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ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. extensive than the forner territory, is as follows:-Beginning in the middle of the Mississippi, at the mouth of Des Moines r., it extends up the latter to the N. boundary of Mo., thence westwardly along this line to the middle of Missouri r., thence up the middle of the same to the mouth of Big Sioux r., according to Nicollet's map, thence up the Big Sioux till it is intersected by the parallel of 43° 38' N. Lat., thence eastward along said parallel to the middle of the Mississippi, thence down the middle of this river to the place of beginning. With these limits Iowa extends from about 40° 24' to 43° 38' N. Lat., and from 90° 20' to about 97° W. Lon. Length from E. to W. about 300 m.; breadth from N. to S. about 210 m. Iowa is divided into 31 counties. Pop. of the territory, in 1840, 43,112. lowa, a co. in Wisconsin, bordering on Illinois

. Pop. 3,978. \pg/-wich, a t. of England, cap. of the co. of Suffolk, on the Orwell, a branch of the Stour, 63 m. N. E. of London. Pop. of the borough, with an area of nearly 11 sq. m., 25,384.

Ipswich, a t. and port of entry of Mass., in Essex co., on a r. of its own Dame, and on the railroad connecting Boston with Portsmouth, 24 m. in a straight line N. E. of the former city. Lat. 42° 41' N., Lon. 70° 46' W. Pop. of the township, 3,000.

IRAK ADJEMI, e'-råk! djl-ěh-me', an extensive prov. in the N. W. central part of Persia, nearly corresponding to the Great Media of the ancients. With the Arabians, Irak signifies Babylonia; Adjemi is their name for the Persians; the appellation of the prov., therefore, signifies " Persian Babylonia.” (M. B.).

IRE-DELL, a co. in the W. part of 'N. C., E. of, and bordering on the Catawba r. Pop. 15,685. Co. t. Statesville.

IRE/-LAND (Gr. Isqm; Lat. Hiber/nią ; Irish, E-rin), a large i. in the N. Atlantic, lying W. of Great Britain, from which it is separated by the North Channel at the N., by the Irish Sea in the middle, and by St. George's Channel at the S. It is situated between 51° 25' and 55° 23' N. Lat., and 5° 27' and 10° 30' W. Lon. Its length, from N. N. E. to S. S.W., is near 300 m.; its greatest breadth, from E. N. E. toW.N.W., 185 m. The area is estimated at 28,800 sq. m. The pop., according to the census of 1831, was 7,767,401 (P. C.); in 1841, it amounted to 8,175,273. (American Almanack.) Formerly, Ireland had a parliament of its own, which was subordinate to that of Great Britain; but, in 1800, the two were united, and afterwards received the title of the Imperial Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland, while the two countries, thus represented in one legislative assembly, were styled the United Kingdom. Ireland is divided into four provinces, viz.: Úlster in the N., Leinster in the E., Munster in the s., and Connaught in the W. These are subdivided into counties, of which Ulster contains 9,

* Appanoose, Benton, Blackhawk, Buchanan, Cedar, Clayton, Clinton, Davis, De. ware, Des Moines, Dubuque, Fayette, Henry, Iowa, Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Jones, Keokuk, Kishkeekosh, Lee, Linn, Louisa, Mabaska, Muscatine, Poweshiek, Scott, Tama, Van Buren, Wapello, Washington.

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; no, not; õð as in good: Leinster 12, Munster 6, and Connaught 5, amounting in all to 32. The administration of the government is vested chiefly in the lord-lieutenant ind privy council, who are appointed by the crown. Dublin is the capital. -Adj. I'-RISH, and H.-BÆRI-NI-AN (poetical): inhab. Il-RISH-MẠN and HIBERNIAN.

IR-KOOTSK' (Irkutsk), a city of Asiatic Russia, cap. of a government of the same name, and of É. Siberia, on the Angara, which at this place is about 1,000 ft. wide. The houses are built chiefly of wood. Írkootsk contains a number of institutions for education; it also possesses some important manufacturing establishments and an extensive trade, being the great entrepôt for the commerce of the N. E. of Asia. Lat. 52° 16' N., Lon. 104° 20' E. Balbi estimates the pop. at not less than 25,000.

IR -o-quois', a co. in the E. part of Ill., bordering on Ind. Pop. 1,695. Co. t. Montgomery.

IR-RA-WXD-DY (or Irrawadi) i. e. the "great river," a large r. of Asia, which is supposed to have its source in Thibet, near the E. extremity of the Himalaya Mountains. Its general course is S., and after traversing the whole length of the Birman empire, it empties itself into the Gulf of Martaban, by several mouths. The entire length is estimated at 1,200 m. It may be ascended at all seasons of the year, by vessels of 200 tons, as far as Ava, near 22° N. Lat. and 96° E. Lon., a distance of perhaps 450 m., and, during the rainy season, several hundred miles further. From the apex of the Delta to some distance above Ava, the breadth of the Irrawaddy is seldom less than 1 m., and is sometimes 4 m.

IR-Tysh' or Irtish (Russ. pron. éěr-lish'), a r. in the N. W. Asia, which rises in the Chinese empire, and flowing through the lake Saisan or Dzaisan, falls into the Oby, in the Russian government of Tobolsk. Its whole length is perhaps 1,500 m.

Irl-ving, a seaport t. of Scotland, in Ayrshire, situated on a r. of the same name, the estuary of which forms its harbour. It is about 23 m. S. W. of Glasgow. Pop. of the parish, 5,214.

IR/-WELL, a r. of Lancashire, in the N. W. of England, which flows into the Mersey.

IR-win, a co. in the S. part of Ga., bordering on the Ocmulgee r. Pop. 2,038. Co. t. Irwinsville.

18-A-BELI-LẠ, a co near the centre of Mich.

Ischia, is-ke-å, (Anc. Æna/ria, Inar/ime, and Pithecu'sæ,) a fertile and beautiful i. in the Mediterranean, belonging to the kingdom of Naples, situated scarcely 8 m. from the promontory of Misenum. It is about 7 m. long, and has an area of 21 sq. m. Pop. about 24,000. Ischia, the principal town, stands on the eastern part of the island, in Lat. 40° 43' N., Lon. 13° 56' E., and contains about 3,000 inhabitants. (M.)

ISER or Isar, eel-zer, a r. of Bavaria, which rises on the borders of Tyrol, and, flowing north-easterly, falls into the Danube. Its whole length is perhaps 150 m.

part of


ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. Isère, e-zare, a small-r. which rises in Savoy, and, flowing through the French dep. of its own name, falls into the Rhone.

Isère, a dep. in the S. E. part of France, bordering on the Rhone and the duchy of Savoy. Pop. 57:3,643. (B.) Capital, Grenoble.

ISERLOHN, ee'-zer-lonel, a t. of Westphalia, about 45 m. N. E. of Cologne. In its vicinity are rich mines of calamine, which furnish the material for several of its numerous manufactures. Pop. 6,000. (B.)

Isis. See THAMES. ISKENDEROON. See ALEXANDRETTA. ISLAMABAD, is-låm'-a-båd', a t. of British India, cap. of the dist. of Chittagong, situated near the E. coast of the Bay of Bengal. Lat. 22° 20' N., Lon. 91° 45' E. Pop. 12,000. (M.)

Isla, il-la, or Islay, il-là, the most southern of the Hebrides. It is about 26 in. lopy, and 20 m. broad. This island, together with those of Jura and Colonsay, belong to Argyleshire, and form the dist. of Isla, the pop. of which amounts to 18,071.,


Isle of Wight, a co. in the S. E. part of Va., bordering on James r., near its mouth. Pop. 9,972. Co. t. Smithfield.


IN-LING-TON, formerly a village of Middlesex co., England, near London. It is now entirely united with the metropolis.

Ismail, is-må-eell, an important fortress of Russia, in Bessarabia, situated on the Kilian arm of the Danube, about 43 m. from the Black Sea. It was taken from the Turks by Suwarrow, in 1790. Lat. 45° 21' N., Lon. 28° 50' E. Pop. 9,000. (P. C.)

Ispahan, is'-pa-hån!, or Isfahan, (commonly pronounced by the inhabitants spå-hoon',) a celebrated city, formerly the cap. of Persia, situated on the Zenderood, which is said to be about 600 ft. broad at this place, but which is afterwards lost in the sands of the desert. Though still a large city, Ispahan has greatly declined since the time of Abbas the Great, in the 17th century, when its population is said to have amounted to 700,000. At present, however, it appears to be rising slowly from its decay. Balbi estimates the number of its inhabitants at about 200,000, though many others rate it considerably lower. It is still considered as the first manufacturing and commercial town in Persia. Among the interesting structures of Ispahan, we may briefly notice, the royal palace, which contains within itself several other remarkable edifices; and the numerous noble bridges built over the

some of which are fallen into stately ruins, while others are still almost entire. This city is the seat of several colleges, among which, that of the Royal Mosque, which may be styled a Mahometan university, is especially distinguished. Lat. 32° 24' N., Lon. 51° 50' E.

Issoire, is-swår', a small i. of France, in the dep. of Puy de Dôme, 19 m. S. S. E. of Clermont. Pop. 5,741. (M.)

Issoudun, is'-soo'-dun', the most important t in the French dep. of Indre, 19 m. N. E. of Châteauroux. Pop. 11,654. (P. C.)


Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; no, nðt; ðò as in good.

Isl-TRJ-4, a peninsula of the Austrian empire, in Illyria, formed by the Gulfs of Trieste and Fiume, bounded on the N. by Carniola.

IT/-A-LY (Lat. Itallia ; It. pron. e-tår-le-å); a fertile and beautiful country of Èurope, remarkable as the seat of the ancient Roman empire, and as the nursery of learning and the arts in the middle ages, is principally formed of a peninsula between the Mediterranean and the Adriatic, which extends from 37° 56' to about 45° N. Lat., and from about go to 18° 30' E. Lon. In figure it resembles a boot, of which the heel forms the S. E., and the top the N. W. extremity. Its length is about 600 m.; its greatest breadth (measuring from Ancona to the little point of land S. W. of the mouth of the river Albegna, ålbanel-yå), is about 150 m. . Besides the above peninsula, Italy includes a considerable territory N. of it, extending as far as 46° 40' N. Lat. Considered according to its natural limits, the northern part of Italy comprehends all the southern declivity of the Alps, from the branch called the Cottian to that called the Julian Alps. But these national limits have been modified by political boundaries ; so that at present this country is considered to extend from the Gulf of Trieste on the E. to the Rhone on the W. The boundary, however, does not follow this river farther S. than about 45° 38' N. Lat. Italy then, in the most extensive application of the name, will reach from 37° 56' to 46° 40 N. Lat., and from about 5° 40' to 18° 30' E. Lon. The greatest breadth of the northern part, measuring nearly from E. to W., is about 380 m. The total area is estimated at about 100,000 sq. m. The population may be stated in round numbers at 20,500,000. Italy, with its dependent islands, is distributed, according to Balbi, into 13 political divisions ; viz., Austrian Italy, Swiss Italy, the kingdom of Sardinia, the principality of Monaco, the duchies of Parma, Modena, and Lucca, the grand-duchy of Tuscany, the republic of San Marino, the Papal State, the kingdom of the two Sicilies, French Italy (the island of Corsica), and English Italy (the islands of Malta, Gozzo, &c.) These will be treated of under their respective names.—Adj. and inhab. ITALIAN,

ITALY, AUSTRIAN, comprehends the N. E. portion of this country, and includes what is termed the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, and, according to some geographers, the gov. of Trieste ; but ihe latter more properly belongs to Illyria, of which kingdom it forms a part. Austrian İtaly, in its strictest signification, extends from about 44° 48' to 46% 40' N. Lat., and from 8° 32' to 13° 44' E. Lon., being bounded on the N. W. and N. by Switzerland, Tyrol, and Illyria, E. by Illyria and the Adriatic, S., S. W., and W. by the Papal State, Parma, Modena, and the Sardinian territories. Length near 250 m.; greatest breadth above 120 m. The area is 18,063 sq. m. Pop. about 4,700,000. (M.) Milan is the seat of government.

ITALY, Swiss, comprehends that part of Switzerland in which the Italian is the prevailing language; namely, the canton of Tessin or Ticino, and some portions of Grisons and Valais.

ITAPICURU, e-ta-pe-koo-roo', a r. in the N. E. part of Brazil, which

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. rises in about 6° 30' S. Lat., and 46° W. Lon., and, flowing north-easterly, falls into the Bay of San Jose, at the mouth of the r. Maranham, near 2° 40' S. Lat., and 44° W. Lon. Length above 400 m.

IT-A-wẢM'-BẠ, a co. in the N. E. part of Miss., bordering on Ala. Pop. 5,375. Co. seat, Fulton.


ITH'-A-CẠ, a flourishing t. of N. Y., cap. of Tomkins co., situated near the S. extremity of the Cayuga Lake, at the termination of the Ithaca and Owego Railroad, about 34 m., in a straight line, S. of Auburn. During the summer season a steamboat plies daily between this place and the village of Cayuga, near the N. extremity of the lake. Pop. of the township, 5,650.

Ivica, Iviza, or IBIZA, e-veel-så or e-veel-thå, (Anc. Ebusus,) one of the Balearic Islands, situated about 46 m. S. W. of the nearest part of Majorca, between 38° 50' and 39° 7' N. Lat., and 1° 22' and 1° 46' E. Lon. It is about 25 m. long; its greatest breadth is near 14 m. Ivica, the cap., situated on the S. E. coast, is fortified, has a good harbour, and contains a pop. of about 6,600. (P.C.) The two islands of Ivica and Formentera were anciently called Pityu'sæ, a name supposed to be derived from the number of pine trees growing on them ; ALTUS (pitus) in Greek signifying a "pine.”- Adj. and inhab. Ivican, e-veel-san.

Ivory Coast, a part of the coast of Guinea, extending from A pollonia, in about 2° 30' to about 7° 30' W. Lon. It owes its name to the great quantities of elephants' teeth brought here from the interior of the continent, to be sold to the European traders.

Ivrea, e-vràl-Å, (Anc. Epore'dia,) å t. of northern Italy, in the Sardinian dominions, the cap. of a prov. of the same name, is situated on the Dora-Baltea (dol-rå bål-tal-a), a branch of the Po, 30 m. N. by E. of Turin. Pop. about 8,000. (P. C.)

Iz-ARD, a co. in the N. part of Ark., bordering on Mo., and intersected by the White r. Pop. 2,244. Seat of justice, Izard c. h.

Jaca, hå'-kå, (Anc. Jac'ca,) a small t. of Spain, in Aragon, important on account of its fortifications. Lat. 42° 31' N., Lon. 0° 32' W. Pop. 3,000. (B.)

JACK/-gon, a co. in the N. W. part of Va., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 4,890. Seat of justice, Jackson c. h.

JACKSON, a co. in the N. E. part of Ga., on the head waters of the Oconee. Pop. 8,522.

Co. t. Jefferson. JACKSON, a co. in the N. part of Florida, W.of, and bordering on the A palachicola.

Pop. 4,681. Co. t. Mariana. JACKSON, & co. forming the N. E. extremity of Ala. Pop. 15,715. Co. t. Bellefonte.

JACKSON, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Miss. Pop. 1,965. Seat of justice, Jackson c.

JACKSON, a co. in the N. E. part of Ark., bordering on the White r. Pop. 1,540. Co. t. Litchfield.

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