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Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; öð, as in good; tained by an inlet of the sound, Sutton Pool, on which the town is partly built.

Lat. 50° 22' N., Lon. 4° 7' 30" W. Pop. 36,527 ; including the adjacent towns of Devonport and Stonehouse, it will amount to 80,059.

PLYMOUTH, a co. in the S. E. part of Mass., bordering on the sea. Pop. 47,373.

PLYMOUTH, the cap. of the above, is situated on a small bay of the same name, 35 m., in a straight line, S. S. E. of Boston. It is remarka. ble as being the place where the first settlers of New England landed, December 220, 1620. Lat. of the court-house, 41° 57' 28" N., Lon. 70° 40' 28" W. Pop. of the whole township, 5,281.

PLYMOUTH, a port of entry of N.C., cap. of Washington co., on the Roanoke, 8 m. from its mouth.

Po (Anc. Erid'anus and Paldus), the largest r. of Italy, rises on the E. side of Mount Viso, in about 44° 40' N. Lat., and 7° E. Lon. It flows at first easterly, then northerly, till it reaches the point of about 45° 13' N. Lat., and 7° 50' E. Lon., when its general course becomes and continues almost due E. After passing, with a multitude of windings through one of the most fertile plains in the world, it empties itself into the Adriatic by numerous mouths, near 45° N. Lat., and 12° 301 E. Lon. The whole length is estimated at 450 m. The principal channel or mouth, which joins the sea almost under the 45th parallel is called the Maestra (må-acel-trå), and is always navigable for merchant vessels. Boats of 60 tons can, in all seasons, ascend the river as high as Cremona, and, except in times of great drought, as far as Casale (kå-sål-la), in Piedmont, in Lon. 8° 27' E.

Po'-CA-HONI-TẠ8, a co. in the W. central part of Va., on the sources of the Greenbrier r. Pop. 2,922. Co. t. Huntersville.

PODLACHIA, pod-låk'-e-d, a gov. of Poland, N. E. of, and bordering on the Vistula ; the Bug runs on its N. W. frontier. Capital, Siedlec.

Po-pol-L1-4, a gov. in the S. part of European Russia, bordering on Austrian Galicia. Capital, Kamieniec.

Poin-sett, a co. in the N. E. part of Ark., on the r. St. Francis. Pop. 1,320.

Point Coupée, koo-peel, a parish in La., on the Mississippi r. Pop. 7,898. Seat of justice, Point Coupee.

Portiers or PoictIERS, poi-teerz',* (Fr. pwa-te-d', almost pwi-te-d'; Anc. Limo'num or Lemonum, afterwards Picta' vi;) a city in the W: or W. central part of France, cap. of the dep. of Vienne, and formerly of the prov. of Poitou, situated on an affluent of the r. Vienne. It is surrounded by an ancient wall (sufficiently large to enclose four or five times as many houses as are actually contained in the town), with six gates. Poitiers possesses, among other literary institutions, an academie universitaire, a royal college, and a public library of 22,000 vols. This town occupies a conspicuous place in both ancient and modern

* See Introduction I., page 22.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. history, but it is especially memorable for two great battles: the one occurred in 732, in which the Franks, under Charles Martel, totally defeated an immense host of invading Saracens; the other in 1356, wben the army of Edward, the Black Prince, routed a greatly superior French force, under king John, and took a great number of prisoners, among whoin was the French king himself. Lat. 46° 35' N., Lon. 0° 21 E. Pop. 22,000. (B.)

Portou or Poictou, poi-too', (Fr. pron. pwa-tool, a former prov. of France, now divided among the deps. of Vienne, Deux Sèvres, Vendée, Indre-et-Loire, and Charente.

Pol-LẠ, a decayed sea port t. and once splendid city of Istria, on the N. E. coast of the Adriatic. It is now only remarkable for its fine harbour, which was anciently a station for one of the divisions of the Roman fleet; and for its numerous interesting antiquities, among which is a vast amphitheatre, not much inferior in magnificence to the Coliseum of Rome. Lat. 44° 52 N., Lon. 13° 50' E. Present pop. about 800. (B.)

Pol-LẠND (Polish, Polska, pole-skå), formerly an independent and extensive country of Europe, extending from the 48th to the 55th parallel of N. Lat., and from the 15th to the 33d meridian of E. Lon., including a large portion of the present territories of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. But the existing kingdom of Poland, constituted by the congress of Vienna, in 1815, and now united with the Russian empire, is of comparatively limited dimensions; being situated principally between 500 and 55° N. Lat., and 18° and 24° E. Lon.; bounded on the W. and N. W. by the dominions of Prussia, N. and E. by the Russian governments of Wilna, Grodno, and Volhynia, and S. by the Austrian prov. of Galicia and the republic of Cracow. Area estimated at about 50,000 sq. m. Pop. in 1826, 3,990,000. (B.)—Adj. Pol-lish; inhab. Pole, and Po'-LAK (now obsolete).

Polk, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Tenn. Pop. 3,570.
Polk, a co. in the S. W. central part of Mo., a little S. of the Osage

Pop. 8,449. Co. t. Bolivar. Poltava, pol-tål-vå, (sometimes incorrectly written Pultowa,) a t. in the S. part of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, remarkable for a great battle fought in its vicinity, in 1709, between Peter the Great and Charles XII. of Sweden, in which the former gained a complete victory. Lat. 49° 33' N., Lon. 34° 40' E. Pop. . 10,000. (P.C.)

POLYNESIA, pol-e-neel-she-a, (or Eastern Oceanica,) a name signifying “many islands," applied to one of the three divisions of Oceanica. It comprises the various islands or insular groups in the Pacific Ocean, between 130° E. and 100° W. Lon., with the exception of those adjacent to the eastern or western continent, and of those belonging to Australia, Malaisia, and the Aleutian group. (See Australia and Malaisia.) Adj. and inhab. POLYNESIAN, pol-e-neel-she-an.

Pom'-ER-AI-NI-A (Ger. Poml-mern), an extensive prov. of the Prussian monarchy, lying along the S. coast of the Baltic, between 53° and 54°

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; öö, as in good; 50' N. Lat. and 12° 30' and 18° E. Lon. Capital, Stettin.-Adj. and inhab. POM-ER-AY:NI-AN.

Po-mol-NĄ, or MAINLAND, the largest of the Orkneys, situated between 58° 53' and 59° 10' N. Lat., and 2° 43' and 30 22 W. Lon. Length, 24 m.; greatest breadth, near 14m. Pop. 16,141.

POMPEII, pom-pa-ye, an ancient city of Italy, situated near the sea, 15 m. S. E. of Naples. In the year 79, A.D., it was overwhelmed, to gether with Herculaneum and some other towns, by an eroption of Vesuvius, from the crater of which it is distant about 5 m. For more than 16 centuries its existence appeared to be unknown, and its name almost forgotten. But in 1748, some peasants employed in cutting a ditch, met with the ruins of Pompeii, which soon became an object of interest and attention. In consequence of the extensive excavations commenced in 1755, and continued to the present time, a great number of highly interesting antiquities have been brought to light. One may, indeed, at present promenade the streets, and visit the shops, theatres, and temples of this long-forgotten city. Every thing seems to be in a state of extraordinary preservation. Not only statues, medals, jewels, and nearly every kind of household furniture, have been found almost unaltered, but even books and paintings may be seen, far less injured than might have been supposed, when we take into consideration the violent catastrophe which destroyed the town, and the subsequent lapse of so many ages. Pompeii not having been buried by lava, but with tufa, ashes and scoriæ, the cxcavations are much more easily effected here than at Herculaneum.

PONDICHERRY, pon-de-shểrl-re, (Fr. Pondichéry, pon-de-sha'-re',) a t. of Hindostan, and the principal French settlement on the Asiatic continent, is situated on the Coromandel coast, 83 m. S. S.W. of Madras. It is a handsome and well-built town, and has, from the sea, a very im. posing appearance. Lat. 11° 56' N.. Lon. 790 52 E.

Pop. a boot 40,000. (B.)

PONTA-DELG ADA, pond-tå dél-går-då, the principal t. though not the cap. of the Azores, situated on the S. side of the island of St. Michael. Lat. 37° 40' N., Lon. 25° 50' W. Pop. probably about 16,000. (B)

PONTCH-AR-TRAIN', a lake in the S. E. part of La., communicating, by several outlets, called the Rigolets, with L. Borgne. Length, about 45 m.; greatest breadth, 23 m.

PONTEFRACT, pom-fret, a small t. of England, in the W. Riding of Yorkshire, 21 m. S. W. of York. Pop. of the township, 4,669.

PoN-TO-TOC', a co. in the N. part of Miss., on one of the sources of the Tombigbee. Pop. 4,491. Co. seat, Pontotoc.

Poole, a t. forming a little county of itself, with an area of only 170 acres, in Dorsetshire, England, 97 m. W. S. W. of London. Pop. 6,093.

Pool-NẠv, a city in the W. part of Hindostan, cap. of a dist. of the same name, and formerly of the Mahratta dominions, situated about 80 m. S. E. of Bombay. It is well built, with wide and generally handsome streets, but it has much diminished in population since 1818,

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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; Th, as in this ; N, nearly like ng. when it ceased to be the residence of the Peishwa or chief of the Mahratta confederation. Lat. 18° 30' N., Lon. 74° 2' E. Pop. estimated in 1919, at 115,000. (B.) The district of Poonah now forms a portion of the presidency of Bombay.

POPAYAN, po-pi-yản', a t. of New Granada, cap. of the dep. of Cauca, situated near the source of the river Cauca. It possesses a university, a mint, and other public establishments. Lat. 2° 26' N., Lon. 76° 40' W. The population, greatly diminished since the war, is said not now to exceed 7,000. (B.)

Pope, a co. in the N. W.or N. W. central part of Ark., bordering on the Arkansas r. Pop. 2,850._Co. t. Dwight.

Pope, a co. forming the S. S. E. extremity of Ill. Pop. 4,094. Co. t. Golconda.

Po-PER-ING-EN, (Fr. Poperingue, pop-er-an'g'.) a flourishing t. of Belgium, in W. Flanders, 7 m. W. of Ypres. I'op. 10,000. (B.)

Po-Po-CAT-A-PETL', a volcanic mountain of Mexico, the most elevated mountain summit in North America, among those which have been measured with any accuracy. Height, 2,771 toises, or 17,723 ft. (B.) Lat. about 19° N., Lon. 980 33' W.

PÖRTI-AGE, a co. in the N. E. part of Ohio, intersected by the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal. Pop. 22,965. Co. t. Ravenna.

Portage, a co. in the S. central part of Wisconsin, on the E. side of the Wisconsin r.

Pop. 1,623. PORT-AU-PRINCE, port o prince, (Fr. pron. port o prânce.) or Port REPUBLICAN, a seaport t. of Hayti, cap. of the dep. of the West, and of the whole Republic, situated on the Gulf of Gonave, with a safe and convenient harbour. . Though the situation is unhealthy, this town is the most flourishing in the whole island. It possesses a lyceum, a school of medicine attached to the Hospital, and a great number of elementary schools. Lat. 18° 34' N., Lon. 72° 27' W. Pop. estimated by Balbi at about 15,000.

Por'-TER, a co. in the N. W. part of Ind., bordering on L. Michigan. Pop. 2,162. Co. t. Valparaiso.

Port Glasgow. See Glasgow.

PORT/-LẠND, a city and port of entry, formerly the cap. of Maine, situated on a peninsula in Casco Bay, not far from the S. W. extremity of the state. The harbour is safe, and, though not large, is easy of access, and is defended by two forts. Portland is far before every other town in Maine, in population, wealth and commerce. It is connected with Portsmouth and Boston by a railroad. Lat. 43° 39' N., Lon. 70° 20' W. Pop. 15,218.

Portland, a small i. or rather peninsula on the S. coast of England, belonging to Dorsetshire. It is about 41 m. in length (exclusive of the isthmus, consisting of a narrow ridge of pebbles, about 8 m. long); 2 m. in its greatest breadth ; and consists of almost one continuous mass of free-stone, forming the famous Portland stone, of which such quantities are exported to the metropolis and other places.

cocoa. .

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; płne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo as in gord; !

Port LE'-on, a port of entry of Florida, in Leon co., on the Wa. kulla r.

Port Lous. See MAURITIUS.
Port Mahon. See Mahon.
Porto. See OPORTO.

Por-to BEL'-LO (Sp. Puerto Bello, pwer-to bell-yo, i. e. “ beautiful harbour”), a decayed sea port t. of New Granada, situated on the Caribbean Sea, on the N. side of the isthmus of Panama, now only remarkable for its fine harbour. It was formerly the seat of a celebrated fair, and a great entrepôt for the merchandise and wealth of Spain and Peru. Lat. 9° 33' N., Lon. 79° 35' W.

Porto Rico, por'-lo reel-ko, (Sp. Puerto Rico, pwěr-to ree'-ko, i.e. "rich port,"') one of the W. India islands, belonging to Spain, and deriving its name from its chief town (see next article), lhe smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles, situated between 17° 50' and 18° 32' N. Lat., and 65° 43' and 67° 20' W. Lon. Length near 110 m.; greatest breadth about 40 m. Its form is almost a parallelogram, the N. and S. coast-lines running nearly due E. and W. Area, 3,700 sq. m. Pop. in 1837, 357,086. (P. C.) The soil of Porto Rico is of the richest and most varied description; the different kinds being respectively and admirably adapted to the cultivation of sugar-cane, coffee, rice, and

Porto Rico or San Juan de Porto Rico, the cap. and largest t. of the above island, and one of the strongest fortresses in America, is situated on the N. coast, with a deep, secure, and spacious harbour. Lat. 18° 29' N., Lon. 66° 13' W. Pop. estimated at near 30,000. (B.)

Portsea. See next article.

Ports/-MỌUTH, a seaport t. of Hampshire, England, the principal na: val arsenal, and the grand station of the fleet of Great Britain, situated on the W. side of Portsea Island, 65 m. S. W. of London. The town consists of two distinct parts, Portsmouth Proper and Portsea ; the latter is much the larger place, and contains the dock-yard, which occupies an area of near 120 acres. The harbour, which is unequalled in Great Britain, has a narrow entrance, not exceeding 220 yards in width, but afterwards it expands into a noble basin, capable of conta ining the greater part of the British navy, and deep enough to float the largest men-of-war at any time of the tide. Portsmouth is well forti. fied, and is one of the strongest places in Enrope. The Observatory is in Lat. 50° 48' 3'^N., Lon. 1° 5' 58" W. Pop. of the whole borough, containing an area of near 8 sq. m., 53,032.

1 PORTSMOUTH, a port of entry, one of the seats of justice of Rockingham co., N. H., and the largest town in the state, situated on the Piscataqua r., about 3 m. from the sea, and communicating with Boston and Portland by a railroad. Its harbour is one of the best in America, being completely land-locked, never frozen, and accessible to the largest ships. It is defended by several forts and batteries, and contains a number of islands, on one of which is a United States' navy. yard. Lat. 43° 5' N., Lon. 70° 46' W. Pop. 7,987.

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