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ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. New LONDON, a city and port of entry of Connecticut, in the preceding county, of which it is one of the seats of justice, on the Thames, 3 m. from its mouth, and 44 m., in a straight line, E. of New Haven. Its harbour is the best in the state. Lat. 41° 22' N., Lon. 72° 9 W. Pop. 5,519.

New Mad'-RID, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Mo. Pop. 4,554. Co. t. New Madrid,

New Orl-LE-£N$,* a city and port of entry of La., the seat of justice of the parish of Orleans, and the cap. of the state, is situated on the left bank of the Mississippi, 105 m. by water, and about 80 m., in a straight line, from its mouth. The ground on which New Orleans is built is soft and marshy, and there are no cellars to any of the buildings. The streets are straight and regular, generally crossing each other at right angles. As a place of trade, New Orleans enjoys unequalled advantages. It is the outport of all the commerce of the Mississippi and its tributaries. It is accessible for ships of the largest size, while its levee is thronged with smaller vessels of every description. Sometimes 50 stearpboats may be seen at once. The low situation renders the air, in the warm season, very insalubrious: the yellow fever often commits fearful ravages. But, notwithstanding these drawbacks, the place is rapidly increasing in wealth and population, its commercial advantages attracting to it multitudes from every quarter of the globe. Lat. 29° 58' N., Lon. 90° 7' W. Pop. of the parish of Orleans, 102,193

Newl-PÕRT, a port of entry of R. I., the cap. of a co. of the same name, and one of the seats of the state goveroment, is situated near the mouth of Narragansett Bay, on one of the finest harbours in the world. It stands on the S. W. side of Rhode Island, about 5 m. from the sea, and 22 m., in a straight line, S. by E., of Providence. The beauty of its situation, and the salubrity of its climate, have made this town a place of fashionable resort for persons from the southern and middle states, during the summer months. Lat. 41° 28' N., Lon. 71° 21' W. The pop. of Newport was greater before the Revolution than at the present time, though it is now on the advance: in 1840, it amounted to 8,333. Pop. of the co. of Newport, 16,874.

New SARUM. See SalisBURY.

Newl-ton, a co. in the N. central part of Ga., bordering on the Ocmulgee, near its source. Pop. 11,628. Co. t. Covington.

Newton, a co. in the S. E. central part of Miss., E. of Jackson. Pop. 2,527. Co. seat, Decatur.

Newton, a co. forming the S. W. extremity of Mo. Pop. 3,790.

New York, one of the original U. S., between 40° 30' and 45° N. Lat., and 72o and 79° 50' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. N. W. and W. by Canada, the r. St. Lawrence, Lake Ontario, the Niagara r., Lake Érie, and Pennsylvania ; S. and S. W. by Pennsylvania and New Jersey, E. by Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont. These limits,

* Sce note to ORLEANS.

300 m.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, m't; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo as in good; however, do not include Long Island, which extends from near the S. E. extremity of the continental portion of the state, more than 100 in. in an easterly direction. (See Long Island.) The greatest length of N. Y., from E. to. W., is 322 in.; extreme breadth, from N. to S., a boot

Area estimated at 49,000 sq. m. Pop. 2,428,921. The state is divided into 59 counties.* New York, though not the largest, is in almost every other respect the leading state in the Union; its pop. exceeds that of Pennsylvania (the second of the United States, as regards the number of its inhabitants), by more than 700,000, and surpasses the whole pop. of the six New England states, by pearly 200,1.00. To New York is due the honour of having first undertaken and brought into successful operation, those extensive internal improvements which have since, though on a smaller scale, been extended to almost every portion of the Union. Albany is the capital.

New York, the metropolis of the above state, the most populous city and greatest emporium in the New World, is situated on the southern extremity of Manhattan island, at the mouth of the Hudson, about 18 m. from the Atlantic, and 80 m., in a direct line, N. E. of Philadelphia. The city and county of New York have the same limits, comprising the whole of Manhattan island, which is 135 m. in length, and 2 m. in its greatest breadth. The densely inhabited portion of the city is situated on the S. extremity of the island, extending north ward 3 or 4 m. In the old or southern quarter of the town, the streets are for the most part narrow and irregular, but nearly all the northern or newer part is remarkable for the regularity and beauty of the streets, as well as for the elegance of the houses. Broadway, the principal street, and one of the finest to be seen in any city, is 80 ft. wide, and about 3 m. long. Commencing at the Battery (an open space planted with trees at the S. extremity of the island), it extends N. N. E. through nearly the whole length of the town. It may be compared to a great river; the streets which terminate in it, and those which it intersects, being tributaries that supply a constantly increasing throng of people, and vehicles of every description, as we advance towards its fouthern extremity. Perhaps the most important of these afluents is Chatham street, which forms the outlet of the Bowery, East Broadway, and several other considerable streets, and unites with Broadway at the lower extremity of the Park. . The city contains a number of public squares or open spaces, adorned with trees and resorted to as places of promenade; the most remarkable of which are the Battery (already mentioned), the Park, a triangular enclosure, situated about three-quarters

* Albany, Alleghany, Broome. Cattaraugus, Cayuga, Chatauque, Chemung, Che nango, Clinton, Columbia, Coriland, Delaware, Dutchess, Erie, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Genesee, Greene, Hamilton, Herkimer, Jefferson, King's, Lewis, Living. ston, Madison, Monroe, Montgomery, New York, Niagara, Oneida. Onondaga. Ontario, Orange, Orleans. Oswego, Otsego, Putnam, Queen's, Rensselaer, Richmond, Rockland, Saratoga, Schenectady. Schoharie, Seneca, Steuben, St. Law. rence, Suffolk, Sullivan, Tioga, Tompkins, Ulster, Warren, Washington, Wayne Westchester, Wyoming. Yaics.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. of a mile from the Battery, midway between the Hudson and East River; it contains the City Hall, the Post Office, and other buildings: and Washiogton Square, in the N. W. part of the city. The principal business of New York is carried on in the lower or southern section of the town, where along the wharves, in every direction, may be seen forests of masts, and where countless vessels, of every description, and from every part of the globe, pour their rich tribute into the lap of this queen of commercial cities. The entire tonnage of this port amounts to more than 484,000. In this respect it is the second city on the globe, being inferior only to London. In fact, the vessels belonging to New York nearly equal in tonnage those of Liverpool and Newcastle combined, which, among all the ports in the world, rank next to New York in regard to tonnage. The total value of exports in 1844, was $31,740,919; of imports in the same year, $75,778,295 (about two-thirds of the imports of the whole U.S.). Among the remarkable public buildings of New York, may be mentioned the City Hall, situated in the Park; it is 216 ft. in length, 105 ft. in breadth, with a front of white marble: the Merchants’ Exchange, in Wall street, a magnificent edifice of granite: the Custom House, a vast and costly structure, situated in the same street: the Astor House, on Broadway, opposite to Chatham street, an immense hotel of granite, containing 390 rooms: and Trinity Church, on Broadway, now rebuilding, which may rank among the finest modern specimens of Gothic architecture. Among the numerous literary and scientific institutions, we may cite Columbia College, founded in 1754: the University of New York, founded in 1831; including the faculties of medicine and law: the Society Library, with nearly 40,000 vols.: the Mercantile Library Association, with above 21,000 vols. : and the Academy of Fine Arts. This city also contains a great number of charitable establishments; the most important of which are the City Hospital; and the Alms House, which is situated at Bellevue, near the East River, at some distance above the thickly settled portion of the city. New York is plentifully supplied with excellent water from the Croton River, by means of the recently constructed hydraulic works. The aqueduct, which conveys the water to the reservoir from which it is distributed to the city, is above 40 m. in length. It is an irregular hollow cylinder, formed of hydranlic stone and brick masonry (except where the water is conveyed across two valleys, and from the receiving to the distributing reservoirs, in which case iron pipes are employed): the greatest interior breadth is 7 ft. 5 inches; the greatest height is 8 ft. 54 inches. The total cost of the aqueduct, from the Croton dam to the distributing reservoir, inclusive, is estimated at 9,000,000 of dollars.

The City Hall is in Lat. 40° 42' 40'' N., Lon. 74° 1'8" W. The pop. of the city and county in 1840 was 312,710.

New ZEA -LAND, an insular group in the Pacific Ocean, between 34° and 47° S. Lat., and 166o and 1790 E. Lon. It consists principally of two large islands, of which the more southern, called New Munster, is the larger, being about 520 m. in length, and 150 m. in its greatest

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Fate, får, fall, fàt; m', m't; p'ne or pine, pln; n), nöt; öð, as in good, breadth : the other, named New Ulster, is nearly 500 m. in length, and 200 m. in its greatest breadth, but its mean breadth is considerably less than that of the former. The area of all the islands is estimated at 86,000 sq. m., and the population at 200,000. (M.)-Inhab. New Zeal. LAND-ER.

NEZH-EEN! (Nejin or Neschin), a flourishing and beautiful t. of European Russia, in the gov. of Tchernigot. Lat. 51°3 N., Lon. 31° 50' E. Pop. 16,000. (M.)

Ni-Agl-4-rə or ni-ag'-rạ (see Int. XII., Obs. 2), a r. of N. America, which forms the outlet of L. Erie, and a part of the boundary between the state of New York and Canada. About 3 m. below its commence. ment, it divides into two arms, which embrace an island, called Grand Island, 12 m. long, and from 2 lo 7 m, wide. A mile and a half below Grand Island, the entire waters of the Niagara are precipitated over a ledge of rocks about 160 ft. in perpendicular heighi, forming the Niagara Falls, the most stupendous cataract on the globe. The entire breadth of the river at the falls (including Goat Island, which divides the waters so as to form two distinct cataracts), is about 1,300 yards, but a little below it contracts to less than 200 yards in width. The whole length is about 35 m.

NIAGARA, a co. forming the N.W. extremity of N. Y., bordering on Niagara r. and L. Ontario. Pop. 31,132. Co. t. Lockport.

NI-AN-GUẠ, a co. in the S. W. central part of Mo.

NICARAGUA (nik-ar-ål-ġwả), LAKE OF, situated in the state of the same name, in Central America, about 12 m. from the nearest part of the Pacific, and 70 from the Caribbean Sea, with which it communicates through the river San Juan. It is about 110 m. in length, and 40 in its greatest breadth.

Nice, nece, (It. Nizza, nit/-så; Anc. Nicæa ;) a city and seaport of the Sardinian dominions, the cap. of a prov. of the same name, is beautifully situated near the foot of the Alps, on the Mediterranean, 95 m. S. W. of Genoa. It is much resorted to by strangers as a winter residence. Lat. 43° 41' N., Lon. 7° 17' E. Pop. estimated at near 30,000. (P. C.)

Nich'-o-LẠs, a co. in the W. central part of Va., on the r. Kanawba. Pop. 2,515. Co. t. Summersville.

Nicholas, a co. in the N. E. part of Ky., intersected by the Licking r. Pop. 8,745. Co. t. Carlisle.

Nic-O-BAR' ISLANDS, a group in the Indian Ocean, N. W. of Suma. tra, between 6° 30' and 9° 30' N. Lat., and 93° and 94° 20' E. Lon., consisting of two large and a number of smaller islands. The largest is about 40 m. long, and near 20 m. broad. The great insalubrity of the climate has prevented any permanent settlements being made among the Nicobars by Europeans.

Nicl-o-LẠs, Saint (Fr. pron. sån ne'-koʻ-la'), a flourishing t. of Be! gium, 12 m. W. S. W. of Antwerp. Pop. 16,000. (B.)

Nj-Cop/-O-L(Anc. Nicop'olis), a fortified t. of European Tui key, on

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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. the Danube; it is the seat of a Greek archbishopric. Lat. 43° 46' N., Lon. 24° 53' E. Pop. about 10,000. (B.)

N]-col-81-4, the principal t. of Cyprus, situated near the centre of the island. Lat. 35° 13' N., Lon. about 33° 40' E. Pop. estimated from 12,000 to 16,000. (B.) Nje'-MEN (Polish pron. nyem/-en), a r. which rises in the S. W.

1: part of Russia, near the t. of Minsk, and after a very winding course, enters the Prussian territories, where it takes the name of Memel (meml-el), and finally falls into the Kurische Haff, in about 55° 20' N. Lat., and 21° 20' E. Lon. Its whole length is estimated at near 400 m. The Niemen is remarkable among the rivers of Europe for its great and destructive inundations. At the melting of the snows, in spring, its waters are said sometimes to rise, in the short space of 10 or 14 days, 30 ft. above the ordinary level.

Nièvre, ne-aivri, a dep. in the E. central part of France, intersected by the Loire. Pop. 297,550. (B.) Capital, Nevers.

Niger, nil-jer, or Quor!-ra, in the upper part of its course called Joid--BẠ, a large r. in the W. part of Africa, which rises in about 8° N. Lat., and 6° W. Lon., and flowing at first north-easterly, then south-easterly, and afterwards southerly, falls into the Gulf of Guinea by numerous mouths, in about 5° N. Lat., and 6° E. Lon. Its whole length is estimated at above 2,300 m. The Joliba or upper portion of the Niger appears to have been known to the ancients, though they were probably entirely ignorant of its termination. Mungo Park, sent out by the African Association in 1795, was the first European who explored the upper portion of the Niger, but he was unable to throw any light upon the question as to what became of its waters. Various hypotheses had been and were still entertained; some geographers supposed that they were lost in the sands in the interior of the continent, or flowing into some inland lake were evaporated, like those of the Desaguadero of Bolivia, in S. America; others adopted an opinion very prevalent among the natives of Northern Africa, that the Niger flowed eastward and joined the Nile, being in fact the Nile itself: another generally received hypothesis, and one which Park himself adopted, was, that the waters of the mysterious river, after travelling a long course through Central and Southern Africa, were finally poured into the Atlantic, through the estuary of the Congo. But all the doubts and conjectures respecting the course of this remarkable stream were at length set at rest by the brothers Richard and John Lander, who, in the year 1830, sailed from Boossa (to which place the Niger had been previously explored by_Park) to the mouth of the river previously called the Nun, in the Bight of Benin.


NIKOLAYEF or NIKOLAYew, ne'-ko-lil-éf, a t. of European Pussia, in the gov. of Kherson, on the r. Bug (boog), about 20 m. above its entrance into the estuary of the Dnieper. Lat. 46° 59' N., Lon. 32° 1' E. Pop. 8,500. (M.)

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