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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. POR'-TU-GAL (Port. pron. pur-too-gal'; Anc. Lusitania); a kingdom of Europe, occupying the S. W. portion of the Spanish peninsula, situated between 36° 56' and 42° 8 N. Lat., and 6° 13' and 9° 30' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. and E. by Spain, and S. and W. by the Atlantic. Length, from N. to S., near 360 m.; greatest breadth 142 m. Area, 38,800 sq. m. Pop. 3,530,000. (B.) Portugal is divided into six provinces; viz., Entre Douro e Minho, Tras os Montes, Beira, Estremadura, Alentejo, and Algarve, which are treaied of under their respective heads. Lisbon is the seat of government.--Adj. and inhab. Por'-TUGUERE'.

Posen, pol-zçn, an archiepiscopal city of Prussia, cap. of a prov. of the same name, on the Wartha. It possesses a gymnasium and several other literary institutions; and is the centre of an active commerce. Lat. 52° 29 N., Lon. 16° 53' E. Pop. above 29,000. (B.)

Po’-sey, a co. forming the S. W. extremity of Ind. Pop. 9,683. Co. t. Mount Vernon.

Po-TEN-ZA (Anc. Poten/tia), a t. of Naples, cap. of the prov. Basilicata (bả-sil-e-ka -tả). Lat 40° 36 N, Lon. 15 51 E. Pop. 9,000. (B)

Po-to-Mac, a large r. of the U. S., which rises in the Alleghany Mountains, in about 390 7 N. Lat., and 79° 30' W. Lon., and, flowing at first north-easterly, and afterwards in a general south-easterly direction, forms, in its whole course, the boundary between Md. and Va. It falls into the Chesapeake Bay, in about 38 N. Lat., and 76° 10' W. Lon. Length estimated at 400 m. It is navigable for the largest vessels to Washington, about 120 m. from its mouth, or near 250 m. from the sea.

Potosi, po-to-see or po-to-se, a city of Bolivia (formerly Upper Peru), celebrated for its rich silver mines, situated at the height of 13,265 ft. above the sea, on the W. declivity of the Cerro de Potosi, near its base. This mountain, which has the shape of a perfect cone, and rises to an elevation of more than 16,000 ft. above the level of the sea, seems to consist entirely of silver ore, of different degrees of rich

The fact that this precious metal existed here was first discovered in 1545, by an Indian, who, pursuing a lama up the steep declivity, caught hold of a shrub, which being torn from the soil, exposed a mass of solid silver at the roots. From 1556 to 1800, the produce of these mines amounted to the enormous sum of 823,950,508 Spanish dollars. (P. C.) The greatest produce of a single year was in 1593, when it amounted to 7,858,893 dollars. Lat. 19° 36' S., Lon. about 65° 30' W. Pop. in 1826, about 12,000 (P. C.), but when the mines were in the most flourishing state, the town was estimated to contain 160,000 inhabitants. (B.)

Potosi, San Luis DE, sån loo-is! dd po-to-seel, a t. of Mexico, cap. of a state of the same name, situated near the sources of the r. Tampico. Lat. about 22° N Lon. 100° 40' W. Pop. estimated at 20,000. (B.)

POTSDAM, pots/-dám, the cap. of a gov. of the same name, and, after Berlin, the handsomest town in the Prussian dominions, is situated or the Havel (hål-vel), an affluent of the Elbe, 17 m. W. S. W. of Berlin.

ness,

Fate, får, fill, fåt; m', in t; pine or pine, pin; nó, not; , as in good; The beauty of the houses and the magnificent royal palace, hare caused this town to be called the Versailles of Prussia. In the vicinity of the city is the palace of Sans Souci (sản soo -ce'), the favourite residence of Frederic the Great. Lat. 52° 26' N., Lon. 13° 2 E. Pop. exclusive of the garrison, which varies from 6,000 to 10,000 men, 25,560. (P.C.)

Pot'-ter, a co. in the N. part of Pa., bordering on N. Y. Pop. 3,371. Co. t. Coudersport.

Ports-ville, a flourishing t. of Pa., in Schuylkill co., at the termination of the Schuylkill canal, and connected with Reading and Phi ladelphia by a railroad. It owes its prosperity to the extensive coal mines in its vicinity. Pop. 4,345.

PouGHKEEPBIE, po-kip-se, a flourishing and handsome t. of N. Y., cap. of Dutchess co., on the E. side of the Hudson, 75 m. N. of New York. Lat. 41° 41' N., Lon. 73° 55' W. Pop. 10,006.

Poulton, polel-lon, a small t. of England, in Lancashire, 17 m. S. S. W. of Lancaster.

Powhartan, pou-bat-tan', a co. in the S. E. part of Va., between the Appomattox and James rivers. Pop. 7,924. Co. t. Scottsville.

Pozzuoli, pot-s00-o'-le, a t. of Naples, on the sea coast, about 6 m. W. of the capital, remarkable for its delightful situation and its antiquities. Pop. 2,000. (B.)

Prague, praig, (Ger. Prag, prảo,) an archiepiscopal city, the cap. of Bohemia, situated on both sides of the Moldau, nearly in the centre of the kingdom. The two banks of the river are connected by a bridge, more than 1,800 ft. jong, which is one of the handsomest in Europe. The town is surrounded by fortifications, with 8 gates, is generally well built, and contains a great number of fine edifices. There are 48 churches and 68 palaces, besides other important buildings, the effect of which, when viewed from a distance, with the commanding position of the city, is singularly grand and imposing. The university of Prague is the oldest in Germany, having been founded by Charles IV. in 1343. It has, at present, 53 professors and above 2,000 students. The medical department, in particular, is most liberally endowed. The library of the university contains 130,000 volumes and 4,000 rare manuscripts. The Bohemian National Museum contains a magnificent collection of specimens in the different natural sciences. Prague is the seat of numerous important manufactures, and the centre of an extensive com

The observatory is in Lat. 50° 5' 18' N., Lon. 14° 25' 28" E. Pop., including the garrison, above 120,000. (B.)

Prato, prål-to, a manufacturing t. of Italy, in Tuscany, on an affluent of the Arno, 10 m. N. W. of Florence. Pop. about 10,000. (B.)

Praya, Porto, por-to pril-å, a sea port t., cap. of the Cape Vere islands, on the S. coast of St. Jago (Sam Tiago). Lat. 14° 55' N., Lon. 23° 35' W. Pop. only 1,200. (B.)

Prel-BLE, a co. in the S. W. part of Ohio, bordering on Ind. Pop 19,482. Co. t. Eaton.

merce.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; th, as in this; x, nearly like ng.

PREG-El or pral-gel, a r. of E. Prussia, which falls into the Frische Haff below Königsberg.

PRENZLOW, prents-lov, a t. of Prussia, in Brandenburg, 28 m. W. S. W. of Stettin. Pop. 8,800. (B.)

PRES-BURG or PRESS-BURG (Ger. pron. press/-bõõrg; Hung. Posony, po-shoñ; Anc. Poso'nium); one of the handsomest towns, and formerly the eap. of Hungary, situated on the left bank of the Danube, 34 m. E. by S. of Vienna. It contains an academy, which is a sort of university, an archigymnasium, a library, belonging to Count Appony (åp-pon), of 50,000 volumes, which is open to the public, and several other iinportant literary institutions. Lat. 48° 8' N., Lon. 17° 11' E. Pop. above 41,000. (B.)

Pres/-tỌN, an important and flourishing manufacturing t. of England, in Lancashire, 28 m. N. N. E. of Liverpool. The Lancaster Canal, and the Lancaster and Preston, and other railways, pass through the town. Pop. in 1831, 33,871, in 841, 50,131.

PRESTON, a co. in the N. N. W. part of Va., bordering on Md. and Pa. Pop. 6,866. Co. t. Kingwood.

Prevl-E-sẠ or prd/-va-så, * a decayed sea port t. of European Turkey, in Albania, at the entrance of the Gulf of Arta. Pop. formerly estimated at above 8,000. (B.) Lat. 38° 58' N., Lon. 20° 45' E.

Prince Edward, a co. in the S. S. E. part of Va., on the sources of the Appomattox. Pop. 14,069. Seat of justice, Prince Edward c. h.

PRINCE EDWARD's Island, an i. in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, belonging to Great Britain, between 45° 56' and 47° 5' N. Lat., and 620 and 64° 25' W. Lon. Length of a curved line passing through its centre, about 140 m. ; greatest breadth, 37 m. Pop. about 33,000. (M.)

PRINCE GEORGE, a co. in the S. E. part of Va., S. of, and bordering on James river. Pop. 7,175. Seat of justice, Prince George c. h.

Prince George, a co. in the S. W. part of Md., E. of, and bordering on the Potomac and District of Columbia. Pop. 19,539. Co. t. Upper Marlborough.

PRINCE William, a co. in the N. E. part of Va., bordering on the Potomac. Pop. 8,144. Co. t. Brentsville.

PRINCESS ANNE, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Va. Pop. 7,285. Seat of justice, Princess Anne c. b.

PRINCE/-tỌN, a t. of N. J., situated partly in Middlesex and partly in Somerset co., 11 m. N. E. of Trenton. It is the seat of a celebrated college, under the direction of the Presbyterians, founded in 1746, and styled the College of New Jersey. Lat. 40° 21' N., Lon. 74° 39' W.

PRINCIPATO, prin-che-pål-to, a prov. of Naples, lying E. and S. E. of the metropolis. It is divided into Principato Citra (chee-trå), and Principato Ultra (ool/-trå), or “ nearer and farther Principato."

Pripl-ETS or Prıp/-ET, (in Polish, Prypec, prip/-ets,) a r. of Russian

*«Remember the moment when Prevesa fell,
The shrieks of the conquered and conqueror's yell."

Childe Harold, Canto II

Fåte, får, fall, fát; m', init; plne or pine, pin; n), nðt; oo, as in good; Poland, which rises near 51° 30' N. Lat., and 24° E. Lon., and, flowing casterly, falls into the Dnieper, 44 in. N. of Kief.

PROVENCE, PRO-våncel, one of the former provinces of France, now divided into the deps. of Lower Alps, Upper Alps, Mouths of the Rhone, Var, and Vaucluse. Provence is derived from provincia, & nuine given by the ancient Romans to countries or districts beyond the limits of Italy which they had brought under their dominion.-Adj. and inhab. ProvengAL, pro-vån -sål'.

Provi--DENCE, a inanufacturing and commercial city and port of entry, the serni-capital of R. I. is situated at the head of Narragansett Bay, 42 m., in a direct line, S. W. of Boston, with which city it is connected by a railroad. Its distance from the sea is 35 m., but the largest merchant-ships can coine up to the wharves. It is the largest town in the state, and the second in New England. Though irregu. larly built, it contains many fine edifices. The Arcade is considered to be the handsomest building of the kind in the United States. A line of steamboats keeps up a daily communication between Providence and New York, through Long Island Sound, during the whole of the open season. Brown University, in this city, a flourishing institution, under the direction of the Baptists, was founded in 1764. Lat. 41° 49' N., Lon. 71° 25' W. Pop. 23,171.

PROVIDENCE County, of which the above city is the seat of justice, has a pop. of 59,073.

Prussia, prool-she-a or prushl-e-a, (Ger. Preussen, prois'-sen,) an important kingdom of Europe, situated between 49° 50' and 550 52 N. Lat., and 5° 50' and 22° 54' E. Lon. It consists principally of two parts; the larger of which is bounded on the N. by the Baltic, N. E. and E. by Russia and Poland, S. by the dominions of Austria, and W. by Hesse-Cassel, Brunswick, Hanover, and Mecklenburg, by which states it is separated from the other principal portion. The latter is situated on both sides of the Rhine, and is called Rhenish Prussia (Rhein-Preussen). It has Hanover on the N., the Netherlands on the N. W. and W., and France on the S. W. On the S. and S. E. it borders on the territories of Bavaria, Nassau, and several of the smaller Gerinan states. Length of the larger portion, from N. N. E. to S. S.W., 600 in. ; greatest breadth about 340 mn. Area about 90,000 sq. m. Area of the smaller portion, about 17,000 sq. m. Area of the whole Prussian monarchy, including, besides the above, the canton of Neufchatel, in Switzerland, and several other small detached pieces of territory, about 109,000 sq. m. Total pop., at the end of 1837, 14,154,198. (P. C.) The government of Prussia is a limited monarchy. The royal family belong to the reformed religion, but all denominations of Christians are tolerated, and enjoy nearly the same rights and privileges.-Adj. and inhab. Prussian, prool-shun or prush'-e-un.

Prussia Proper, or the PROVINCE OF Prussia, an extensive prov. forming the N. E. portion of the Prussian monarchy. It was formerly divided into E. and W. Prussia. Area, 24,780 sq. m. Pop. 2,152,873 (P. C.) Capital, Königsberg,

same name.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; ty, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. PRZEMYSL, pzhem'-isl, a t. of Austrian Galicia, cap. of a circle of the

Lat. 49° 48' N., Lon. 22° 53' E. Pop. 7,800. (P. C.) Pskov (Pskow), a decayed archiepiscopal city of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, on a river which flows into L. Pskof. This town, which holds so conspicuous a place in the history of Russia, has now a pop. of only 12,000. Lat. 57° 48' N., Lon. 28° 20' E.

PUEBLA. See LA PUEBLA.

PUERTO PRINCIPE, pwer/-to prini-se-pă, or Porto DEL Principe, i.e." the Prince's Port,” an inland t. of Cuba, 350 E. S. E. of Havana. It has a pop. of 49,000, but its appearance is anything but inviting, the streets being narrow, crooked, and extremely dirty. (B.) Nuevitas (nwa-veel-tas), the port of the above town, on the N. coast of Cuba, appears formerly to have been called Puerto Principe.

Pu-Las-K], a co. in the S. S.W. part of Va., intersected by the Great Kanawba r. Pop. 3,739.

Pulaski, a co. in the S. central part of Ga., intersected by the Ocmulgee. Pop. 5,389. Co. t. Hawkinsville.

Pulaski, in the E. central part of Ark., intersected by the Arkansas 1. Pop. 5,350. Co. t. Little Rock.

Pulaski, a co. in the S. E. part of Ky., N. of, and bordering on the Cumberland r. Pop. 9,620. Co. t. Somerset.

Pulaski, a co. in the N. W. part of Ind., a little N. W. of the Wabash and Erie Canal. Pop. 561.

Pulaski, a co. in the S. central part of Mo., intersected by the Gasconade r. Pop. 6,529. Co. l. Waynesville.

PUNJAB. See LAHORE.

Put'-NẠM, a co. in the S. E. part of N. Y., E. of, and bordering on the Hudson. Pop. 12,825. Co. t. Carmel.

Putnam, a co. in the N. E. central part of Ga., bordering on the Oconee. Pop. 10,260. Co. t. Eatonton.

Putnam, a co. in the N.W. part of Ohio, on the Miami Canal. Pop. 5,189. Co. t. Kalida.

Putnam, a co. in the W. part of Ind., a little E. of the Wabash r. Pop. 16,843. Co. t. Green Castle.

Putnam, a co. in the N. part of I., intersected by the Illinois r. Pop. 2,131. Co. t. Hennepin.

Puy, LE, leh pwee, a manufacturing t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Upper Loire, situated not far from the left bank of the r. Loire. It has a royal college and some other literary institutions. Lat. 45° 2' N., Lon. 3° 52' E. Pop. 14,738. (B.)

Puy de Dôme, pwee d'dôme, a dep, in the S. central part of France, intersected by the r. Allier. Pop. 589,433. (B.) Capital, Clermont.

Pyrl-EN-EES' (Anc. Pyrenæli Mon’tes), a chain of mountains in the S. W. part of Europe, which extends from the Mediterranean to the Bay of Biscay, constituting a natural barrier between France and Spain. The Pic de Néthou (peck d'nd'-100') of Mount Maladetta, the highest summit in the whole chain, has an elevation of 11,318 ft. above the level of the sea. Mount Maladetta is in about 42° 37' N. Lat., and 0° 45' E. Lon.

PYRENEES, EASTERN (Fr. Pyrénées Orientales, pe'-rd'-nd zo'-re'

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