deserted. The new town, which stands 5 m. nearer the sea, is called Pandjim (pån-jeem'). (P. C.) Lat. 15° 31' N., Lon. 73° 45' E. Pop. estimated at from 18,000 to 20,000.
GODAVERY, go-dål-ver-e, a large r. of India, which rises in the Western Ghauts, and flowing, at first easterly, and afterwards southeasterly, empties itself
into the Bay of Bengal, by several mouths. Its length is estimated at 640 m.
GOES, nóoce, a seaport t. of Holland, on the island of S. Beveland Lat. 51° 30' N., Lon. 3° 53' E. Pop. 4,500. (B.)
Gor-con-DẠ, an ancient and decayed t. of Hindostan, in the prov. of
Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mi, mit; plne or pine, pin; nd, nòt; öö as in good; Hydrabad, celebrated for its diamond mines. It appears, however, that these mines, mentioned so frequently by geographers as well as others, have never had an existence. The "diamonds of Golconda" are thus designated, from having been wrought in this town, which was, for many centuries, distinguished for its traffic in those precious stones. (B.) Golconda is situated a few miles to the W. of the city of Hydrabad. Lat. 17° 23' N., Lon. 78° 26' E.
GOLDBERG, golv-béry, a manufacturing t. of Prussian Silesia. Lat. 51° 4' N., Lon. 15° 56' E. Pop..6,400. (B.)
Gold Coast, a part of Guinea, the limits of which are not exactly defined. In its most extensive application, the name comprises a maritime tract extending from the little r. Assinee (about 3° 20' W. Lon.) to the eastern mouth of the r. Lagos, (4° 20' E. Lon.) That portion, however, which lies E. of the r. Volta, is often called the Slave Const. Some writers describe the Gold Coast as limited on the W. by Cape Three Points (about 2° 10' W. Lon.); others make Cape Apollonia the western boundary. Of all parts of Guinea, and indeed of the African coast, this is the one where European settlements and trade have been carried to the greatest extent. Its name sufficiently indicates the cause. It appears, however, that the gold for which this region formerly enjoyed an exaggerated celebrity, was chiefly procured from other portions of Africa.
Golnow, gol-nov, a t. of Prussia, in Pomerania, 18m. N. E. of Stcitin. Pop. 3,600. (B.)
Gom-BROON', called, also, Bunl-DER AB-BASI-s], a t. of Persia, situated at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, opposite to the far-famed island of Ormuz. Formerly it carried on an extensive trade, and its population is said to have amounted to 30,009; it is now reduced to 3,000 or 4,000. (P. C.) According to Balbi, it is still populous during the winter sea
Lat, about 27° 12 N., Lon. 56° 3' É. GOMERA, go-mal-rå, one of the Canary Islands, situated between 2 and 28° 13' N. Lat., and 17° 15' and 17° 35' W. Lon. It is about 20 m. long, and contains an area of 104 sq. leagues. Pop. 11,712. (P. C.)
Gonaives, Les, la go'-nivel, a small sea port t. of Hayti, cap. of the dep. of Artibonite. Lat. 19° 20' N., Lon. 72° 30' W.
Gon-dar, a city of Abyssinia, formerly the cap. of the whole empire; at present the chief town of the kingdom of Amhara, is situated in a plain between 20 and 30 m. N. of Lake Dembea. The houses are mostly covered with straw; they are isolated, so that the city occupies a large space in proportion to the number of inbabitants. Lat. about 12° 30' N., Lon. 37° 32' E. Pop. 6,000 (B.); others, however, have estimated it much higher, but have probably been deceived by the extent of ground which the town occupies.
Gooch'-LIND, a co. in the E. central part of Va., N. of, and bordering on James r. Pop. 9,760. Seat of justice, Goochland c. h.
Goold/-sh” (Guldscha), called, also, İli, (eel-le), an important conimercial t. of Central Asia, situated in Chinese Toorkistan. It is said
on, as in orir, th, as in thin ; TA, as in this, x, nearly like ng ; G, like j. to be well built, and to be surrounded by mud walls, with six gates; and is estimated to contain 10,000 houses. (B.) Lat. about 43° 30' N., Lon. 82° 30 E.
Goom'-ty, a r. of Hindostan, which flows into the Ganges. GOR-KUM, a fortified t. of S. Holland, situated on the Merwe. Lat. 51° 50' N., Lou. 4° 58' E. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)
GÖR!-Litz, a fortified t. of Prussia, in Upper Lusatia, situated on the Neisse (nil-ceh). It has a gymnasiurn and several other literary and scientific institutions. Lat. 51° 9' N., Lon. 15° 1' E. Pop. 11,000. (B.)
GÖRTZ (It. Gorizia, go-rid-se-á), an archiepiscopal t. of the kingdom of Illyria, cap. of a large circle of the same name. It has an academical gymnasium, a public library, and various other institutions. Lat. 45° 57' N., Lon. 13° 29' E. Pop. 9,700. (P. C.).
Gos'-LAR, an ancient t. of Hanover, in Hildesheim, celebrated for its mines of silver, lead, and copper, which are possessed in common by the king of Hanover, and the duke of Brunswick. Lat. 51° 54' N., Lon. 10° 26. E. Pop. near 6,000. (B.)
Gos'-PORT, a fortified sea port t. of England, in Hampshire, situated on the W. side of Portsmouth harbour, 68 m. S. by W. from London. Pop. of the chapelry, 8,862. S. of the town stands the Royal Hospital of Haslar, containing accommodations for more than 2,000 patients.
Gos PORT. See NORFOLK. Gotha, gol-tå, a handsome t. of Germany, formerly the cap. of the duchy of Saxe-Gotha, now of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is situ. ted 78 m. W. by S. from Leipsic. Among its numerous literary and scientific institutions, may be mentioned the Gymnasium, one of the best in Germany; the National Library, with 60,000, and the Ducal Library, with 20,000 vols.; and the celebrated collection of coins, one of the finest in the world, contained in the palace of Friedenstein (free. dçn-stine), besides various collections in natural history and in the arts. Pop. 12,000. (B.) The Observatory of Seeberg (sal-béry), in the vicinity of Gotha, is in Lat. 50° 56' 5" N., Lon. 10° 44' 6'' E.
GOTHA, PRINCIPALITY OF. See Saxe-COBURG-GOTHA.
GÖTHEBORG, gó!-te-borg, or Gor!-YEN-BURG, an important t. of Sweden, on the Götha-elf (or “Götha River"), about 3 m. from its entrance into the Cattegat. The river widens at this place to near a mile, and forms an excellent harbour. The Royal Academy of Sciences, the Gymnasium, and the School of Navigation, may be noticed among the literary and scientific institutions of Götheborg. With respect to commerce, manufactures, and population, this town is the second in the kingdom. Lat. 57° 42' N., Lon. 11° 58' E. Pop. 27,000. (B.)
GOTH'-LẠND (Sw. Götaland, göl-td-lånd, or Göthland, göv-lánd, the “ land of the Goths;" Lat. Gothia); a name formerly applied to the southern portion of Sweden, which was divided into East, West, and South Gothland. None of these appellations, however, are recognised in the recent distribution of Sweden into provinces. (E. G.)
Goth'-LAND, or more properly, Gott/-LAND, (i. e. “good land,") an i in the Baltic, situated between 56° 55' and 59° N. Lat., and 186 16
Fåte, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo, as in good: and 19° 13' E. I .00. It is near 80 m. in length; its greatest breadth is above 30 m. The area is computed at 1,118 sq. m.
The pop. in 1833 was estimated at 39,800. (P. C.)
GÖTTINGEN or GETTINGEN, get-ting-en, a celebrated city of Germany, in Hanover, the cap. of a principality of the same name, situated on the New Leine (lil-neh), a canal derived from the river Leine, an affluent of the Aller. It is chiefly remarkable for its university, founded by George II., of England, in 1734, which is justly regarded as one of the very first in Europe, and which contains a library of above 300,000 vols., considered the richest in the world with respect to modern literature. Among the numerous other literary and scientific institutions of Göttingen, we may mention the Royal Society of Sciences; the Botanic Garden, one of the finest in Europe; the Academical Museum ; and the Veterinary School. Lat. of the Observatory, 51° 31'48" N., Lon. 9° 56' 37" E. Pop. 11,000. (B.)
Goul-Da or howl-då, a t. of Holland, on the Yssel, 12 m. N. E. of Rotterdam. The church of St. John, of this place, is a handsome edifice; its painted windows are esteemed among the finest in Europe. Gouda, thongh not regularly fortified, is surrounded by wide and deep ditches; and, by means of sluices, the surrounding country can be laid under water in a few hours. Lat. 52° N., Lon. 4° 43' E. Pop. estimated at 12,000. (B.)
Goraz, go'-gåzl, a large prov. in the central part of Brazil, extending from about 6° to 21° 40' S. Lat.
Goraz, called, also, Vil'-LẠ Bo-A, the cap. of the above, is situated on the r. Verinelho (vér-mell-yo), near its source, about 170 m., in a straight line, from its entrance into the Araguay. Lat. about 16° 20° S., Lon. 50° 30' W. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)
Gozzo, got/-so, (Anc. Gauldus,) an i. in the Mediterranean, situated N. W. of Malla, to which it belongs. It is intersected by the parallel of 36° N. Lat., and by the meridian of 14° 15' E. Lon. The area is near 40 sq. m. Pop. 15,000. Gozzo, the principal town, contains about 3,000 inhabitants. (P. C.)
Gracias a Dios, grål-se-is å deel-oce, a cape on the E. coast of Central America. Lat, about 14° 55' N., Lon. 83° 12' W.
GRACIOSA, grå-se-ol-sa, one of the Azores, intersected by the 39th parallel of N. Lat., and 28th meridian of W. Lon. It is only about 20 m. in circumference. Pop. 7,500. (P. C.)
Gradisca, grå-dis'-kå, a small t. in Austrian Italy, important on account of its fortifications. Lat. 45° 53' N., Lon. 13° 25' E.
GRÆTZ. See GrÄTZ.
GRAFI-ton, a co. of N. H., bordering on the Connecticut t. Pop 42,311. Co. towns, Haverhill and Plymouth.
GRAMMONT, grå-mon', a t. of E. Flanders, situated on the r. Dender, 18 m. S. S. E. of Ghent. Lat. 50° 41' N., Lon. 3° 50' E. Pop. in 1834, 7,349. (P. C.)
GRAM-PI-ẠN Hills, a chain of mountains in Scotland, which stretches like a mighty wall along the southero front of the Highlands,
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, néarly like ng ; G, like 3. running from Argyleshire, on the Atlantic, across the island, into Aberdeenshire, on the German Ocean, and then forming another ridge in a north-westerly direction, extends to the county of Moray, and the borders of Inverness. There appears, however, to be considerable diversity among geographers respecting the application of the name Grampian. The term is not used by the natives of that part of Britain. It is derived from the Mons Grampius, mentioned by Tacitus in his Agricola. In its most extensive application, it appears to comprebend all the mountain ranges N. of a line drawn from the Frith of Clyde to the Frith of Tay, thus including all the higher mountains of Scotland.
Ben Nevis, in Inverness-shire, is the highest of the Grampian system, ? and of all the mountains in Great Britain, rising 4,368 ff. above the level of the sea.
Ben Mac Dhu, situated in the W. part of Aberdeenshire, is second only to Ben Nevis, having an elevation of 4,305 ft. above the sea ; Ben Cruachan (crool-kan), in Argylesluire, S. of Loch Etive, is 3,669 ft. high. Ben Lol-mond, in Stirlingshire, is perhaps the best known of the mountains of Scotland, on account of its forming the southern extremity of the Highlands. It rises 3,197 ft. above the level of the sea. Ben Ven-u', in Perthshire, extends along the southern shores of Loch Katrine, and presents the most striking features in the picturesque scenery for which that lake is so remarkable. Ben Vorlich (vor-lik) or Voirlich, in Perthshire, is second only to Ben Venu, among all the mountains of Scotland, for wild and variegated scenery,
Gran, grản, (Hung. Esztergom, es-tér-gom,) an archiepiscopal and royal free to in the central part of Hungary, cap. of a co. of the same name, is situated on the right bank of the Danube. At the foot of the castle, which stands on an island in the river, connected with the town by a flying bridge, is an establishment for warm baths. Lat. 47° 47' N., Lon. 18° 45' E. Pop. about 10,950. (P. C.)
GRANADA, gran-à-da,* (Sp. pron. grå-på-på,) a kingdom or prov. of Spain, in Andalusia, bordering on Murcia and the Mediterranean. It is sometimes called Upper Andalusia.
GRANADA, an archiepiscopal city of Spain, the cap. of the above, is situated near the river Genil (ha-neel'), in the midst of a plain celebrated for its fertility and for its delicious climate. This town was
built by the Saracens, in the 10th century. After the overthrow of the !
kingdom of Cordova, Granada became, in 1238, the cap. of the new kingdom and the last bulwark of the Moslems in Spain. "Towards the close of the Moorish dominion, its population amounted to 400,000 (B.), and, in 1491, its walls were defended against the armies of Ferdinand and Isabella, by 100,000 men; but it was at last reduced, on the second day of the year 1492. The Alhambra, formerly the palace and fortress of the Moslem kings, an edifice of almost unequalled magnificence, is
* This accentuation not only corresponds with the Spanish, but is supported by
usage of nearly all our best poets (see Int. I.); nevertheless, in the “carefully revised" edition of Stewart's Modern Geography, published at Edinburgh in 1813, the name is thrice given with the accent on the first syllable.