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ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng ; G, like j. the modern Grenoble is a corruption. Lat. 45° 12' N., Lon. 5° 44' E. Pop. 26,000. (B.)
GRINDELWALD, grin'-del-wålt', a village of Switzerland, in the canton of Berne, situated in a romantic valley of the same name, which is intersected by the parallel of 46° 39 N. Lat., and the 8th meridian of E. Lon. In the vicinity is the immense glacier of Grindelwald.
Grisons, gre'-zon', (Ger. Graubündten, groul-bünt-çn,) the large:t* canton of Switzerland, occupying the S. E. extremity of that country. Its greatest length, from E. 10 W., is about 87 m.; its greatest breadth, from N. to S., is about 54 m. The area is computed at about 3,000 sq. m.
Pop. 96,000. (P. C.) Capital, Coire. Grisons in French sigdifies “gray," and Graubundten in German, the “gray allies.” The name originated in the following circumstance. In the year 1924, the chief inhabitants of this portion of the country, having become weary of the oppression of their feudal lords, met under a large maple, in a forest near the village of Trons, and entered into a solemn compact to defend each other's property and persons, and to oblige their lords to respect the same. This was called the Gray League (Graubund, grou'-boont), from their being dressed in gray frocks. The maple tree of Truns remained standing till near the close of the last century: it was felled during the French invasion.
GroD'-no, an ancient l. in the S. W. part of European Russia, the cap. of a gov. of the same name, situated on the Niemen, 156 m. N. E. of Warsaw. The Polish and Lithuanian Diets were formerly sometimes held here. Lat. 53° 40' N., Lon. 23° 50' E. Pop. above 10,000. (P. C.)
GRON -ING-EN or hrol-ning-en, a prov. occupying the N. extremity of Holland, bordering on the kingdom of Hanover and the German Ocean. The area is 770 sq. m. Pop. in 1824, 153,860.
GRONINGEN, the cap. of the above, and the most important town in the N. of Holland, is situated on the Hun-se, about 12 m. from its entrance into the Lauwer Zee (loul-Wer zay). The great church of St. Martin is the most remarkable edifice. Among the literary and scientific institutions of Groningen, the University and the Botanic Garden may be mentioned. Lat. 53° 12' N., Lon. 6° 31' E. Pop. above 24,000. (B.)
Grundy, a co. in the N. E. part of III., intersected by the Illinois r. GRUNDY, a co. in the N. part of Mo., on Grand r. Gross WARDEIN, groce'- War-dine', (Hung. Nagy Várad, nõdy våårõd,) a t. of Hungary, on the Körös (kö-rösh), a tributary of the Theiss, with an academy (which is a sort of university), and other literary institutions. Lat. 47° 2' N., Lon. 21° 53' E. Pop. 7,000. (B.)
GRÜNBERG, grün'-bérg, or GRU/-NF-BERG', a walled t. in the N. part of Prussian Silesia, the cap. of a circle of the same name, with flourish
* Balbi gives 1,938 geographical sq. m. for the area of Grisons, and 1,933 for that of Berne According to the P. C., Berne has the greater area.
Fåte, får, fall, füt; mé, mét; pine or pipe, pin; nd, not; oo as in good; ing manufactures. Lat. 52° 3' N., Lon. 15° 32' E.
Pop. above 9,000. (B.)
GUADALAJARA or GUADALAXARA, ģwả - Då-lå-hå-rå, a manufacturing t. of Spain, in New Castile, the cap. of a prov. of the same name, is situated on the r. Henares, a branch of the Jamara, 33 m. N. E. by E. of Madrid. Pop. 7,000. (B.)
GUADALAJARA or GUADALAXARA, a large and handsome city of Mex. ico, the cap. of the state of Xalisco, situated on the r. Santiago. The streets are regular and spacious; there are fourteen squares and twelve fountains, and many fine edifices. The town contains several convents, and a number of churches, among which the Cathedral is perhaps the most remarkable, being considered one of the most magnificent in Mexico. Guadalaxara has a university and several other institutions for education. Four newspapers were published here in 1826. Lat. 21° 9' N., Lon. 103° 2 W. The pop. is variously estimated; Balbi gives 45,000, but some rate it as high as 70,000.
GUADALOUPE, gau'-da-loop' or gå-da-loop', an island, or, more correctly, two islands, divided from each other by a very narrow channel
, belonging to the group of Lesser Antilles. It is from 60 to 70 m. in length; its greatest breadth is about 25 m. (P. C.) The most important town is Basse Terre, situated near the S. W. point of the island. Lat. 15° 59' N., Lon. 61° 45' W.
GUADALQUIVIR, commonly pronounced in English gau'-d'l-quivier, (Sp. pron. ģwảD-ål-ke-veer'; Anc. Bæ/tis;) or the “Great River, in the S. of Spain, which rises in the mountains on the N. E. confines of Granada, and, running in a very circuitous course, falls into the Atlantic, in about 36° 44' N. Lat., and 6° 20' W. Lon. Its length is above 300 m. It is navigable for vessels of 100 tons to Seville.
Guadiana, gau-de-an/-a or ģwå-de-8'-nả, (Anc. Anas,) a r. of Spain, which rises in New Castile, and flowing easterly into Portugal, and afterwards forming a part of the boundary between Spain and Portugal, falls into the Atlantic, in about 37° 10' N. Lat., and 7° 14' W. Lon.
GUANAXUATO, gwă-nå-hwal-to, a t. of Mexico, cap. of a state of the same name, situated on the table land, 6,835 ft. above the level of the sea, and surrounded by the richest silver mines in the world, to which it owes its origin and present magnificence. These mines from 1766 to 1820 produced not less than 225,935,736 Spanish dollars. Lat. 21° N., Lon. 100° 55' W. The pop. of this place was exceedingly reduced by the war of independence, but at present it is said to amount to 60,000, including that of the suburbs. (B.)
GUANCAVELICA, ģwång-kå-va-leel-kả, also written HUANCABELICA, a t. of Peru, situated at the height of 12,312 ft. above the level of the sea,
The name is of Moorish origin. Guad, which forms the prefix of the names of so many streams in the S. of Spain, is essentially the same word as Wad or Wady (see Int. XXVII., 10.), and signifies “river :" al-qurvir is merely a ror ruption of the Arabic al-kebeer (or al-kebir); i. e. “the great."
ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng ; G, like j. important on account of its rich mine of mercury. Lat. about 12° 53' S., Lon. 75° 6' W. Pop. near 12,000. (B.) GUARDAFul, gwår'-da-fweel, Cape, the most eastern point of Africa. GUASTALLA, gwas-tål/-lå, a fortified t. of Italy, in the duchy of Parma. Lat. 44° 55' N., Lon. 10° 40' E. Pop. estimated at 6,000. (B.)
GUATEMALA, gau'-te-mål-la or gwå-ta-mål-là, formerly a prov. of Spanish America, occupying the territory now included in the republic of Central America. Also, the name of two towns in this republic, distinguished as Ancient and New Guatemala.
ANCIENT GUATEMALA, or GuatemALA LA ANTIGUA, or simply LA ANTIGUA (lå-ån-teel-gwa), the cap. of the state of Guatemala, is built near the site of Old Guatemala (Guatemala la Vieja, -ve-d'-ná), which was destroyed in 1541, it is said, by enormous masses of water bursting forth from a neighbouring volcano, called, from this circuinstance, the Volcano de Agua (vol-kål-no da ål-ġwá), or the “ water volcano.” Guatemala la Antigua has suffered greatly from earthquakes, as well as from two neighbouring volcanoes. Its pop., however, is still considerable, amounting, according to Balbi, to 18,000. Lat. about 14° 26 N., Lon. 90° 23' W.
New GUATEMALA or GUATEMALA LA NUEVA (nwal-vå), the cap. of the federal district of Central America, and, provisionally, of the whole confederation, is situated about 30 m. E. N. E. of the preceding. The streets are regular, crossing each other at right angles, and are 40 ft. in width. The houses have only one story, on account of the frequent earthquakes. Guatemala is the residence of an archbishop. It conlains several literary and scientific institutions, among which we may mention the University, the Academy of Fine Arts, and the Public Library. Lat. about 14° 35' N., Lon. 90° 10' W. The pop., including that of the immediate environs, is computed at about 50,500. (B.)
GUAXACA. See OAXACA. GU, YAQUIL, gwi-8-keell, an important seaport t. of S. America, in Ecuator, and the cap. of a dep. of the same name, is situated on the r. Guayaquil, about 40 mn. from its entrance into the Pacific. Vessels of considerable size can readily sail up to the town, at high tide, which, at the full and change of the moon, rises 24 ft. The harbour of Guayaquil is the ordinary station for the navy of the republic. Lat. 2 11' N., Lon. 79° 56' w. Pop. estimated at 22,000. (B.) GUAYRA. See LA GUAYRA.
GUBEN, god-ben, a walled t. in the Prussian prov. of Brandenburg, the
cap. of a circle of the same name, is situated on the Neisse (nil-ceh). Lat. 51° 57' N., Lon. 14° 44' E. Pop. 7,300. (B.)
GUELDERLAND. See GELDERLAND. GUÉRET, gà -ra), the cap. of the dep. of Creuse, in France. It conlains a college or high-school, and about 4,000 inhabitants. (B.) Lat. 46° 10' N., Lon. 1° 50' E.
GUERNSEY, gern'-ze, an i. off the N. coast of France, subject to the Briti-h crown, intersected by the parallel of 49° 30' N. Lat., and the meridian of 2° 35' W. Lon. Its shape is triangular; its length is about 9 m. Pop. 26,649.
Fåte, får, fall, fåt; m', mit; pine or pine, pin; no, not; oo, as in good;
GUERNSEY, a co. in the E. S. E. part of Ohio, a little W. of the Ohio r. Pop. 27,748. Co. t. Cambridge.
Guiana, ge-el-na, Guyana or Guayana, a naine applied to the N. E. portion of S. America, extending along the coast from the r. Orinoco, or near it, to the r. Oyapok. It is divided into English, Dutch, and French Guiana.
English Guiana lies the farthest west, and is separated from Dutch Guiana by the r. Corantyn (ko'-san-tine'). On the side towards Venezuela, the boundary has never been determined: it may perhaps be considered to lie about midway between the Esseyuebo (es-se-kal-bo - less correctly, Essequibo), and the Orinoco. Pop. in 1834, 96,581. (M.) Capital, Georgetown.
Dutch G. or Surinam, soo'-re-nam', borders English Guiana on the E., and is divided from French Guiana by the r. Maroni (må-ronee). Pop. probably 65,000. (M.) Capital, Paramaribo.
FRENCH G. or Guiane, ge'-ån!, lies É. of Dutch Guiana, and extends to the r. Oyapok. Pop. in 1837, 21,648. (M.) Capital, Cayenne.
GUIENNE, ge-enn', a former prov. in the S. W. of France, lying N. of Gaecony, from which it was partly separated by the r. Garonne. It is now distributed chiefly among the deps. of Aveyron, Dordogne, Lot, Lot and Garonne, Tarn and Garonne, and Gironde. Guienne is sup posed to be derived from the ancient Aquitania, the name given to this country in the time of the Romans. In the early periods of the French monarchy it was called Aquitaine.
Guill-F(RD, a co. in the N.W. centre of N. C. Pop. 19,175. Co. t. Greensborough
Guinea, gin'-e, an extensive country on the W. coast of Africa, between 4' and 10° N. Lat., and 5? E. and 13° W. Lon. The interior is but little known; the countries along the coast are known to European sailors under six names, Sierra Leone, Grain Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin.
Guingamp, går -går', a manufacturing t. of France, in the dep. of! Côtes du Nord. Lat. 48° 34' N., Lon. 3° 8' W. Pop. in 1832, 6,100. (P. C.)
Guipuzcoa, ge-poos/-ko-a, (Sp. pron. ge-pooth-ko-å,) a small prov. on the N. coast of Spain, bordering on the Bay of Biscay, between 1° 40' and 2° 36' W. Lon., remarkable for its manufactures in iron.
The metal is obtained from native ore, of an excellent quality.-Adj. and inhab. GUIPUZCOAN, ge-poosl-co-an.
GUJERAT. See GUZERAT. GUMBINNEN, gõõm-bin-nen, a t. of E. Prussia. Lat. 54° 35' N., Lon. 22° 12' E. Pop. 6,200. (B.)
Gund-w Al-Na, a former prov. of Hindostan, situated partly in the present kingdom of Nagpoor.
GUNTZBURG, güntsl-bóörg, a small t. of Bavaria, on the Danube, with a fine bridge over this river. Lat. 48° 27' N., Lon. 10° 16' E. Pop. 3,000. (B.)
ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. GUR-WẢV, a prov. in the N. of Hindostan, bordering on the Himalaya Mountains.
GÜSTROW, güsl-trov, a t. of Germany, in the grand-duchy of MeckElenburg-Schwerin. Lat. 53° 47' N., Lon. 12° 18' E. Pop. 8,400. (B.)
GUYANA or GUAYANA. See Guiana.
GUYANDOTT,gi-an-dot', a r. in the W. part of Va., which flows into the Ohio.
Guz'-ER-AT', a prov. in the W. of Hindostan, bordering on the sea, and situated partly between the Gulf of Cambay and the Gulf of Cutch.
GW IN-NETT', a co. towards the N. part of Ga., bordering on the Chattahoochee r. Pop. 10,804. Co. t. Lawrenceville.
GYULA. See KARLSBURG.
HAARLEM, HAERLEM, or Harlem, håårl-lem, a city of the Netherlands, cap. of North Holland, situated about 11 m. W. of Amsterdam, on the navigable river Spaaren (spåårl-en), which runs from the lake of Haarlem into the river Y. It is fortified in the old style, and was formerly considered a place of great strength. Haarlem was a flourishing tranufacturing town in the middle of the 12th century, and acted an important part in the wars between the Dutch and Frieslanders. It attained its highest prosperity in the 17th century, since which time it has greatly declined. İts manufactures, once among the most celebrated in Europe, have fallen into decay. It is still renowned for its gardens, the flowers from which constitute an important object of com
Haarlem possesses a number of literary and scientific institutions, among which are an anatomical theatre, an academy of paintiny, sculpture, and architecture, a public library, and a fine botanic garden. Lat. 52° 23' N., Lon. 4° 38' E Pop. about 22,000. (B.)
HAARLEMMER MEER, håårl-lem-mer mair, or THE LAKE OF HAARLEM, situated between the town of Haarlem and Amsterdam, is about 18 m. long, and from 4 to 7 wide, but is said to be only 6 ft. deep.
HABANA. See Havana.
HAB-ER-SHẠM, & co. near the N. E. extremity of Ga. Pop. 7,961. Co. t. Clarksville.
HAD'-DING-TỌN, the cap. of Haddingtonshire, situated about 17 m. E. of Elinburgh. Here the celebrated John Knox was born. Pop. 2,786.
HAD'-DING-TÇN-SHỊRE or East LOTHIAN (10-The-an), a co. in the E. part of Scotland, S. of, and bordering on the Frith of Forth. Pop. 35,856. Had-ra-MAUT', a prov. of Arabia, situated E. of Yemen, and borderHAERLEM. See HAARLEM.
Haff, båf, a name used on the German coast of the Baltic, for an expanse of water communicating with the sea, but nearly enclosed by
HA-GERS-TOWN, the cap. of Washington co., Md., 68 m. N. N. W. of Washington, situated at the termination of the Cumberland Valley
ing on the sea.