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ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. of the Lower Pyrenees. Lat. 43° 30' N., Lon. 0° 46' W. Pop.. 5,267. (M.)

ORVIETO, OR-ve-5-to, (formerly Urbs Vetus,) a t. of Italy, in the Papal state, on the Paglia (på)/-yá), an affluent of the Tiber, 59 m. N. N. W. of Rome, with a handsome Gothic cathedral. Pop. estimated at near 8,000. (B.)

O-SAGE', a r. which rises in the Indian Territory, near 37° N. Lat. and 95° W. Lon., and, flowing south-easterly, passes into the state of Missouri, and joins the Missouri r. about 10 m. below Jefferson City.

Osage, a co. of Mo., at the mouth of the above r.

Os-CE-o'-LA (Unwattin), a co. in the W.central part of Mich., intersected by Maskego r.

Ost-A-MO (Anc. Aux/imum), a t. of Italy, in the Papal state, 9 m. S. by W. of Ancona. Lat. 43° 30' N., Lon. 13° 27' E. Pop. about 7,000. (M.)

OsH-MOO-NEYNİ-nine (Achmouneyn), a large village of Egypt, W. of the Nile, on the site of the ancient Hermop'olis Mag/na. Lat. 27° 50 N., Lon. about 30° 50' E. Pop. estimated at from 4,000 to 10,000. (B.) In its vicinity are some highly interesting remains of antiquity.

Osl-NA-BRÜCK' or osl-na-brook', often called in English, Oş!-NA-BURG, a commercial t. of Germany, in Hanover, cap. of a prov. of the same name, on the Hase (hål-sch), an affluent of the Ems. It is surrounded with a ditch and wall, with five gates. The linens called Osnaburgs derive their name from this place. Lat. 52° 17' N., Lon. 8° 1' E. Pop. 11,000. (B.)

Ossuna, os-soo’-nå, a manufacturing t. of Spain, in Andalusia, 36 m. E. by S. of Seville. Pop. 15,000. (B.)

Os-TEND',* a fortified sea port t. of Belgium, in W. Flanders, 14 m. W. of Bruges, with which city it communicates by a canal of sufficient dimensions to allow the largest Indiamen to pass through it. It is also connected with the principal towns of Belgium by railways. Lat. 51° 14' N., Lon. 2° 55' É. Pop. 11,000. (B.)

Os-wel-go, a co. in the N. part of N. Y., bordering on L. Ontario. Pop. 43,619. Co. towns, Oswego and Pulaski.

Oswego, a flourishing t. and port of entry in the above co., situated on the S. E. shore of L. Ontario, about 68 m., in a straight line, W. N. W. of Utica. The Oswego Canal, 38 m. in length, connects it with Syracuse, on the Erie Canal. Pop. 4,665.

OTAHEITE. See Tahiti.

O-TRAN-TO (Anc. Hydrun'tum), a small but once flourishing t., situated near the Š. E. extremity of Italy. Lat. 40° 9' N., Lon. 18° 29' E. From this town, the prov. in which it is situated is called Terra di (ter/-rå de) Otranto or the “ land of Otranto.”

OT-8g-Go, a co. in the S. E. central part of N. Y., on the sources of the Susquehanna. Pop. 49,628. Co. i. Cooperstown.

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#" Thy muse"-"in bella delighting, finds a friend,

In every chime that jingled from OSTEND."--BYRON.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, ndt; öð as in good;

OTSEGO (Okkuddo), a co. in the N. part of Mich., E. of Traverse Bay.

OTTAJANO, ot-la-ya-no, a t. of Naples, at the E. foot of Mt. Vesuvius, 12 m. E. of the capital. Pop. 15,000. (B.)

OTTAWA, ot-ta-wa' or ou-ta-wa', a co. in the N. N.W. part of Ohio, bordering on L. Erie. Pop. 2,248.

OTTAWA, a co. in the W. part of Mich , bordering on L. Michigan, and intersected by Grand r. Pop. 496. Co. t. Grand Haven.

Ortawa, a r. of Canada, flowing into the St. Lawrence, near Montreal. It forms the boundary between Upper and Lower Canada.

Oude, ood, a prov. and kingdom under the protection of the British, in the N. of Hindostan, between 25° 30' and 28° 40' N. Lat., and 799 and 83° E. Lon.

OUDENARDE, ou'-den-år!-deh, or OUDENAARDEN, (Fr. Audenarde, ö-den-ard'), a t. of Belgium, on the Scheldt, 14 m. W. of Ghent. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

OURAL. See URAL.
OURFA. See OORFA.

OUSE, ooz, a r. in the N. E. part of England, which forms the principal branch of the Humber.

Ouse, Great, a r. in the E. of England, which rises in Northamptonshire, and flows into the Wash.

01-VER-TỌN, a co. in the N. part of Tenn., bordering on Ky. Pop. 9,279. Co. t. Monroe.

Oviedo, O-ve-d-Do, (Lat. Ovetum), a city in the N. W. part of Spain, cap. of the prov. of Asturias, supposed to have been built near the middle of the 8th century. During the middle ages, Oviedo was known throughout Christendom as “the City of the Bishops” (Civitas Episcoporum), owing, it is said, to the great number of the clergy who took refuge here from the persecutions of the Moors. The ancient cathedral is a magnificent structure of the pure Gothic style, equalled, perhaps, by vone in the Spanish peninsula. The University, founded in 1580, is well endowed, and has a large library. Lat. 43° 22 N, Lon. 5° 57' W. Pop. about 10,000. (B.)

O-we'-go, a flourishing t. in the S. part of N. Y., on the E. branch of the Susquehanna, and at the junction of the Ithaca and Owego Railroad (29 m. long) with the New York and Erie Railroad, about 84 m., in a direct line, S. W. of Utica. Pop. 5,340.

Owl-En, a co. in the N. part of Ky., E. of, and bordering on Kentucky r. Pop. 8,232. Co. t. New Liberty.

OWEN, a co. in the S. W. central part of Indiana, intersected by the W. fork of White r. Pop. 8,359. Co. t. Spencer.

OwHYHEE. See Hawaii.

Ox?-FORD (Lat. Oxo'nia), a beautiful city and celebrated seat of learning of England, the cap. of Oxfordshire, is situated on the Isis, o branch of the Thames, 53 m. W. N. W. of London.

The date of the university is unknown; it is, however, certain that Oxford was a place of study in the reign of Edward the Confessor, if not earlier. "The University of Oxford at present consists of 19 colleges and 5 halls.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng.' The total number of members on the books in 1841, was 5,515. Among the different libraries of Oxford, we ought especially to notice the celebrated Bodleian Library, named in honour of Sir Thoinas Bodley, by whom it was founded, in 1597. It contains about 300,000 printed vols., besides a great number of valuable manuscripts. The Observatory is in Lat. 51° 45' 40" N., Lon. 1° 15' 22" W. Pop., including the university, with an area of above 4 sq. m., 23,834. . A student at Oxford is called an Oxo'-NL-AN.

OXFORD, a co. in the W. part of Maine, bordering on N. H. Pop. 38,339. Co. t. Paris.

Ox'-FORD-SHỊRE, a co. in the S. central part of England, on the Thames. Pop. 161,643.

Oxl-us (called by the natives Amoo, åå-moo', or JE-Hoon'), a great r. of Central Asia, which rises from a mountain lake in 37° 27' N. Lat., and 73° 40' E. Lon., at an elevation of 15,600 ft. above the level of the sea. (M.) Its general direction is north-westerly: it enters the sea of Aral near 43° 30 N. Lat., and 58° E. Lon., after a course of about 1,300 m. Sir A. Burns crossed it on his way to Bokhara, and found it upwards of 800 yards in breadth, about 20 ft. in depth, with muddy waters, and a current of about 31 m. an hour. (M.)

O-ZARKI, a co. in the S. part of Mo., bordering on Ark.

Pacific OCEAN (sometimes, though improperly, called the South SEA), a vast expanse of water, extending from the western shores of America to the eastern shores of Asia and Australia. Its most northern limit is Behring's Strait, in about 66° N. Lat.: towards the southern extremity, it is divided from the Atlantic by a line drawn from Cape Horn to the S. pole. It extends from 120° E. to 70° W. Lon., a distance of above 11,000 m. Its extent, from N. to S., is somewhat less than 10,000 m. The Pacific received its name from Magellan, the first European who traversed it, in consequence of the prosperous weather which he met with while navigating its surface. Though this ocean is subject to violent gales and storms (at least in many parts of it), it would seem that the winds and water-currents are generally more regular and uniform, and in so far less hostile, than those in the Atlantic. This may be accounted for by its great extent, which prevents the regular prevailing winds from being broken by those irregular currents, calms, and storms which the vicinity of a large tract of land, especially of mountain land, is so apt to produce.

PADERBORN, på-der-born', a commercial t. of Prussia, in Westphalia, cap. of a circle of the same name. It is an ancient place, tolerably well built, and surrounded by a wall with five gates. It is said to have been for a time the residence of Charlemagne. Lat. 51° 44' N., Lon. 8° 44' E. Pop. 6,000. (B.)

Pad'-v-A (It. Padova, pål-do-vå; Anc. Patalvium), a city and distinguished seat of learning, in Austrian Italy, cap. of a prov. of the same name, situated on the Bacchiglione (båk-keel-yo-na), a small r. which flows into the Adriatic. It is fortified with walls, ditches, and bastions,

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; no, not; oo, as in good; and is above 6 m. in circumference, but is thinly inhabited. At the head of its numerous scientific and literary institutions, stands the University, one of the most celebrated and most flourishing in Europe. It was founded in the early part of the 13th century, and attained its greatest popularity during the 15th and 16th centuries, when it wus attended not only by a multitude of students from all parts of Europe, but even by some from Mahometan countries. Its medical school was particularly celebrated. Fallopius, Morgagni, and the great Galileo, have been among its professors: Dante, Petrarch, and Tasso have been of the number of its pupils. The University at present is attended by 1,000 students, but, during its most flourishing period, it is said to have had six times that number: there are four faculties; theology, law, medicine, and philosophy, with about 60 professors: the botanic garden, connected with the University, is regarded as the oldest in Europe : the library contains upwards of 70,000 vols. The clerical college or seminary is noted for its printing presses, which have long supplied Italy with school-books and with good editions of other works. Its library contains above 55,000 vols. At Padua, Forcellini compiled his great Latin Lexicon, upon which he spent 40 years of his life. Patavium was considered in the Roman times as one of the oldest towns in Italy. It is distinguished as the birth-place of Livy. The Observatory is in Lat. 45° 24' 2" N., Lon. 11° 52' 18" E. Pop. 51,000. (B) --Adj. and inhab. PAD--ẠN.

PAGE, a co. in the N. N. E. part of Va., intersected by the Shenandoah r. Pop. 6194.

Paisl-ley, a manufacturing t., the third in Scotland for population and commercial importance, situated in Renfrewshire, on the White Cart r., 3 m. above its junction with the Clyde, and 8 m. W. by S. of Glasgow. Lat. 55° 51' N., Lon. 4° 26' W. The pop. of the parish of Paisley, in the middle of the last century, was about 6,000; in 1801, it was 31,179; in 1841, it amounted to 60,487: that of the town alone to 48,426.

PAL'-A-WÅN', one of the Philippine Islands, extending from 8° 20' to 11° 30' N. Lat., and from 117° 30' to 119° 40' E. Lon. Length about 270 m. Mean breadth, perhaps 25 m. Little is known of the interior.

PALENCIA, pal-en-she-a, (Sp. pron. på-len/-the-å; Anc. Pallan/tia,) a city of Spain, in Leon, cap. of a prov. of the same name, on an affluent of the Pisuerga (pe-swérl-gå), which flows into the Douro. Its cathedral is one of the largest and finest in Spain. Lat. 42° 2' N., Lon. 4° 28' W. Pop. about 11,000. (B.)

PALENQUE, på-lenkl-d, or more properly CULHUACAN, kool-wå-kin', an ancient city of Mexico, remarkable for its magnificent ruins, said to be the most interesting, and on the largest sgale, of any in the New World.

PAL-ER/-MO or på-lér!-mo (Anc. Panor/mus), the principal seaport and cap. of Sicily, and the second city of the kingdom of the two Sicilies; is pleasantly situated on the N. coast, towards its W. extreinity. The town forms an oblong parallelogram, surrounded by walls, and furnished

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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; tu, as in this; N, nearly like ng. with bastions. The royal palace is an old building, fortified like a castle, with a magnificent chapel, built by Roger of Sicily, in 1129. On the summit of the palace is the observatory where Piazzi discovered, in 1801, the planet Ceres. · Palermo is the see of an archbishop; and the seat of a university, founded in 1447, and attended by about 600 students, with a library of 40,000 volumes. Panorinus appears to have been a place of considerable consequence in ancient tiines; the naine signifying “ All-port," may be regarded as indicating its early commercial imporlance. The observatory is in Lat. 38° 6' 44" N., Lon. 13° 21' 24'' E. Pop. about 168,000. (B.)

PAU-ES-TINE' (Lat. Palæstilna, usually callod by the Roinans Judæa), the name commonly applied to the land anciently inhabited by the Israelites, including the country of the Philistines. Its precise boundaries are not well defined. It appears, however, to have been situated between 31° and 33° 30' N. Lat., and 34° and 36' 30' E. Lon., being bounded on the N. and E. by Syria, S. E. and S. by the desert, and W. by the Mediterranean. Length, perhaps 180 in.; greatest breadth about 30 m. Area estimated at 11,000 sq. m. (P. C.)

Palma, påll-mả, one of the Canary Islands, intersected by the parallel of 28° 30' N. Lat., and the 18th meridian of W. Lon. Length about 26 m.; greatest breadth about 16 in. Area 19 sq. leagues. Pop. in 1835, 33,089. (P. C.)

PALMA, a fortified t., the cap. of Majorca and of all the Balearic Islands, is situated on the S. W. coast, on a bay of the saine naine, which forms a good harbour. In the 13th century, Palma was one of the chief trading places in Europe, but at present its commerce is comparatively unimportant. Lat. 39° 34' N., Lon. 2° 44' E. Pop. estimated at 34,000. (B.)

PALMAS or Las Palmas, lås påll-mås, the chief t. of the Grand Catary, and the cap. of all the Canaries, is situated on the N. E. coast. Lat. 28° 8' N., Lon. 15° 26' W. Pop. about 9,000. (B.)

PAM-ly-co (called in the upper part of its course Tar River), a r. of N.C., flowing into Pamlico Sound, near 35°15'N.Lat. and 76°30'W. Lon.

PAMPLONA, pårn-plo-nå, or PAMPELUNA, påm-pa-lool-nå (Anc. Pompelon or Pompeiopolis), a fortified t. of Spain, cap. of the prov. of Navarre, and formerly the residence of the Navarrese kings, is situated on the r. Arga, an affluent of the Ebro. Lat. 42° 50', Lon. 1° 42' W. Pop. 15,000. (B.)

PANAMA, pån-a-mål, a fortified seaport t. of New Granada, cap. of a prov. of the same name, and of the dep. of the Isthmus (Istmo), situated on the Bay of Panama. Lat. 8° 59 N., Lon. 79° 27° W. Pop. not 10,000, (B.), but the statements of several other writers make it considerably above this number.

PANAMA, ISTHMUS OF, called also the Isthmus of DÅRIEN (dal-re-en), the narrow neck of land which unites North and South America, situated between 7° and 9° 30°N. Lat., and 77o and 83' W. Lon. The narrowest part is about 20 m. E. of Panama, between 9° and 9° 30' N Lat., and near 79° W. Lon., where it is scarcely 30 m. wide.

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