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Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; nò, nôt; öö as in good;

Panay, på-ni', one of the Philippine Islands, intersected by the Ilth parallel of N. Lat., and the 117th and 118th meridians of E. Lon. Length, about 110 m.; greatest breadth, near 99 m. Its form is almost an equilateral triangle. It is one of the most important and populous islands in the whole group. Pop. estimated, in 1837, at about 406,400. (P. C.)

Pancsova, påånd-cho'-võh', a trading t. in the S. E. part of Hungary, on the Temes (teml-esh'), near its junction with the Danube, 10 m. E N. E. of Belgrade. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

PA-NO'-LẠ, a co. in the N. W. part of Miss., intersected by the Tallahatchie r. Pop. 4,657. Co. seat, Panola.

Pa'pa, pia'-põh, a large t. of Hungary, about 80 m. S. E. of Vienna. Pop. 14,000. (B.)

PAPAL STATE (It., Stato Pontificio, stål-to pon-le-feel-che-Q, or Stato della Chiesa, stål-todėl-lå ke-d'-så, i. e. “ state of the church"), a division of Italy, comprehending the dominions of the see of Rome, of which the Pope is the monarch. It is principally situaled between 41° 10' and 45° N. Lat., and 11° and 14° E. Lon.; bounded on the N. by the Austrian dominions, N. E. and E. by the Adriatic and kingdom of Na. ples, S. W. by the Mediterranean, and W. and N. W. by Tuscany and Modena. Its length is about 270 m.; the breadth varies greatly; in one part it extends across the Italian peninsula, and is near 140 in. broad. Area estimated at 17,200 sq. m. Pop. in 1833, 2,732,036. (M.) The seat of gov. is at Rome.

Papua, pap'-00-a or pål-poo-å, called also New Guinea, a large i., or perhaps cluster of islands, in the Eastern seas, between 130 and 150 E. Lon., and 0° and 10° S. Lat. Not only its interior, but even its coast line is in many parts unknown. Europeans have little or no commercial intercourse with this island. The inhabitants consist of two and perhaps more classes ; the Papuas, who inhabit the western portion of the island, received their name from the Malays, in whose language it signifies " frizzled hair;" and the Haraforas, who are said to occupy the interior and eastern coasts. Both these races appear to live in a state of great barbarism. The Papuas are said to resemble the Australians, though they are perhaps rather less degraded.-Adj. PAPUAN, papl-00-an.

Para, på-rả', called formerly Belem, ba-len' or bå-leng', a sea port t. of Brazil, cap. of a prov. of its own name, is situated on the river or estuary of Para, formed by the union of the Tocantins with the Tagipuru (tà-zhe-poo-roo'), the southern arm of the Ainazon. Lat. 1° 28 S., Lon. 48° 22' W. Pop. estimated at nearly 20,000 (B.), though some say that the troubles and massacres which occurred in Para, in 1834-5, have greatly reduced the number of its inhabitants.

Paraguay, par-u-gwà' or par-a-gwi', a r. of S. America, which rises in Brazil, in about 13° 30'S. Lat., and 56° 20' W. Lon.; it flows sontherly, separating the state of Paraguay from Bolivia and La Plata, and empties itself into the Parana, in about 27° 20'S. Lat., and 59° 40' W. Lon. Ils length is estimated at above 1,100 m. Vessels of 300 ions

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ou, as in onr ; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. may ascend as far as Assumption, and smaller vessels several hundred miles within the boundary of Brazil.

PARAGUAY, an independent state of S. America, situated between 19' and 27° 30 S. Lat., and 54° and 59° W. Lon. ; bounded on the N. and E. by Brazil, S. by La Plata, and W. by La Plata and Bolivia. Length, from N. to S., near 600 m.; greatest breadth, about 210 m. Area estimated at 90,000 sq. m. Pop. in 18:26, 250,000 (B.), at present it probably exceeds 300,000. The Guaranis (gwå-rå-nees'). à tribe of a borigines, constitute the principal portion of the inhabitants. Dr. Francia, the late dictator, through his wise, though arbitrary government, appears to have succeeded in bringing these people into a more perfect state of subordination and civilization, than has ever been done before with any nation of American aborigines; and, at the same time, he has preserved the country from those dissensions and civil wars from which the other S. American states have suffered so deeply. His policy of rigorously excluding from his dominions all foreigners, without exception, has doubtless contributed greatly not only to preserve the tranquillity of the country, but also to consolidate the different elements of the population into one mass, and to form them into a nation. Little is known with certainty respecting the present condition of this country. Assumption (Asuncion) is the capital.

PARAHYBA or PARAIBA, på-rå-eel-bå, a r. in the S. E. part of Brazil, * which rises atout 80 m. W. of Rio Janeiro, and after a very circuitous

course of above 500 in., falls into the Atlantic, about 170 m. N. E. of the Brazilian capital, in 21° 40' S. Lat., and near 41° W. Lon.

PARAMARIBO, par-a-marl-e-bo, the cap. of Dutch Guiana, in S. America, is situated on the r. Surinam, about 20 m. from its mouth. Lat. 5° 45' N., Lon. 55° 24' W. Pop. estimated at from 18,000 to 20,000. (B.)

PARANA, på-rå-nå', a large r. of S. America, which rises in the S: E. part of Brazil, near 22° S. Lat. and 45° W. Lon., and, flowing in a general westerly course, receives the Parana-Iba* (par'-a-nå cel-bå) in 20° 40 S. Lat., and 52° 20' W. Lon., after which it runs at first southerly, then westerly, to its junction with the Paraguay. On receiving this great tributary, it again takes a southerly course to its termination (Lat. 34' S., Lon. 58° 30' W.); where, by its union with the Uruguay, it forms the Rio de la Plata. The whole length of the Parana may be estimated at 2,000 m. It is navigable about 750 m. for vessels of 300 tons.

PARANA-IBA or PARANAHYBA. See the preceding article.

PARANAHYBA, pår-a-nå-eel-bả, or ParnaHiBA, pár-nå-eel-bå, å r. in the N. E. part of Brazil, which flows into the Atlantic, in 2° 50'S. Lat., and near 42° W. Lon. Length above 700 m. It is navigable above 400 m. for vessels of from 15 to 40 tons.

Some geographers call that portion of the river which is above the junction of the Parana-Iba, the Rio Grande (reel-o gran'-da), considering the Parana to be formed by the union of these two branches.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, mét ; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; öð, as in good;

Paris, pår/-js, (Fr. pron. pi-rel; Anc. Lutetia, afterwards Paris'. sii;) a great city and distinguished seat of civilization, learning, and the arts, the cap. of the dep. of Seine, and of the French monarchy, is situated on both sides of the r. Seine, about 110 m., in a direct line, from its mouth, and 210 m. S. E. of London. The limits of the town are defined by a wall erected in the reign of Louis XVI., in order to prevent the introduction of commodities without the payment of local taxes. The outline thus formed, though irregular, approximates to an oval. Througb the wall there are 58* entrances, at each of which is a toll-house. (M.) Round the walls, on the outer side, is a road planted with rows of trees, what are termed the exterior boulevards. The entire circuit of these boulevards is rather more than 15 m.; the area included within the walls is about 8,500 acres, or 13. sq. m. Paris is, for the most part, irregularly built, with lofty houses and narrow streets : a few of these, however, are truly magnificent, such as the Rue de la Paix (ru d’lå på), de Castiglione (deh kås'-tig'-le-on'), de Rivoli (d'revôl'-e'), &c. As in London, the fashionable part of the city is at the W. end. The more densely inhabited portion of Paris is encircled by the interior boulevards, between which and the walls, are the suburbs or faubourgs (fo»-boor'), forming some of the best built quarters of the town. There are in Paris about 70 places or squares, the principal of which are—the Place de la Concorde (plás d'lå kong-kord'), an open space W. of the garden of the Tuileries, in the centre of which is the obelisk lately brought from Luxor, in Egypt; the Place Vendôme; the Place des Victoires (da vic'-twår!); the Place du Trône; the Place du Carrousel (kår'-roo-zel'); and the Place Royale. There are several public gardens, as the garden of the Tuileries (tweel-ler-eez), the Lur. embourg, and the Champs Elysées (shảnz él'-e'-za/), or “ Elysian Fields." The Champ de Mars (shản d'mar), i. e. “Field of Mars," is a very large oblong enclosure, bordered by a double avenue of trees, for reviewing troops, horse-racing, &c. Among the remarkable buildings of Paris, we may mention the Tuileries, a palace of vast dimensions, but not to be admired for its architecture ; the Louvre (loovr), formerly a royal residence, a striking and magnificent edifice, connected with the Tuileries by a long gallery, containing a superb collection of pictures, one of the finest in the world: the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, founded in the 11th century, one of the noblest existing specimens of Gothic architecture: Sainte Geneviève, or the Pantheon, considered by many as the finest church in the French metropolis: and the new church of Madeleine (måd -lane/) or “ Magdalen," an imitation of a Corinthian temple, regarded as the most imposing and chaste specimen of this kind of architecture wbich has ever been produced in modern times. There are in Paris several spletrdid triumphal arches, of which the Arc de l'Etoile (arc dla'-twåll) is the most remarkable, being indeed the most stupendous structure of the kind ever erected, either in ancient

* The Penny Cyclopædia slates that in 1830 the entrances were reduced to 50

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. or modern times. It forms a mass, of which the plan is 147 ft. by 73ft., the height is 162 ft. The effect of its extraordinary dimensions is greatly enhanced by the simplicity of its form, and by its position; for, standing quite separate from any other building, it is seen to the very best advantage. Paris is perhaps superior to every other city in the world, with respect to the number and character of its scientific and literary establishments. Of these, our limits will permit us to notice but a very few. The most remarkable are: the Académie Universilaire, or the University (dlate unknown), attended by 7,446 students, (B.), being the most frequented of any in the world: the College Royale, which may be regarded as equivalent to a university, attended by near 1,000 students: the Royal Museum of Natural History, the richest collection of the kind that exists, with a menagerie and botanic garden; the lectures on the natural sciences, at the Botanic garden (Jardin des Plants, zhaR'-dân' da plånt), are attended by near 3,000 persons: the Polytechnic School, a distinguished institution, which has been imitated in several other countries: and the School of Astronomy (at the Royal Observatory), one of the first establishments of the kind existing in any country. The following libraries are open to the public: the King's Library, containing above 500,000 vols., 80,000 inanuscripts, 1,600,000 engravings, and 100,000 medals and coins: the Library of the Arsenal, with 180,000 vols. and 5,000 manuscripts: and the Library of Sainte Geneviève, with 112,000 vols. The Library of the Institute (not public) contains 70,000 vols. There are, in the French capital, numerous learned societies, at the head of which is the National Institute; this establishment for a long time comprehended four departments, called academies, viz., the French Academy, (L'Académie Française, lå - kå-dém'-el från -sazel,) the office of which is the regulation and improvement of the French language: the Academy of Sciences; Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres; and the Academy of the Fine Arts. A fifth academy, of the moral and political sciences, has been added by Louis Philippe, the present king. Among the multitude of charitable institutions in Paris, there are 17 hospitals, 5 of which are for the military. The Royal Observatory is in Lat. 48° 50' 13' N., Lon. 2° 20' 22}" E. Pop. 909,000. (B.)—Adj. and inhab. PARISIAN, par-iehl-un (Fr. Parisien, på -re'-ze-ån' (masculine), and Parisienne, på -re'-ze-enn' (feminine).

Park, a co. in the W. part of Ind., bordering on the Wabash. Pop. 13,499. Co. t. Rockville.

PARI-MẠ or pårl-må, Duchy Of, an independent state of Northern Italy, between 44° 22' and 45° 8' N. Lat. and 9° 20' and 10° 37' E. Lon.; bounded on the N. by the Austrian dominions, from which it is separated by the Po, E. by Modena, S. by the Modenese, Tuscan, and Sardinian territories, and W. by the dominions of Sardinia. Its extent, from E. to W., is above 60 m.; from N. to S., near 50 m. Area estimated at 2,280 sq. m. Pop. in 1833, 465,673. (M.)--Adj. and inhab. Par'-ME-FAN'.

Parma, the cap of the preceding duchy, situated in a fine plain, about

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; no, not; öð, as in good; 12 m. S. of the Po. It is surrounded by walls, and is rather more than 4 m. in circumference. The streets are wide and straight, but appear somewhat dull and deserted. Parma has a superior school or lyceum, with the chairs of theology, medicine, and philosophy, attended by about 400 students; a public library, with 80,000 printed vols. and 4,000 manuscripts; and several other literary institutions. The Ducal Gal. lery has many valuable paintings, by some of the first Italian masters: most of the churches of Parma are adorned with those of Corregio. The ancient Parma was a town of the Etruscans: it became a Roman colony at the same time as Mutina (now Modena), 183 years before Christ. Lat. 44° 48' N., Lon. 10° 27'E. Pop. about 36,000. (P. C. and M.) Balbi, however, states it at about 30,000.

PARSONSTOWN. See Birr.

Pascagoula, pas"- ka-good-la, a r. in the S. E. part of Miss., which flows into a bay of the same name.

Pasco or Cerro Pasco, serl-RO påsl-ko, a t. of Peru, situated 14,278 ft. (P. C.) above the level of the sea, remarkable for its silver mines, which are among the richest in the world. Lat. about 10° 40 S., Lon. 75° 43' W. Pop. fluctuating, between 12,000 and 16,000. (P. C.)

Pas-de-Calais, pi' d' kå-la', or the “Strait of Calais," a dep. near the N. extremity of France, bordering on the Strait of Dover. Pop. 664,654. (B.) Capital, Arras.

Pas'-QUO-TANK', a co. near the N. E. extremity of N. C., bordering on Albemarle Sound. Pop. 8,514. Co. 1. Elizabeth City,

Pas-sal-ic, a small r. in the N. E. part of N. J., flowing into Newark Bay: Near Paterson it has a perpendicular descent of 50 ft. and a total fall of 70 ft., affording an immense water-power.

Passaic, a co. in the N. part of N. J., bordering on N. Y. Pop. 16,734. Co. t. Paterson.

Passau, pås'-sou, a t. and important fortress of Bavaria, cap. of the circle of the Lower Danube, at the confluence of the Inn and the Ilz (ilts) with the Danube. A handsome bridge, resting on 7 piers of granite, crosses the last-named river, which is 754 ft. wide. Two suburbs, the one on the right bank of the Inn, and the other on the left bank of the Jlz, are called respectively Innstadt and Jizstadt. Passau is in 48° 34' N. Lat., and 13° 28' E. Lón. Pop., including the suburbs, about 10,500. (P. C.)

Pat'-A-GO'-Ng-a, an extensive country of S. America, occupying the S. extremity of the continent, and extending from 39° to pear 54° S. Lat., and from 63° to 75° 40' W. Lon. It is separated on the N. from the territories of La Plata by the r. Negro; the line which divides from Chili is not accurately determined : on all other sides it is bounded by the sea. Length, from N. to S., about 1,060 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., 600 m. The area is probably above 300,000 sq. m. The natives of this country are called PATAGONIANS; a name which they received from Magellan, on account of the supposed magnitude of their

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