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Fate, får, fall, fit; m', mit; plne or pine, pin; no, not; oo as in good;

NIK-OLS-BURG (Ger. pron. ne'-kols-boðRG'), a manufacturing t of Moravia, 28 m. S. of Brün. Pop. 7,000. (B.)

Nile (Gr. Necros; Lat. Nil-lus; Arab. Bahr-Nil); a great and cele brated r. in the N. E. part of Africa, which is formed by the junction of two streams (in 15° 34' N. Lat., and 32° 31' E. Lon.), of which one, called the Blue River (Bahr-el-Azrek), rises in Abyssinia, in about 11° N. Lat., and 36° 55' E. Lon.; the other, named the White River (Bahrel-Abiad), has its sources considerably farther west, probably on the northern declivity of the Mountains of the Moon. These branches

, which are sometimes denominated the Blue and White Nile, derive their names from the colour of their respective waters;-those of the Bahr-el-Abiad being coloured by a fine white clay which is usually suspended in them. The Nile, in the upper part of its course, makes two extensive circuits, which, together, resemble the form of the letter S; but below the cataracts, its general direction is almost north, with comparatively few deviations. The whole length of this r., from the highest sources with which we are acquainted, is estimated at 2,750 m. The most remarkable phenomena connected with the Nile, are perhaps its annual inundations, to which Egypt may be said to owe its existence as a habitable country. The cause of these inundations is now uscertained to be the periodical rains which fall around the sources of the river within the tropics. The rise of the Nile commences in June, and continues increasing till September. The Delta then looks like an immense marsh, interspersed with numerous islands, with villages, towns, and plantations of trees, just above the water. The inundation having remained stationary for a few days, begins to subside, and about the end of November most of the fields are left dry, covered with a fresh layer of rich brown slime: at this time the lands are put under culture. From its junction with the Tacazzé(in 17° 45' N. Lat.) to its termination, a distance of about 1,350 m., the Nile does not receive a single affluent on either side; an instance which is without a parallel in the geography of the globe. This great r. is navigable

, without any obstruction, to the cataracts, or, more properly speaking, rapids, in Lat. 24° 8' N., which are regarded as constituting the southern limit of Egypt. (For further particulars respecting the Nile, see Egypt.)-Adj. Ni-lot-IC.


Nîmes or N18MEs, neem, (Anc. Nemau'sus,) a city in the S. of France, cap. of the dep. of Gard, 30 m. N. E. of Montpellier. As a seat of manufactures and commerce, it ranks among the first towns in the kingdom; but it is chiefly interesting to the traveller and antiquary for its striking monuments of ancient grandeur. The Maison Carrée (ma-zón' kår'-ra/), i. e. literally the “ square house,” though it is in fact a parallelogram, is regarded as an extraordinary specimen of architectural beauty. This ancient temple appears to be in good preservation, and is now used as a museum for objects of antiquity. The State House at Richmond, in Va., is a copy of the Maison Carrée, the plan and drawings having been sent to Virginia by Jefferson, when he

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. was the minister of the United States at Paris. Nîmes contains an académie universitaire, royal college, an extensive public library, and numerous other institutions. Lat. 43° 50' N., Lon. 4° 22' E. Pop. 41,194. (B.)

NIMWEGEN, nim-wa-gen, or more correctly NYMWEGEN, nime-wal. Ged, (supposed to be on the site of the ancient Noviom'agus.) a strongly fortified t. of Holland, in the prov. of Guelderland, on the Waal. Lat. 51° 51' N., Lon. 5° 51' E. Pop. 16,000. (B.)

NING-Po (called formerly Liampo), a seaport city of China, of the first rank, situated at the confluence of the rivers Kin and Yaoo, near their entrance into the harbour of Chusan, about 200 m. S. E. of Nanking. Lat. 29° 58' N., Lon. 120° 18' E. Pop. estimated from 200,000 to 400,000. (M.)

Niort, ne-or', a manufacturing and commercial t. of France, cap. of the dep. of the Two Sèvres (Deux-Sèvres), on the Sèvre-Niortaise (which is navigable from this place), 43 m. W. S. W. of Poitiers. It contains a college, a public library of 15,000 vols., and several other institutions. Lat. 46° 18' N., Lon. 0° 19' W. Pop. 18,015. (B.)

NIPHON. See Japan.

Nish-A-POOR', an ancient city of Persia, in Khorassan, for a long time the residence of the Seljook sultans. It is surrounded by a mud wall, but the greater part of the enclosed area is covered with ruins. In its neighbourhood, about 40 m. towards the W.N. W., are the famous Turquoise mines: these gems constitute the only article of foreign trade, to the inhabitants of Nisha poor. Lat. 36° 8' N., Lon. 58° 55' E. Pop. 8,000.' (P. C.)

NIVELLES, ne'-vell!, (Flem. Nyvel, nil-vel,) a manufacturing t. of Belgium, in S. Brabant, 17 m. S. of Brussels. Pop. 7,000. (B.)

Nizh'-NEE (Nijni) Nov'-GO-ROD', a flourishing manufacturing and commercial t. of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, at the confluence of the Oka with the Volga. Here, at present, is held the great annual fair, which a few years since gave so much importance to the little town of Makarieff, situated on the Volga, 50 m. E. S. E. of Nizhnee Novgorod. The value of goods sold at this fair in 1836, amounted to 126,514,046 rubles, or above $100,000,000! (P. C.). The fair is attended, as is estimated, by not less than 300,000 strangers. It begins on the 1st of July, and continues a month or six weeks. Between 4,000 and 5,000 warehouses and booths, presenting, for ten months of the year, the silence of a desert, are exclusively appropriated to the business of the fair. Lat. 56° 20' N., Lon. 44° 28' E. Permanent pop, about 25,000. (P. C.)

NOBLE, a co. near the N. E. extremity of Ind. Pop. 2,702. Co. t. Augusta.

NOCERA, no-chal-rå, (Anc. Nuceria,) a t. of Naples, on the Sarno. Lat. 43° 7' N., Lon. 12° 46' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B.)

Nol-La, an ancient t. of Italy, in the Neapolitan dominions, in a ferlile plain (the Campania Felix of the ancients), 14 m. E. N. E. of Na

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mé, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, ndt; oo, as in good; ples. It contains several interesting remains of antiquity. Pop. about 9,000. (B.)

Nord, nor, a dep. forming the N. extremity of France, whence it is called the dep. du Nord, i. e. “ of the north.” Pop. 1,026,417. (B.) Co. t. Lille.

NORDHAUSEN, nort-houl-zen, a flourishing commercial and manufacturing t. of Prussian Saxony. Lat. 51° 31' N., Lon. 10° 47' E. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

NÖRDLINGEN, nört-ling-en, a flourishing manufacturing t. of Bavaria, on the Eger. Lat. 48° 51' N., Lon. 10° 28° E. Pop. near 6,000. (B.)

Nord-FOLK, a co. in the E. part of England, bordering on the Wash and the N. Sea. Pop. 412,664.

Norfolk, a co. in the E. part of Mass., bordering on Massachusetts Bay and R. I. Co. t. Dedham.

Norfolk, a co. near the S. E. extremity of Va., bordering on the Chesapeake and N. C. Pop. 27,569. Co. t. Norfolk.

NORFOLK, a port of entry, the cap. of the above co., is situated on Elizabeth r., 8 m. from Hampton Roads, in Chesapeake Bay, with a large, safe, and convenient harbour. Lat. 36° 51' N., Lon. 76° 19' W. Pop. 10,920. On the opposite side of the r. is Gosport, with a U: S. Navy Yard and an extensive dry-dock.

NoR'-MAN-DY (Fr. Normandie, noR -mảnh-de), a former prov. of France, now distributed among the departments of Calvados, Eure Manche, Orne, and Lower Seine. This country was conquered by the Normans or Northmen (Danes or Norwegians), near the close of the 9th century, and from them received its name.-Adj. and inhab. Nor!. MẠN (Fr. NORMAND, nor'-mån').

NORRKÖPING, nor'-chö-ping, an important manufacturing and commercial t. of Sweden, on the r. Motala, near its mouth, in the Baltic, with a commodious harbour, 85 in. S. W. of Stockholm. Lat. 58° 35 N., Lon. 16° 11' E. Pop. about 10,000. (P. C.)

NOR-THAMP'-TỌN, a flourishing manufacturing and trading t. of England, cup. of Northamptonshire, on the great N. road and on the r. Nen, 60 m. N. W. of London. Pop. 21,242. Northampton, a co. in the E. part of Pa., bordering on the Dela

Pop. 40,996. Co. t. Easton. NORTHAMPTON, a co. in the S. E. part of Va., E. of the Chesa peake Bay. Pop. 7,715. Co. t. Eastville.

Northampton, a co. in the N. E. part of N. C., bordering on the Roanoke r. and Va. Pop 13,369. Co. t. Jackson.

NOR-THAMPI-TON-SHIRE, a co. in the E. central part of England, lying N. W. of London. Pop. 199,228.

North Sea or GERMAN OCEAN is situated between Great Britain and the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, and Norway. It is considered to extend from the Strait of Dover to the northernmost of the Shetland Islands. Length, 650 m.; greatest breadth, about 400 m.

NOR-THUM-BER-LẠNV (Lat. Northum'bria), the most northerly co. of

ware r.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. England, bordering on Scotland and the N. Sea. Pop. 250,278.-Adj. and inhab. NOR-THUM-BR)-AN.

NORTHUMBERLAND, a co. in the E. central part of Pa., on the Susquehanna. Pop. 20,027. Co. t. Sunbury.

NORTHUMBERLAND, a co. in the E. part of Va., at the mouth of the Potomac. Pop. 7,924. Co. t. Heathsville.

North WEST TERRITORY, a region lying W. and N. W. of 1.. Michigan. This name is now scarcely used; Wisconsin, which essentially coincides with it in limits, having been substituted for it.

NORI-WAY (Lat. Norwegia; in Norw. Norge, noR-ga), a country in the N. of Europe, comprehending the western portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, and extending, if we include Norwegian Lapland, from 59° to 71° N. Lat., and from 5° to 31° E. Lon. Its length is above 1,000 m.; its greatest breadth about 250 m. The area is esti. mated at about 130,000 sq. m. Pop. 1,150,000. (P.C.) Norway formerly constituted a kingdom of itself, but at present is united to the crown of Sweden. (See SWEDEN.)--Adj. and inhab. Nor-we/-G.-An or nor-weel-jun.

Norwich, nord-ridge, an important manufacturing city of England, cap. of the co. of Norfolk, forming also a little co. of itself, is situated on the r. Wensum, 96 m. N. N. E. of London. This town has been celebrated for its manufactures of woollens since the era of Henry I., when the Flemings first settled here and introduced the spinning and weaving of worsteds. Norwich is especially interesting to the naturalist, from its containing the magnificent botanical museum of Sir James Edward Smith (the founder of the Linnean Society of London), which is one of the richest and best chosen collections of the kind in the world; here may also be seen specimens in other departments of natural history, collected by Linnæus himself, together with some of the unpublished manuscripts of that illustrious naturalist. The co. of Norwich has an area of about 9 sq.m., with a pop. of 62,344.

NORI-wich, a city of Conn., and one of the seats of justice of New London co., situated at the head of navigation, on the Thames, 12 m. N. of New London. Lat. 41° 33' N., Lon. 72° 7' W. Pop., exclusive of the township, 4,200.

Nol-ro, a t. of Sicily, near the site of the ancient Nec'tum, 16 m. S. W. of Syracuse. Pop. about 11,000. (B.)

NotI-TA-WAY, a r. which rises in the southeastern part of Va., and, flowing into N. C., contributes to form the Chowan.

NOTTAWAY, a co. in the S. E. part of a., on the sources of the above r. Pop. 9,719. Seat of justice, Notta way c. h.

NOT-TING-HẠM, a handsome and important manufacturing t. of Eng. land, cap. of Nottinghamshire, on the r. Lene or Leen, about threequarters of a mile from its junction with the Trent, 108 m. N. N. W. of London. Connected with the Grand Trunk or Trent and Mersey Canal, it has ready communication with several of the principal places in the kingdom. This town is celebrated as the great centre of the bobbin-net and lace manufacture; it is also extensively engaged in the

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mé, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo, as in good ; hosiery business. Nottingham forins a little county of itself, with an area of about 4 sq. in., and a pop. of 53,091.

Nord-TING-HAM-SHỊRE, a co. in the N. E. central part of England, intersected by the Trent. Pop. 249,910.

Novara, no-vål-rå, (Anc. Nova/ria,) a fortified t. of the Sardinian states, cap. of a prov. of the same name, near the Gogna (gonel.yå), an affluent of the Po, 27 m. W. by S. of Milan. Lat. 45° 27' N., Lon. 8° 38 E. Pop. 15,300. (P. C.)

Nova Scotia, nol-va skol-she-a (i. e. New Scotland"), a British colony of N. America, between 43° 20' and 46° N. Lat., and 61° and 66° 20' W. Lon. It is surrounded by the sea, except at its N. W. extremity, where it is connected with the territory of New Brunswick by an isthmus about 9 m. wide. Its length, from Cape Canso on the E., to Cape St. Mary on the W., is above 260 m.; its greatest breadth, measuring on a line at right angles with the preceding, is about 100 m. Area estimated at 15,620 sq. m. Pop. in 1838, 155,000. (M.) The prov. or gov. of Nova Scotia comprehends, in addition to the above peninsula, the i. of Cape Breton.

Nol-vA ZEM-BLA (a corruption of the Russian name Novaja Zemla, nol-vi-á zem-lå or “ new land"), an 1. in the Arctic Ocean, between 70° 30' and 77° N. Lat., and 52° and 78° E. Lon. Length, nearly 400 m.; mean breadth, about 50 m. There appears to be no vegetation on this island, except lichens and mosses; but white bears, foxes, walruses, and seals abound. Though several expeditions for this purpose have been sent out by the Russian goveroment, the island has not yet been fully explored.

Nov'-GO-ROD or Nol-vo-GO-ROD VEL/ -J-KEE (i. e. the “Great New City") an ancient and decayed city of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, is situated on the Volkhof, at its exit from L. Ilmen, 100 m. S. E. of St. Petersburg. This town is one of the most ancient, and was formerly the most important, in the Russian empire, baving been founded, it is said, in the 5th century. In the 9th century, it had its own prince, and in the 12th, a republic was established here, which soon became very powerful, and extended its territory, it is said, from Livonia on the W. to Siberia on the E., and, if we may believe the testimony of several historians, the pop. of the city at one time amounted to 400,000! (B.). In 1477, it was conquered by the grand duke of Russia, since which time it appears to have gradually declined. Its present pop. does not exceed 10,000. (P. C.) Yet, when viewed from à distance, it has a very striking appearance, owing to its fine situation and the gilded domes of its 63 churches, which remain as monuments of its ancient splendour. Its commerce and manufactures are still considerable. It is the residence of an archbishop. Lat. 58° 32' N., Lon. 31° 16' E.

Nol-vi, a pleasant, well-built t. of Italy, in the Sardinian territories, cap. of a prov. of the same name, with an active trade. Lat. 44° 47* N., Lon. 8° 48' E. Pop. about 10,000. (P. C.)

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