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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng MADISON, a co. in the W. central part of Miss., between the Big Black and Pearl rivers. Pop. 15,530. Co. seat, Canton.

Madison, a co. near the N. W. extremity of Ark., bordering on Mo Pop. 2,775. Co. t. Sevierville.

Madison, a co. in the W. part of Tenn., midway between the Mississippi and Tennessee rivers. Pop. 16,530. Co. i. Jackson.

MADISON, a co. in the E. central part of Ky., S. of, and bordering on the Kentucky r.

Pop. 16,355. Co. t. Richmond. MADISON, à co. in the S. W. central part of Ohio, W. of Columbus. Pop. 9,025. Co. t. London.

Madison, a co. in the E. central part of Ind., intersected by the White r. Pop. 8,874. Co. t. Andersontown.

Madison, a co. in the south-westerly part of Jll., bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 14,433. Co. t. Edwardsville.

MADISON, a co. in the S. E. part of Mo., on the St. Francis r., near its source. Pop. 3,395. Co. t. Fredericktown.

Madison, a city of Ind., cap. of Jefferson co., on the Ohio, 85 m., in a straight line, S. S. E. of Indianapolis. Pop. 3,798.

MAD-RAS' or Fort St. George, the cap. of Southern India, situated on the Coromandel Coast. The position of this town is very unfavourable to maritime commerce, on account of the rapid current which runs along the coast, and the dangerous surf which beats against the shore. Fort St. George was founded by the English in 1639; it was soon after surrounded by a town, which has since become very populous. The number of inhabitants, in 1822, amounted to 462,000, of whom nearly all are natives. The Observatory is in 13° 4' 9" N. Lat., and 80° 15' 56'' E. Lon. Madras also gives its name to the most southerly of the three presidencies into which the British empire in India is divided, comprehending the whole of Hindostan, S. of the r. Krishna, besides some other districts.

MAD-RID! (Sp. pron. måd-Reed', almost måth-Reeth'), the cap. of Spain, is situated nearly in the centre of the Spanish peninsula, in a sterile plain surrounded by mountains, at an elevation of more than 2,000 ft. above the level of the sea. It is enclosed by a brick wall 20 ft. high, with 15 gates, which are mostly built of course gray granite. Owing to the sterility of the surrounding country, and the total absence of good houses and pleasure-gardens in the neighbourhood, the exterior view of the town is any thing but inviting. The interior, however, is not devoid of beauty. The houses are well constructed, and the principal streets are, with few exceptions, wide and handsome. Among the remarkable edifices of Madrid, we may notice the new palace of the king, which is perhaps the finest royal residence in Europe. It has four fronts, 470 ft. in length and 100 ft. high; and its interior is decorated in a style of costly magnificence. The Spanish capital contains a great number of literary and scientific establishments, but they are said, not generally to have kept pace with the march of improvement in other parts of Europe. There are, however, several institutions which enjoy a high reputation ; among which we may cite the Spanish

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; n), nðt; do as in good; Academy (La Academia de la Lengua, i.e. “the Academy of the Lafguage"), founded in 1724, in imitation of the French Academy, and intended to be, like that body, the supreme tribunal in matters of literature: the Museum of Natural History, in which public lectures are given on various sciences, including mathematics, and which contains a splendid collection of minerals from the Spanish dominions in America, besides specimens in the other departments of natural bistory. There are two extensive libraries open to the public; one founded by Philip V., in 1712, which cortains 150,100 vols., besides a very large collection of manuscripts, and a museum of medals and antiquities. Lat. 40° 25' N., Lon. 3° 42' W. Pop. in 1825, estimated at 201,000. (B.) -Adj. and inhab. Mad'-RI-LE/-NI-AN (Borrow)-Spanish, MADRILEÑO måd-re-lanel-yo

MADURA. See JAVA.
MAELAREN. See MÄLAREN.
MAELSTRÖM. See LOFFODEN.
MAESE. See Meuse.

MAESTRICHT or MAASTRICHT, más-trikt, (Anc. Trajec'lum ad Mo'. sam, *) a strongly fortified t. of Holland, cap. of the Dutch part of the prov. of Limburg, on the Meuse or Maas, 14 m. N. by E. of Liege. Ja the vicinity is the mountain of St. Peter (Petersberg), remarkable for its immense stone quarries, which extend over a tract of 12 leagues in circumference, traversed, it is said, by 20,000 passages, which cross each other in all directions, forming such an intricate labyrinth that it is dangerous to enter it without an experienced guide. The inhabitants of the surrounding country, it is said, have found, in time of war, a safe refuge in this quarry, both for themselves and their eatele. So ne parts of this mountain are supposed to have been worked 2,000 years ago. Lat. of the town, 50° 51' N., Lon. 5° 41' E. Pop. 22,000. (P. C.)

MAG-A-Doxl-4 or MAG-A-Dox'-o (Port. pron. mág-i-do'-sho: called by the inhabitants Måk -8-joo'), a t. on the E. coast of Africa, eap. of a kinya dom of the same name, of which very little is known to Europeu ng

. Lat. about 2° N., Lon, 45° 20' E.

MAG-DA-LE-NA (Sp. pron. måg-da-lal-nå), the principal r. of New Granada, in S. America. It rises in the little lake Papas (pil-pis), among the Andes, in about 1° 50' N. Lat. and 76° 30' W. Lon., and, Howing northerly, empties itself into the Caribbean Sea, in about 11° 10' N. Lat. and 74° 45' W. Lon. Its entire length is estimated at above 800 m. It is navigable as far as Honda, more than 500 m.

MAGI-DE-BURG (Ger, pron. måol-deh-boorg'), a city of Germany, cap. of the prov. of Prussian Saxony and of a gov. of its own name, on the Elbe, 74 m. S. W. of Berlin. This place is very strongly fortified, and is one of the most important bulwarks of the Prussian monarchy. It

* Maestricht is supposed to be a corruption of Mosa Trajectum, i.e. the * bridge or passage of the Meuse," there having been a bridge over the river, at this place, in very early timos,

It was

66

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. is also the centre of an active commerce, and possesses various and extensive manufactures. Among the buildings we may mention the Cathedral, remarkable for its size; it has two steeples, 350 ft. in height, and one of the largest bells in Europe. The literary and scientific institutions, as well as the charitable establishments of this town, are numerous and well conducted. Lat. 52° 8' N., Lon. 11° 39' E. Pop. 50,000. (P. C.)

MAGELLAN, maj-ell-lan,* (Sp. pron. må-hel-yản',) STRAIT OF, at the S. extremity of S. America, between Patagonia and Terra del Fuego. Its whole length, following its windings, is more than 300 m. discovered in 1520, by the great Portuguese navigator, Magalhaens (mág-ál-yål-ens), then in the service of Spain, and called, in honour of birn, the Strait of Magalhaens. The Spaniards changed the name to Magellan, which, in their language, expresses a sound not very different from that of the Portuguese Magalhaens.

MAGGIORE, Lago, lå-go maj-jol-r), or the “ large lake," (Anc. La cus Verba'nus; Ger. Langensee, lång/-en-st, or long lake,") next to Garda the largest lake in Italy, lying partly between Piedmont and Lombardy, and partly in the Swiss canton of Tessin or Ticino. It is intersected by the 46th parallel of N. Lat. and the meridian of 8° 40' E. Lon.; having a length of above 40 m., with a breadth varying from 1 to 6 m. Its surface is 578 ft. above the level of the sea ; its greatest depth is stated by McCulloch to be not less than 300 fathoms!

MAGINDANAO. See MINDANAO.
MAGNESIA. See MaxisSA.

MAHANUDDY, máh-ha-nudl-de, a r. of Hindostan, which rises in about 21° 30' N. Lat. and 81° E. Lon., and, flowing easterly, enters the Bay of Bengal, by several mouths, in about 20° 10' N. Lat., after a course of more than 500 m.

Mahon, ma-honel or må-onel, or Port Mahon, a sea port t. near the E. S. E. extremity of the island of Minorca, remarkable for possessing one of the finest and safest harbours in the world. Lat. 39° 51' N., Lon. 4° 18' E. Pop. unknown.t

Mard'-STONE, a t. of England, in Kent, 31 m. E. S. E. of London. Pop. of the borough, including an area of near 7 sq. m., 18,086.

MAIN or Mayn, mine, a r. of Germany, which rises in the northern part of Bavaria, and after a very circuitous course, falls into the Rhine, nearly opposite to Mentz. The whole length is about 230 m. Though

€“ From cold Estotiland and south as far

Beneath MAGELLAN.”—Milton's Paradise Lost, Book X.
"Gliding through MAGELLAN's straits,

Where two oceans ope their gates,
What a spectacle awaits !"

MONTGOMERY's Voyage round the World. + McCulloch states the population of Port Mahon at about 19,000, but this is evidently a mistake. The P. C. gives 19.000 for the population of the district or termino of Mahon; that of the whole island is only about 35,000.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, mit; plne or pine, pln; no, nòt; öð as in good, shallow, it is of nearly uniform depth, and navigable throughout seveneighths of its course.

Maine, mane, one of the former provinces of France, now chieily distributed among the departments of Sarthe, Mayenne, and Orne.

Maing, one of the U. S., situated between 43° 4 and 47° 30 N. Lat, and 66° 50' and 71° W. Lon.; bounded on the E. by New Brunswick, N:and W. by Canada and New Hampshire, and S. by the Atlantic; and divided into 13 counties.* Extreme length, according to the bouddary established in 1842, about 320 m. ; greatest breadth, from E. to W., about 200 m. The area is estimated at 32,000 sq. m.; according to the former boundary it is supposed to have exceeded 35,000 sq. m. Pop. 501,793. Augusta is the capital. Maine originally formed a part of the territory of Massachusetts: it was separated,

and became an independent state in 1820.

MAINE AND LOIRE (Fr. Maine-et-Loire, mane à lwår), a dep. in the W. part of France, on the rivers Mayenne and Loire. Pop. 477,270. (B.) Capital, Angers.

Main'-LAND, the largest and most southerly of the Shetland Islands, is about 52 m. in length, and 20 in its greatest breadth. The form is very irregular, and the island, for the most part, craggy, mountainous, and barren.

MAJ-OR-CA (Sp. Mallorca, mål-yor!-că), the largest of the Balearic Isles, situated in the Mediterranean, between 39° 15' and 40° N. Lat., and 2° 23' and 3° 32' E. Lon. It is about 60 m. long, measuring nearly E. and W.; its greatest breadth, from N. to s., is 47 m. Majorca belongs to Spain, from the nearest part of which it is distant nearly 110 m. This island is very fertile, thongh the general surface of the country is hilly. Pop. about 140,000. (P. C.) The climate is described as being exceedingly mild and delightful. Palma is the capital, and the largest town on the island. Majorca and Minorca were anciently named Gymnesiæ; while the epithet of Major, or “the larger," was given the former, and that of Minor, or " the smaller," to the latter island. - Adj. and inhab. MAJ-OR/-can or MALLORQUINĖ, mal-lor-keen'; (Sp. Mallorquin, mål-yor-keen'.)

Mau-a-Bar', a name usually applied to the whole W. coast of Hin dostan, from Cape Comorin to Bombay; but, strictly speaking, it denotes only that dist. or prov., with the adjoining coast, in which the Malabaric language is spoken, which does not extend beyond 12° 30' N. Lat. --Adj. Mal-A-BAR-IC.

Mə-LAC-cẠ a t. of S. Asia, the cap. of a small colony of the same name, belonging to Great Britain, is situated on the W. coast of the Malay peninsula. It was formerly a place of considerable importance, but since the foundation of Singapore, in 1819, it has sunk into comparative insignificance. Lat. 2° 10' N., Lon. 102° 5' E. Pop. in 1822, 12,000. (P. C.)

• Aroostook, Cumberland, Franklin, Hancock, Kennebec. Lincoln, Oxford, Penobscot. Piscataquis, Somerset Waldo, Washington, York.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; tu, as in this ; N, nearly like ng. Malacca, STRAIT OF, is situated between the Malay peninsula and the island of Suinatra. Its breadth in some places is less than 30 m.; ils whole length is about 600 m.

MA1-4-Gə or mål/-å-gå (Anc. Mallaca), the principal seaport of the Spanish prov. of Granada, situated on a bay in the Mediterranean, with a fine harbour. From the earliest ages, under all the nations who have possessed it, this place has been renowned for its commerce; and at present it is the only flourishing city in Andalusia. (P. C.) Lat. 36° 43 N., Lon. 4° 23' W. Pop. stated at 52,000. (B.)

MALAISIA, mal-al-she-a, (Fr. Malaisie, må-la -ze',) or the MALAY ARCHIPELAGO, called also the Indian, and sometimes the Eastern ArchiPELAGO, the most western and most important of the three great divi. sions of Oceanica, is situated between 12° S. and 21° N. Lat., and 95° and 133o E. Lon. It comprehends the Philippine and Molucca groups, the large islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, and a multitude of staller islands. The line which separates Malaisia from Polynesia, runs W. of Papua and E. of Gilolo, Mysol, and Ceram. (See OCEANICA.) Malaisia derives its name from the circumstance that the inhabitants, for the most part, belong to the great Malay race.-

:--Adj. MALAISIAN, mal-al-she-an.

MÄLAREN, ma/-lar-en, a lake of Sweden, about 70 m. in length, which communicates with the Baltic at Stockholm.

MALAY PENINSULA, called also the PENINSULA OF MALACCA or MALAYA (mal-al-ya), a long and narrow territory in Chin India, forming the most southern part of the continent of Asia, situated between 10 15' and about 12 N. Lat., and 98o and 104° 20' E. Lon. It is about 800 m. long, with a breadth varying from 50 to above 180 m. Area estimated at 80,000 sq. m.

The soil appears to be, in general, not distinguished for fertility; but the mineral wealth of this region is remarkable. Gold is found in all the rivers, and is also obtained from mines in quantities sufficient to justify the name of Chersonesus Aurea, or the "golden peninsula," which the ancients gave to this country. T'in is also found in abundance. The inhabitants of the peninsula are Siamese and Malays; the former occupy that portion which is N. of the 5th or 6th degree of N. Lat., and the Malays the remainder.-Adj. Mal-Aylun and Mal-AY'; inhab. Malay.

The Malays, according to Blumenbach, constitute the fourth grand division of the human race. In form they are short and robust. The medium height of the men may be 5 ft. 2 inches; that of the women 4 ft. 11 inches. The face is round, the mouth wide, and the teeth, in general, remarkably fine. These people have great mental activity, and eagerly apply themselves to commerce and navigation. (P.C.) Some of them appear to have made considerable advancement in civilization, and to be well acquainted with agriculture and the mechanic arts. They have also made some progress in medicine and in music. The Malays are spread not only over the islands of the Malay Archipelago, Madagascar, and the southern part of the Asiatic continent, but appear also to be found even in the remotest parts of Polynesia.

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