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Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mé, mit; pine or pine, pin; no, not; oo, as in good; about 22 m. long, and from about three-quarters of a mile to near 2 n. wide.

NETH'-ER-LẠNDS (Dutch, Nederland, nål-der-lånt'; Ger. Niederlande, peel-der-lån-dch; Fr. Pays Bas, ple-bå; each name signifying, in its respective language, “low land or low countries”), the name formerly applied to the whole country which constitutes the territories of Hol. land and Belgium, but now usually employed to denote the kingdom of Holland only. In the beginning of the 16th century, almost the whole of the Netherlands belonged to the house of Austria ; but Charles V., emperor of Germany, united them in 1548 to the crown of Spain. In consequence of the cruel persecution of the Protestants, during the reign of his son Philip II., king of Spain, seven of the provinces, viz. Holland, Gelderland, Zealand, Utrecht, Friesland, Overyssel, and Grow ningen, revolted and formed the celebrated republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was afterwards generally called Holland, from the name of the largest and most influential province. To these were afterwards added, by conquest and treaty, other territories, including Drenthe and N. Brabant. The remaining provinces, including S. Bra: 1 bant, continued united to the Spanish crown till 1706, when, after the battle of Ramilies, they acknowledged as their sovereign Charles VI., afterwards emperor of Germany, and were thenceforward known as the AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS. In the seven Dutch provinces, the house of Orange obtained the hereditary dignity of Stadtholder, in 1747. After the fall of Napoleon, in 1813, the Prince, who, during the ascendancy of the French influence, had been compelled to live in exile, was recalled and governed the country, with the title of “ Sovereign Prince.” In 1815, the seven northern and ten southern provinces, after a separation of 200 years, were again united under the name of the kingdom of the Netherlands. This union continued for 15 years, till the revolt of the Belgians, in 1830. (Sec Belgium and HOLLAND.)

NɛU-BURG (Ger. pron. noi’-boora), a handsome t. of Bavaria, on the Danube, 45 m. W.S. W. of Ratisbon. Lat. 48° 44' N., Lon. 11°ll' E. Pop. about 6,000. (B.)

NeufcHÂTEL, nush -a-tell, often written NEUCHÂTEL (Ger. Nenenburg, noil-en-boðRG), a small canton in the N. W. part of Switzerland, bordering on France. Area, about 250 sq. m. Pop. in 1837, 55, 616. (P. C.) Neufchâtel is a principality, of which the king of Prussia is the sovereign prince; it has, however, a legislative body, s. ven-eighths of whom are elected from the various districts of the canton. Neuf châtel, the capital, on the N. W. side of the lake of the sune name, distinguished for its manufacturing industry. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

NEUFCHÂTEL, LAKE OF (Ger. Neuenburger-See, noi!-en-hõõr -Ger sk), called also the LAKE OF YVERDUN, e'-věr'-dun', on the S. E. side of the above canton, is 25 m. in length, and about 5 m. in its greatest breadth; greatest depth, about 400 ft. The surface is estimated to be 1,320 A. above the level of the sea.

Nev-RUPPIN. See Ruppin, New.
Ngul-satz or noil-såts (Hung. Ujvidék, oo-e-ve-daik), a royal free t.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; ti, as in this; n, nearly like ng. of Hungary, on the Danube, opposite to Peterwardein, with which it is connected by a bridge of boats, 46 m. N. W. of Belgrade. It is the centre of an extensive trade. Pop. above 17,000. (B.)

NEUSE, a r. of N. C., flowing into the S. W. extremity of Pamlico Sound. Length about 300 m. It is navigable for boats 200 m.

Ngul-soyl or noil-sole (Hung. Besztercze Bánya, bis-těrt-så båảnpõh), a royal free t. of Hungary, remarkable for the copper mines in its vicinity. Lat. 48° 40' N., Lon. 19° 3' E. Pop. 10,000.

Ngu'-stadt or noil-stått (often called Wiener (Wee-ner) Neustadt, from its proximity to Vienna), a handsome, flourishing, and well-fortified t. of Lower Austria, 27 m. S. by W. of Vienna, with which it communicates by a canal. It is the seat of a celebrated military academy, attended by about 500 pupils, and contains a number of flourishing manufactures. Lat. 47° 48' N., Lon. 16° 13 E. Pop. above 8,000. (B.)

NEUSTADT (Hung. Nagy-Bánya, nody-almost nödge) báản-yöh), a t. of Hungary, near the N. frontier of I'ransylvania, remarkable for its rich mines of gold, silver, and lead. Lat. 47° 39' N., Lon. 23° 32' E. Pop. above 4,000. (B.)

NEU-WIED,or noil-weet, a manufacturing t.of Prussia, on the Rhine, 7 m. N. N. W. of Coblentz, with a gymnasium, & valuable collection of Roman antiquities, and of specimens in natural history, and 5,200 inhabitants, who are chiefly Moravians.

Nel-va (Russ. pron. n - vå), a r. of Russia, which forms the outlet of L. Ladoga, and joins the Gulf of Finland, at St. Petersburg.

NEVADA, LA SIERRA. See the next article. Nevado, na-vål-do, a Spanish word signifying "covered with snow,” which has been applied to numerous mountain peaks in S. America and Mexico.

LA SIERRA NEVADA (lå se-er/-rả nd-vål-Då), or the snow-clad ridge,” is a chain of mountains in Granada, Spain, which runs due E. and W., and is about 60 m. in length. The peak of Mula hacen (moo-là-å-then'), near the centre of this chain, in 37° 10' N. Lat., and 3° 28' W. Lon., is the highest mountain summit in the Spanish peninsula, and, with the exception of the Alps, the highest in Europe, having an elevation of 11,658 ft. above the level of the sea. The Sierra Nevada is perpetually covered with snow above the height of 9,500 ft.


Nevers, nch-varel, (Anc. Noviodu'num, afterwards Niver/num or Nevir'num,) a manufacturing and commercial t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Nièvre, on the Loire, at the junction of the little r. Nièvre, 133 m. S. by E. of Paris. It contains a royal cannon foundry, and other extensive manufactures in iron. The crockery made here is re: garded as the best in France. Lat. 46° 59' N., Lon. 3° 10' E. Pop. 15,000. (B.)

Newl-Ark, a t. of England, in Nottinghamshire, on the Trent, 110 m. N. by W. of London. Pop., including an area of about 3 sq. m., 10,220.

Newark, a port of entry of N. J., the cap. of Essex co., and the

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; no, not; oo as in good, largest t. in the state, is situated on the Passaic, 9 m. W. of New York. The river is navigable for sloops of 80 tons to this place; 4 in. below the t. it falls into Newark Bay. The position of this city is very favourable for trade, standing, as it does, on the railroad between New York and Philadelphia, and communicating with the Delaware at Easton, by means of the Morris Canal. It is the seat of numerous and flourishing manufactures, and contained, in 1840, 17,290 inhabitants, exhibiting an increase of more than 6,000 since the census of 1830. Lat. 40° 45 N., Lon. 74° 10' W.

Newark Bay is formed by the junction of the Passaic and Hackedsack rivers. It is 6 or 7 m. long, and above 2 m. wide, communicating at its S. extremity with Staten Island Sound.

New BED-FORD, a sea port t. and port of entry of Mass., in Bristol co., of which it is one of the seats of justice, on an arm of Buzzard's Bay, about 50 m., in a straight line, s. by E. of Boston. The inhabitants of this town own a large amount of shipping, and are very extensively engaged in the whale tishery. Lat. 41° 38' N., Lon. 70° 56' W. Pop. 12,087.

New/-BERN, a port of entry of N. C., cap. of Craven co., is situated at the confluence of the Trent and Neuse, about 100 m. E. S. E. of Rs. leigh. Lat. 35° 20' N., Lon. 77° 5' W. Pop. 3,690.

NEWİ-BER-RY, a dist. in the N. W. central part of S. C., between the Saluda and Broad rivers. Pop. 18,350. Seat of justice Newberry c. b.

New Bruns'-WICK, a prov. of British America, lying on the W. side of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Length, from N. to S., about 190 m.; average breadth estimated at 150 m. Pop. in 1834, 119,457. (P. C.) Frederickton is the capital.

New BRUNSWICK, a t. of N. J., the cap. of Middlesex co., on the Raritan, where it is crossed by the New York and Philadelphia rail. road, 28 m., in a straight line, S. W. of New York. With this city it has daily intercourse, by means of steamboats on the Raritan, as well as by the railroad, while, through the Delaware and Raritan canal, it has a water communication with Trenton and Philadelphia. Pop. 8,693.

Newl-BURG, a well-built t. of N. Y., in Orange co., on the Hudson, about 60 m., by water, from New York. It is alternately with Goshen the co. t. Lat. 41° 31' N., Lon. 74° 1' W. Pop. 8,933.

NEWBURYPORT, nul-ber-re-port', a beautiful t. and port of entry in Essex co., Mass., at the mouth of the Merrimack. It was formerly very flourishing, but in 1811 a fire destroyed nearly 300 buildings from the effects of which calamity it has never recovered. Lat. 42° 48° N., Lon. 70° 50' W. Pop. 7,161.

Newcastle, nul-kas-s'l, the most northern of the three counties of Del. Pop. 33,120. Co. t. Newcastle.

New-cas-tlg-UPON-TYNE, an important commercial t. and river-port of England, in Northumberland, on the N. bank of the Tyne, 10 m. from its mouth. It is connected with Gateshead, on the opposite side of the river, in the co. of Durham, by a hundsome stone bridge, with 9

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. elliptical arches. This town owes its importance and prosperity to its extensive commerce in coal, which is procured from numerous pits, situated on both sides of the Tyne, from within 2 m. of its mouth to 16 or 18 m. up the river. Newcastle forms a little county of itself, with an area of only 2,000 acres. It has nearly doubled in pop. during the present century. Lat. 50° 58' N., Lon. 1° 37' W. Pop. of the t. and co. of Newcastle, 48,860. Gateshead, which is regarded by some as a suburb of the above, contains about 19,000 inhabitants.

NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYME or LYNE,* a t. of England, in Staffordshire, 135 m. N. W. of London. Pop. 9,838.

New ENGLAND, a name given to the N. E. portion of the U. S., including the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The whole area may be estimated at about 67,000 sq. m., being rather less than that of Virginia. Total pop. 2,234,862. The inhabitants of New England are distin. guished for their intelligence and enterprise. There is probably no country on the globe, in which the obligations of morality and religion are more generally respected and obeyed.

New-FOUND-LAND', a large i. of British America, situated in the Atlantic, S. E. of Labrador, from which it is separated by the Strait of Belle Isle, between 46° 40' and 51° 37' N. Lat., and 52° 25' and 59° 15' W. Lon. Its form approaches that of a triangle. The length, ineasuring nearly N. and S., is 'about 320 m.; greatest breadth, near 300 m. Area estiinated at 50,000 sq. m. Pop. fluctuating, in consequence of many persons, who visit the island in the fishing season, leaving it during winter: according to the census of 1836, it amounted to 73,705. (P. C.) Little is known of the interior of Newfoundland. It appears, however, to be generally barren. The inhabitants depend chiefly on fishing for their subsistence.

New GRANADA, grå-nål-då,t (Sp. Nueva Granada, nwal-vå grå-nå'. Dė,) one of the three republics of S. America, into which, in 1836, Colombia was divided. (See COLOMBIA.) The boundary line between Granada and Ecuador, appears not to be exactly settled, but it lies between 1° and 2° N. Lat. : towards the N. this republic extends to 12° 30 N. Lat.: it is situated between 69' and 83° W. Lon; bounded on the N. by the Caribbean sea, E. by Venezuela and Brazil, S. by Brazil and Ecuador, and W. by the Pacific and Central America. The greatest length, from N. to S., is near 800 m. ; greatest breadth, from E. to W., about 650 m. Area estimated at 400,000 sq. m. Pop. in 1826, 1,320,000. (B.) There is reason to believe that, in consequence of the unsettled state of the country, it has not materially increased since that period. Bogota is the capital.

• It appears from old records that an ancient forest on the borders of Cheshire was called Lyme or Lime (probably from limes, a “boundary'); from their proximity to which, a number of places are supposed to have received the addition to their names of under lyme or lyne. + See note under GRANADA.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, nöt; oo as in good;

New GUINEA. See Papua.

New Hamp-SHIRE, one of the thirteen original U. S., situated between 42° 40' and 45° 20' N. Lat., and 70° 40' and 72° 30' W. Lon., bounded on the E. by Maine and the Atlantic Ocean, S. by Massachusetts, W. N. W. and N. by Vermont and Canada, and divided into 10 counties.* Length, 193 m. ; greatest breadth, from E. to W., 87 m. Area estimated from 8,000 to near 10,000 sq. m. Pop. 284,574. Cose cord is the seat of government.

New HAN-O-VER, a co. in the S. part of N. C., intersected by Cape Fear r., and bordering on the sea. Pop. 13,312. Co. t. Wilmington.

New HA-'VỆN, a co. in the S. part of Conn., bordering on Long Island Sound. Pop. 48,619.

New Haven, a port of entry, the largest t. in Conn., the cap. of the above, and, alternately with Hartford, the seat of the state government, situated at the head of a small bay, projecting from Long Island Sound, about 34 m., in a straight line, S. S. W. of Hartford, with which town it is connected by a railroad. The general appearance of New Haven is neat, and even elegant. The state-house, built on a Grecian model, is perhaps the most remarkable edifice. This town is the seat of Yale College, founded in 1700, and one of the most flourishing collegiate institutions in the whole country. The collection of minerals is aid to be the finest in the United States. The college is in Lat. 41° 18 30 N., Lon. 72° 56' 45' W. Pop. of the township of New Haven, 14,390; of the city alone, 12,960.


New Jer/-şey, one of the original U. S., between 38° 56' and 41° 20' N. Lat., and 73° 54' and 75° 33' W. Lon.; bounded on the the state of New York, E. by the Hudson r. and Staten Island Sound (which divide it from New York), and by the Atlantic Ocean, S. and S. W. by the Atlantic and Delaware Bay, and W. by the states of Dee laware and Pennsylvania, from which it is separated by the r. Delaware; and divided into 18 counties. Length, 170 m.; greatest breadth, 74 m. At its narrowest part, near the middle, it is only 37 m. broad. Area estimated at 8,000 sq. m. Pop. 373,306. Trenton is the seat of government.

New Kent, a co. in the E. part of Va., bordering on the Pamunky and York rivers. Pop. 6,230. Seat of justice, New Kent c. h.

New LEB'-A-NỌN, a village of Columbia co., N. Y., 24 m. E. S. E. of Albany, remarkable as being one of the principal settlements of the Shakers in the United States. Pop. of the township, 2,536.

New LONDON (lun/-don), a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Conn Pop. 44,463, Co. towns, New London and Norwich,

* Belknap, Carroll, Cheshire, Coos, Graston, Hillsborough, Merrimack, Rock ingham, Strafford, Sullivan.

† Atlantic, Bergen, Burlington, Cape May, Cumberland, Essex. Gloucester, Hud Bon, Hunterdon. Mercer, Middlesex, Monmouth, Morris, Passaic, Salem, Somer set, Sussex, Warren,

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