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Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; plne or pine, pin; nd, nôt ; öð as in good: pool, a mile and a half in diameter, which sometimes draws within its vortex ships, as well as whales and other animals, and dashes them on the rocks beneath. An American captain who visited the Maelström, some years since, says there is evidently a subterranean passage.' He adds, “ I should not doubt that instant destruction wonld be the fate of a dozen of our largest ships, were they drawn in at the same moment." (Goodrich's Pictorial Geography, page 782.) No satisfactory explanation has yet been given of this wonderful phenomenon.

Lol-GẠN, a co. in the W. part of Va., on the Guyandotte. Pop. 4,309. Seat of justice, Logan c. h.

LOGAN, a co. in the S. S. W. part of Ky., bordering on Tenn. Pop. . 13,615. Co. t. Russelville.

Logan, a co. in the W. central part of Ohio, intersected by the Miami r. Pop. 14,015. Co. t. Belle Fontaine.

LOGAN, a co. near the centre of Ill. Pop. 2,333. Co. t. Postville.

Logroño, lo-gronel-yo, a t. of Spain, in Old Castile. Lat. 42° 24 N., Lon. 2° 28 W. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)

LOIR AND CHER, lwår and share, (Fr. Loir-et-Cher, Iwår à share) a dep. in the N. W. central part of France, intersected by the rivers Loir and Cher, the latter of which flows into the Loire; the former into the Sarthe. Pop. 244,043. (B.) Capital, Blois.

Loire, lwår, (Anc. Lilger,) a r. which rises in the S. E. part of France, in the dep. of Ardèche, and flowing, first in a general northerly and afterwards westerly course, falls into the Bay of Biscay, in about 47 15' N. Lat., and 20 12 W. Lon. It is the longest r. of France, its whole length being estimated at 670 m.; of which about 512 are navigable.

LOIRE, a dep. in the E. part of France, intersected by the Loire, and bordering on Upper Loire. Pop. 412,497. (B.) Capital, Montbrison.

LOIRE, LOWER (Fr. Loire Inférieure, lwår ån-fà -re'-UR'), a dep. in the W: part of France, intersected by the Loire, and bordering on the Bay of Biscay. Pop. 470,768. (B.) Capital, Nantes.

LOIRE, Upper (Fr. Haute-Loire, öte Twår), a dep. in the S. E. part of France, intersected by the Loire, near its source. Pop. 295,384. (B.) Capital, Le Puy.

Lorrer, lwår'-4', a dep. in the N. central part of France, on a little stream of the same name, which flows into the Loire. Pop. 316,189. (B.) Capital, Orleans.

LOJA, Jo'-hå, à manufacturing t. of Spain, in Andalusia, on the Genil (há-neel'), 26 m. W. S. W. of Granada. Lat. 37° 10' N., Lon. 4° 18 W. Pop. estimated at 14,000. (B.)

LOKEREN, lo'-ker-en, a manufacturing t. of Belgium, in the prov. of E. Flanders, 12 m. E. N. E. of Ghent. Pop. 16,000. (B.)

LOM-BAR-DY (It. Lombardia, lom-bar-dee-å), a country in the N. of Italy, of rather indefinite limits, which derives its name from the Longobards or Longobardi, a nation of German extraction, who established themselves here in the latter part of the 6th century. It includes the greater part of the basin of the Po, consisting of a vast plain nearly

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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. 200 m. in length, and from 60 m. to 70 m. in breadth. This territory now belongs to Austria. (See ItalY, AUSTRIAN.)


LOMOND, Loch, lok lo-mond, the largest lake of Great Britain,* is situated in Scotland, between the counties of Stirling and Dunbarton. Its length is about 22 m.; its greatest breadth about 5 m. The greatest depth is about 120 fathoms. The superficial extent is stated to be 45 sq. m.

London, lun!-d'n, (Anc. Londin'ium,) the cap. of the United King. dom of Great Britain and Ideland, the most commercial and probably the most populous city on the globe, is situated on the Thames, about 45 m. above its entrance into the sea, and 15 m. below the highest tidewау. : The greater part of the town stands on a slight elevation, on the left bunk of the r., in the co. of Middlesex; the remainder, on the right bank, in the co. of Surrey. London may be considered as consisting of five principal portions, viz., Westminster and West-End, in the W. part of the city; the city proper, which forms the central and most ancient quarter of the town; East-End; and Southwark. Six noble bridges cross the Thames; the Waterloo, the London, the Westminster, the Blackfriars', the Southwark, and the Vauxhall. Of these, the Waterloo bridge, built of granite, and 1,242 ft. in length, is the largest and most beautiful. The Southwark bridge, constructed of iron, and 708 ft. in length, is remarkable for the extent of the central arch, which has a span of 240 it. The Thames is also traversed by a tunnel or subterraneous passage, consisting of a brick cylinder or pipe, divided into two roadways, each 15 ft. high, and 12 ft. broad. This tunnel, which is about 2 m. below the London bridge, has been constructed for the purpose of uniting the two banks without injury to the shipping interest, which could not have been effected by the erection of a bridge. Among the great number of public edifices which adorn the metropolis of the British empire, the most remarkable are—the palace of St. James, situated N. of a park of the same name; since the year 1695, it has been the residence of the English kings; but, notwithstanding the richness and elegance of the interior, the building being only of brick, and irregular in its form, the exterior exhibits none of that magnificence by which many other of the palaces of Europe are distinguished: the Tower, a vast and ancient fortress, founded by William the Conqueror, and formerly inhabited as a palace by several English sovereigns. Since the reign of queen Elizabeth, it has been employed as an arsenal, and a repository for the jewels, records, &c., belonging to the crown, and sometimes as a state prison. It should be observed that extensive additions have been made to it at different times, so that the original tower, which is called the White Tower, at present forms but a small part of this vast edifice. Unhappily, on the 30th of October, 1841, that portion of the Tower of London, denominated the Grand Store-house, and

The largest lake, properly speaking, but not the largest loch-it will be re collected that the latter term is often applied, in Scotland, to arms of the sea.

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; me, mit; p'ne or pine, płn; nó, nột; öö as in good; Small Armoury, with its contents, an inestimable collection of trophies, antiquities, &c., together with nearly 250,000 stand of arms, was reduced by fire to a mingled heap of ruins: an occurrence the more to be deplored, because, from the peculiar character of a large part of the articles destroyed, it is impossible that they should ever be replaced. Among the churches may be mentioned St. Paul's Cathedral, which is regarded as the most remarkable work of architecture in Great Britain, and, as a temple, the most sumptuous and vast that bas ever been erected in Protestant Christendom; it was begun in 1675 and finished in 1710; one architect, Sir Christopher Wren, having superintended the work from its commencement to its completion ; the extreine length of the cathedral is 510 ft.; height from the tioor to the top of the cross, 362 ft.: and Westininster Abbey, one of the finest Gothic buildings in Europe, in which repose the ashes of many of the English kings, and others of the royal family, as well as of those who, by their talents or exploits, have added to the glory of the British name.-Among the almost countless multitude of institutions for the promotion of science, literature, and the arts, of which London can boast, our limits will permit us to notice only a few of the most remarkable. These are: the University of London, founded on a new plan, excluding theological studies, and admitting to its course, without distinction, all those who wish to attend it; this institution was incorpo rated in 1837: King's College, another university, which excludes students not professing with the established church: The Royal Society of London, instituted in the early part of the 17th century, and incorporated in 1663, one of the most distinguished as well as one of the oldest associations of the kind in Europe; its object is the promo tion of general science: the Royal Institution of Great Britain, incorporated in 1800; it possesses a magnificent chemical laboratory, an extensive library, &c.-Professor Davy, afterwards Sir Humphry Davy, was connected with this institution, when, in 1807, he made the disco very of the composition of the fixed alkalies, a discovery which, viewed in all its relations, may be regarded as one of the most important, as well as one of the most brilliant, recorded in the annals of science :-the Linnean Society, incorporated in 1802, with a valuable library and one of the most extensive botanical collections in the world; the East India Company has recently presented to this society all those invaluable col. lections, which have been made at different times by its agents in India (B.): the Zoological Society, incorporated in 1829, connected with which are the Zoological Gardens, with a menagerie stocked with animals from every region of the globe: the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, founded in 1826, incorporated in 1832; the great object of which is to distribute, among the middling and poorer classes, works on science, &c., at a low price; this is in every respect a useful and admirable institution, and possesses among its numerous members a large share of the talent and learning, as well as some of the most distinguished names, of Great Britain: The Royal Geographical Society, founded in 1830; an association which, though in its infancy, has

ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. already done much towards advancing the interests of this important science. Another institution, of a different kind, especially deserving the attention of a stranger in the metropolis, is the British Museum, a rich and almost unrivalled collection of books, manuscripts, statues, coins, and other antiquities, besides specimens in the various departments of natural history.-As regards extent and activity of commerce, London is without a rival among all the cities of the globe. In 1825, the tonnage of the ships belonging to this port amounted to 876,400 ; about the same time, that of all the merchant vessels of France was only 689,448 (B.); so that the tonnage of the British capital alone considerably exceeded all that of the third commercial power in the world! At the same time, the tonnage of New York, which, in this respect, is the second city on the globe, amounted to only 304,500; Newcastle, the second port of the United Kingdom, and the third in the world, had only 193, 100 tons. If we compare the value of the imports and exports of the most important commercial places in the world, we shall find that, in this respect, London is far before every other, while Liverpool holds the second and New York the third rank.

Where has commerce such a mart,
So rich, so thronged, so drained, and so supplied,
As London opulent, enlarged, and still
Increasing London? Babylon of old
Not more the glory of the earth than she,
A more accomplished world's chief glory now.

Now mark a spot or two

Which so much beauty would do well to purge." " However imposing, however wonderful may be the picture presented to the thoughtless observer, or to him who contemplates London only from a distance, when we reflect what multitudes of her citizens are condemned to continual labour, which does not yield them a sufficiency of the necessaries of life, but whose efforts, like those of Sisyphus, are ever unsuccessful, and yet may never be remitted; and how many there are who have not the virtue, if they have the ability, to struggle manfully with want, but are supported by a charity which perhaps fear alone inspires, or by those dishonest practices which are the last resource of the idle, we shall find far more cause for abasement and sorrow, than for pride and exultation.” It appears that, in 1838, there were in London 4,430 pickpockets and common thieves known to the police, 217

burglars and housebreakers, 2,295 vagrants, 2,786 habitual disorderlies (M.), besides various other classes of offenders. It is estimated that more than 14,000 persons are supported by street alms; a large portion of these mendicants are among the worst class of impostors. The pop. of London, as will be seen by the following statement, has increased far more rapidly during the present than the past century. The total pop. in 1700 was 674,350; in 1750, 676,250; in 1801, 888,193; in 1831, 1,508,469; in 1841, 1,873,676. St. Paul's Cathedral, situated nearly in the centre of London, is in 51° 30' 48” N. Lat., and 0° 5' 48" W. Lon.— Inhab. LONDONER, lun-don-er.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; öðas įp good,

LONDONDERRY, lun-don-derl-re, a co. in the N. of Ireland, prov. of Ulster, bordering on the sea. Pop. in 1831, 222,012. (P. C.)

LONDONDERRY, or simply DERRY, a commercial city of Ireland, the cap. of the above co., situated on the r. Foyle, about 5 m. above where it falls into Lough Foyle. Lat. 54° 59 N., Lon. 7° 19 W. Pop. in 1831, 10,130. (P. C.)

Long/-FORD, an inland co., near the centre of Ireland, prov. of Leinster. Pop. in 1831, 112,558. (P. C.)

Longford, the cap. of the above co., situated on a tributary of the Shannon, 65 m. W. N. W. of Dublin. Pop. in 1831, 4,516. (P. C.)

Long Island, an i. on the E. coast of the U. 9., forming a part of the state of New York, situated between 40° 33' and 41° 6' N. Lat. and 72o and 74° 2' W. Lon. Its length is about 115 m.; its greatest breadth near 20 m. This i. is separated from the continent by Long Island Sound, which, near the city of New York, is but three-quarters of a mile wide, and is there called the East River, but, opposite to New Haven, its breadth is about 25 m.

LONS-LE-SAULNIER, Ion Ich so'-ne-d), the cap. of the French dep. of Jura. Lat. 46° 39' N., Lon. 5° 33' E. Pop. 7,684. (B.)

Loo-Choo (or Lieou-Khieou) ISLANDS, a group in the Ń. Pacific, E. of China, between 26° and 28° N. Lat., and 127° and 129° E. Lon. They are all small, with the exception of one called the Great Loo choo, which is about 70 m. in length, and from 12 to 15 m. in breadth. These islands are tributary to China.

Lo-rain', a co. in the N. part of Ohio, bordering on L. Erie. Pop. 18,467. Co. t. Elyria.

Lorca, lor/-kå, a t. of Spain, in the prov. of Murcia, with manufactures of saltpetre, woollen, and linen cloths, &c. Lat. 37° 42 N., Lon! 1° 53' W. Pop. stated at 40,366. (B.)

LO-RETI-TO (It. Loreto, lo-ral-to), à t. of Italy, in the Papal state, about 3 m. from the Adriatic, and 15 in. S. S. E. of Ancona, celebrated for its sanctuary of the Virgin Mary, called La Santa Casa, i. e. the "holy house," said to have been the dwelling of Mary at Nazareth, and to have been transported, by supernatural power, to Italy, after the Mahometans had taken possession of Palestine, in the 13th century. The town is annually visited by numerous pilgrims. Lat. 43° 27' N., Lon. 13° 36' E Pop. about 8,000. (B.)

L'ORIENT, lo'-re-ÅN', or Lorient, a sea port t. and fortress of France, in the dep. of Morbihan, situated at the head of the Bay of Port Louis, L'Orient is well built, with wide and well-paved streets, and may be ranked among the handsomest towns of France. Its commerce, though much less than formerly, is still considerable; and it is the seat of several literary and scientific institutions, among which there are, a school for the special instruction of students destined for the navy; and an observatory. Lat. 47° 45' N., Lon. 3° 21' W. Pop. 18,000. (B.)

LOR'-RAINE', one of the largest of the former provinces of France, situated in the N. E. part of that kingdom, a small portion of which

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