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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; ry, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. The co. of the city of Limerick has an area of more than 41 sq. m. with a pop. (in 1831) of 66,554. (P. C.) Pop. of the town and suburbs, 44,100. lat. 52° 40' N., Lon. 8° 38' W.

LIMESTONE, a co. in the N. part of Ala., bordering on Tepn. Pop. 14,374. Co. t. Athens.

LIMOGES, le'-mozh', (Anc. Augustoriltum, afterwards Lemovlices,) a manufacturing city of France, the cap. of the dep. of Upper Vienne, and formerly of the prov. of Limousin, on the Vienne, 110 m. N. E. of Bordeaux. It contains an académie universitaire, a royal college or high school, a school of anatomy, and various other literary and scientific establishments. Lat. 45° 50' N., Lon. 1° 16' E. Pop. 27,000. (B.)

Limousin, le'-moo -såN', or Limosin, one of the former provinces of France, now comprehended in the dep3. of Corrèze and Upper Vienne. This name, as well as that of Limoges, is derived from the Lemovices, & people who inhabited this district in the time of the ancient Romans.

Limoux, le'-mool, a t. of France, in the dep. of Aude, on the r. Aude, 13 m. S. S. E. of Carcassonne. Pop. 6,666. (M.)

LINCOLN, linkl-on, (Anc. Lin'dum,) a city of England, the cap. of Lincolnshire, 121 m. N. of London. Its cathedral is esteemed one of the most beautiful in England. Lat. 53° 24' N., Lon. 0° 36' W. Pop. 13,896.

LINCOLN, a co. in the S. part of Me., intersected by the Kennebeck r., and bordering on the sea. "Pop. 63,512. Co. t. Wiscasset.

LINCOLN, a co. in the S. W. part of N. C., bordering on the Catawba and S.C. Pop. 25,160. Co. t. Lincolnton.

LINCOLN, a co. in the E. N. E. part of Ga., bordering on the Savannah r. Pop. 5,895. Co. t. Lincolnton.

LINCOLN, a co. in the S. part of Tenn., bordering on Ala. Pop. 21,493. Co. t. Fayetteville.

LINCOLN, a co. in the S. E. central part of Ky., S. of Lexington. Pop. 10,187. Co. t. Stanford.

LINCOLN, a co. in the E. part of Mo., bordering on the Mississippi, above the mouth of the Missouri r. Pop. 7,449. Co. t. Troy.

LINCOLNSHIRE, linkl-on-shịr, a co. in the E. part of England, bordering on the r. Humber and the sea. Pop. 362,602.

LIN-LITH-Gów or West LOTHIAN (10-The-an), a co. of Scotland, lying along the S. side of the Frith of Forth. Pop. 26,872.

LINLITHGOW, the cap. of the above co., on the S. bank of a lake of the same name, 17 m. W. by S. of Edinburgh. Pop. 3,872.

LINN, a co. in the N. part of Mo., E. of Grand r. Pop. 2,245. LINN, a co. of Iowa, intersected by Red Cedar r. Pop: 1,373. Co. t. Marion.

LINTZ or Linz, lints, a beautiful city and fortress of the Austrian empire, cap. of Upper Austria, on the Danube, which is here crossed by a bridge 280 yards in length. A fine railway (the first ever constructed in Germany) connects it with Budweis, in Bohemia. Lintz possesses a lyceum, a gymnasium, and various other literary and scien

on the

Fate, får, fall, fit; me, mit; pine or pine, pin; no, nôt; öð as in good; tific institutions; it also has some extensive manufactures. Lat 45 19 N., Lon. 14° 17' E. Pop. 24,000. (B.)

Lip'-A-R], or leel-på-re Islands,(Anc. Æolia In'sulæ,)a group in the Mediterranean, off the N. coast of Sicily, consisting of seven principal islands, besides several islets and rocks. Lipari (Anc. Lipara), the largest, intersected by the parallel of 38° 30' N. Lal., and the meridian of 14° 55' E. Lon, is about 8 m. in length. Pop. 12,500. (P. C.) Among the others, Stroin' boli (Anc. Strongyle), an insular mountain, nearly 3,000 ft. in height, is remarkable for its constantly burning volcano, which serves for a light-house to the sailors in that sea. The Lipari islands are evidently of volcanic origin. They were sometimes called Vulcaniæ by the ancient Romans, from the supposition, probably, lbal Vulcan had his workshops here as well as in Ætna.

Lippe, lip-peh, a small r. of Germany, which flows into the Rhine on the right.

LIPPE-DETMOLD (-det-molt), a principality of Germany, sources of the above r., from which circumstance it is supposed to take its name. It consists of the counties of Lippe and Sternberg, being situated between 51° 48' and 52° 12 N. Lat., and po 35' and 9° 10 E.

Lon. Area, 435 sq. m. Pop. 80,000. (P. C.) DETMOLD, the cap, . situated on the Werra, contains 2,800 inhabitants. (B.) Lat. 51° 56 N., Lon. 8° 50' E.

LIPPE-SCHAUENBURO (-shoul-en-boorg or shon-en-burg), often, though incorrectly, written SCHAUMBURG, a small principality of Germany, iltersected by the parallel of 52° 20' N. Lat., and the oth meridian of E. Lon. Area, 210 sq. m. Pop. 25,000. BÜCKEBURG (bük/-keh-bÖÖRG), the cap., contains 2,100 inhabitants. (B.) Lat. 52° 16' N., Lon. 9 E.

Liria, leel-re-i, a manufacturing t. of Spain, in the prov. of Valencia, 15 m. N.W. of Valencia. Pop. 12,000. (B.)

Lış-BỌN (Port. Lis-bol-a : Anc. Olisipo), the cap.of Portugal,on the N. bank of the Tagus, about 9 m. above its entrance into the sea. river at the W. end of Lisbon is but little more than a mile in breadth, but opposite to the centre of the city it widens considerably, and above forms a bay several miles in extent, which furnishes a safe and magnificent harbour, capable of containing all the fleets of Europe. In the old portion of the town, the streets are irregular, narrow, ill-pa ved, and dirty. But in that part which has been rebuilt since the great earthquake of 1755, the houses are handsome, the streets regular and very clean. Perhaps the most remarkable edifice of Lisbon is the palace of Ajuda (a-zhool-dd), which, when finished, will rank among the finest in Europe. Among the numerous literary and scientific institutions of this city, we may mention the Royal Academy of Sciences, the College of the Nobles, the Royal Academy of Marine, with an observatory, and the Royal Military College. The commerce of Lisbon, though much diminished since the loss of Brazil, is still considerable. Among its manufactures, those in gold and jewelry are perhaps the most reinarka. ble. We may observe, that the want of industry, as well as the ignorance, of the Portuguese, has been much exaggerated by travellers.


ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. The Observatory is in 38° 42' 24" N. Lat., and 9° 8' 21" W. Lon. Pop. about 260,000. (B.)

LIS-BURN, one of the handsomest towns in the N. of Ireland, in the co. of Antrim, 8 m. S. S. W. of Belfast. Pop. in 1831, 5,745. (P. C.)

LISIEUX, le'-ze-uh', (Anc. Noviom'agus or Næom'agus, afterwards Lexovlii), a manufacturing t. of France, in the dep. of Calvados, 93 m. W. by N. from Paris. Lat. 49° 9' N., Lon. 0° 14' E. Pop. 11,473. (P. C.)

LIS-KEARD' or LES-KEARD', a small t. of England, in Cornwall. Lat. 50° 27' N., Lon. 4° 26' W.


LIS-MORE', a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Waterford, on the Blackwater r., 28 m. E. N. E. of Cork. Pop. in 1831, 2,998. (P. C.)

Lis'-s» (Polish, Leszno, leshl-no), a manufacturing t. of Prussia, on the borders of Silesia. Lat. 51° 52 N., Lon. 16° 36' E. Pop. 7,500. (B.)

LITCH'-FIELD, a co. forming the N. W. extremity of Conn. Pop. 40,448.

LITCHFIELD, the cap. of the above co., situated about 33 m., in a straight line, N. N. W. of New Haven. Here is a female seininary of distinguished reputation. Pop. of the township, 4,0338.

LITH-U-4/-N1-A (see Int. XI.), a country of Europe, which constituted an independent and powerful state, from about the year 1206 to 1385, when it was united with Poland, by the marriage of king Yaguellon with the Polish queen Hedvige. Olghord, the father of Yaquellon, and the most powerful of the Lithuanian princes, had extended his dorninions to the banks of the Don and the shores of the Black Sea, and thrice presented himself in triumph before the gates of Moscow. A great part of these possessions was afterwards lost under the reign of Casimir III., and of several succeeding princes. The territory which constituted the duchy of Lithuania, at the time of the first dismemberment of Poland, in 1772, now forms the Russian governments of Vilna, Grodno, Bialystock, Vitepsk, Mohelef, Minsk, and Augustov or Augustow.-Adj. and inhab. LITH-V-Al-NI-AN.

LITTLE Rock, the cap. of the state of Arkansas, on the right bank of the Arkansas r. Lat. 34° 40' N., Lon. 83° 10' W. Pop. about 3,000.

Livadia or Libadia,* le-vå-peel-a, (Anc. Lebadela,) à l. of Greece, which, under the Turkish governmeni, gave its name to the prov. in which it was situated. Before the war of independence, the estimated at 10,000 (B.), but it is said to have been entirely ruined in that contest. The ancient town was remarkable as the seat of the famous oracle or cavern of 'Trophonius. · Lat. 39° 24' N., Lon. 22° 58' E.

LIV/-ER-POOL', a city of England, in Lancashire, and, next to London, the greatest commercial emporium of the British empire, is situated on the estuary of Mersey, 3 or 4 m. from the sea. Before the middle of the last century, the streets of this town were narrow and inconvenient, and the buildings wholly devoid of architectual beauty; but successive alterations have given it a degree of commodiousness and elegance not to be met with in any other commercial port in Eng

pop. was

See Introduction, XXI. II.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; oo as in good; land. By means of canals and railways, Liverpool has ready communication with all the more important places in the interior of the country; a circumstance which, with its proximity 10 Manchester, has contributed, perhaps not less than its maritime trade, to its extraordinary commercial prosperity. Among the numerous literary and scientific establishments of this city, we may mention the Royal Institution, founded in 1814, by the celebrated William Roscoe, and containing an extensive museum of natural history, many valuable paintings, &c.; courses of lectures are given on literature and the various branches of physical science. Like most of the great towns of England, Liverpool is furnished with water and gas, which are distributed to the private houses. With the exception of London, this town is the most populous in Great Britain. Its growth has been extremely ra pid; in 1700, its pop. was only 5,714; in 1801, it was 77,703; in 1831, 165,221 (M.), and in 1841, it amounted to 223,003. The numbers here given for the pop. of 1831 and 1841 refer only to the parish of Liverpool. The whole borough, with an area of scarcely more than 8 sq. m., contained, at the last census, 286,487 inhabitants. Lat. 53° 24' N., Lon. 2° 58' W.

Livl-INGS-TỌN, a co. in the W. part of N. Y., intersected by the Ge nesee r. Pop. 35,140. Co. t. Genesee.

Livingston, a parish in the E. part of La., on the Amite r. and Pontchartrain L. Pop. 2,315.

Livingston, a co. in the N. W. of Kentucky, bordering on the Ohio and Tennessee rivers. Pop. 9,025. Co. t. Salem.

Livingston, a co. in the s. E. part of Mich., W.N. W. of Detroit Pop. 7,430. Co. t. Howell.

LIVINGSTON, a co. the N. E. central part of III., a little S. of the Illinois r. Pop. 759.

LIVINGSTON, a co. in the N. W. part of Mo., on the Grand r. l'op. 4,325.

Li-vol-N-2 (Ger. Liefland, leef7-lånt), a gov. in the W. part of European Russia, between the Gulf of Livonia and Lake Peipus. Capital, Riga.-Adj. and inhab. Lg-vol-N!-ẠN.

Livonia, GULF of, a portion of the Baltic, situated S. of the Gulf of Finland, between 56° 55' and 57° 30' N. Lat., and 22° and 24° 40' E. Lon. It is sometimes called the Gulf of Riga.


Lizard Point, a bold headland in the British Channel, on the S coast of Cornwall, forming the most southerly part of England. Lat. 49° 57' 30'' N., Lon. 5° 11' W.

LJUSNE, Iyoos! -ne, a small r. in the N. of Sweden, which flows int the Gulf of Bothnia, near Lat. 61° 10' N.

LLAN-DAFF', a small decayed t. of S. Wales, in Glamorganshire, 27m. W. of Bristol, only remarkable for being a bishop's see, and for its ancient cathedral.

LLANELLY, lan-eth'-le, a seaport t. of S. Wales, in Caermarthenshire, 13 m. S. E. of Caermarthen. Pop. of the borough, 6,818.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. LLANGOLLEN, lan-goth'-len, a t. of N. Wales, in Denbighshire, 18 m. S. S. E. of Denbigh. Pop. of the parish, 4,906.

LLANIDLOES, land-id-less, a t. of N. Wales in Montgomeryshire, on the Severn, near its source, 19 m. W.S. W. of Montgomery. Pop. 2,742.

LLANOS, lyà -noce, (i.e. in Spanish the plains,") a name applied to the extensive plains of S. America, particularly to those lying between the r. Caqueta and the Orinoco, which are comprised chiefly within the republics of New Grenada and Venezuela.

LLERENA, Iya-ral-ná, a t. of Estremadura, Spain. Lat. 38° 15' N., Lon. 6° 3' W. Pop. 6,495. (M.)

LÒ, Saint (Fr. pron. sån lô), a manufacturing t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Manche. Among its literary and scientific institutions, there is a public library of 5,000 vols. Lat. 49° 8' N., Lon. 1° 5' W. Pop. 8,820. (B)

Loango, lo-ang-go, a kingdom on the W. coast of Africa, lying between the equator and the r. Congo or Zaïre, in about 6° S. Lat. The people of this country are very ignorant and superstitious; the government is an absolute despotism. Loango, the cap., stands about 3 m. from the sea.

Lat. 4° 36' S., Lon. 12° 20' E. Pop. 15,000. Lock/-port, a flourishing t. of N. Y., cap. of Niagara co., on the Erie Canal, about 60 m. W. of Rochester. It derives its name from the locks where the canal descends a terrace called the Mountain Ridge: there is at this place about 60 ft. lockage. Pop. of township, 9,125.

LODÈVE, loʻ-davel (Anc. Lutel va or Lote/va), a manufacturing t. of France, in the dep. of Hérault. Lat. 43° 44' N., Lon. 3° 19' E. Pop.

Lodi, lo-dé, a t. of Austrian Italy, cap. of a delegation of the same name, on the Adda, 18 m. S. E. of Milan. It contains a royal lyceum, two gymnasia, a college or high-school for girls, and other institutions. Lodi is meinorable in history as the scene of one of Napoleon's most brilliant victories, which was gained over the Austrians on the 10th of May, 1796. Lat. 45° 18' N., Lon. 9° 31' E. Pop. 15,000. (B.)

LoF-FO'-DEN* or Lofoten Isles, a group on the coast of Norway, between 670 30' and 69° 30' N. Lat., and 11° and 16° 30' E. Lon. It consists of 5 principal islands. Hindöen, the largest, is about 50 m. long, with perhaps an average breadth of 25 m. The aggregate pop. is estimated at between 3,000 and 4,000. (M.) Near the southern extremity of this group is the MAELSTRÖM (male-struin),t a great whirl

11,071. (M.)

. We frequently hear this name pronounced with the accent on the first syllable; but the accentuation, as given above, is supported (as we are informed) by the practice of the people of Sweden and Norway. It is also sanctioned by the authority of one of our most distinguished poets.

“ Round the rocks, where loud LOFFODEN

Whirls to death the roaring whale;
Round the hall, where Runic Odin

Howls his war-song to the gale."-CAMPBELL. Literally,“ mill-stream,” so named probably from its whirling like a mill-stone, and crushing or breaking whatever is thrown into it.

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