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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. En 1826, was estimated by him at 60,100,000. This vast empire is divided into three great parts, viz. European, Asiatic, and American Russia. European Russia, though not comprising the greatest extent of territory, surpasses the others vastly in population and importance. It is situated between 46° 40' and 70° N. Lat., and 17° 40' and 66° E. Lon., and is bounded on the W. by the Baltic and Prussia, on the S. by the territories of Austria and Turkey, by the Black Sea, and the Caucasian territories of Russia, which are comprised within the limits of Asia. Its boundaries on the E. and N.-are the same as those of Europe. Its greatest length, from N. to S., is about 1,900 m.; its greatest estimated breadth, from E. to W., is above 1,600 m. Area, 2,047,600 sq. m. Pop. in 1826, 56,500,000. (B.)* (For an account of Asiatic Russia, see SIBERIA.) American Russia comprehends the N. W. part of N. America, between 54° 40' and 71° 20 N. Lat., and 130° and 168° W. Lon. Area estimated at 500,000 sq. m, including the Aleutian islands and several other groups. Pop. 50,000. (B.) The established religion of Russia is the Greek Orthodox, identical with that of the Greeks of the Ottoman empire. The government is an absolute and unlimited despotism. St. Petersburg is the capital of the empire. -Adj. Russian, rool-shun or rush/-un; Inhab. RUSSIAN and Russ, (poetical).


RUTHERFORD, ruth'-er-ford, a co. in the S. W. part of N. C., bordering on S. C. Pop. 19,202. Co. t. Rutherfordton.

RUTHERFORD, a co near the centre of Tenn., S. E. of Nashville. Pop. 24,282. Co. t. Murfreesborough.

RUTHERGLEN, pron. rug'-len, a t. of Scotland, on the Clyde, 2} m. S. E. of Glasgow. Pop. 5,623.

RUTI-LAND, the smallest co. of England, situated on the Welland r., about 80 n. N. by W. of London. Pop. 21,302.

RUTLAND, a co. in the W. part of Vt., bordering on Lake Champlain. Pop. 30,699. Co. t. Rutland.

Ryde, a seaport t. and watering-place of England, situated on the N. E. side of the Isle of Wight. _Pop. 5,840.

Rye, a t. and cinque port of England, in Sussex, 53 m. S. S. E. of London. Lat. 50° 57' N.; Lon. 0° 44' E. Pop. of borough and parish, 4,031.

Saale, såål-leh, a r. in the N. W. central part of Germany, flowing into the Elbe, near 52° N. Lat., and 12° E. Lon.

SAALFELD, sååll-félt, a manufacturing t. of Germany, in the duchy of Saxe-Meiningen-Hildburghausen, on the Saale. Lat. 50° 37' N., Lon, 11° 24' E. Pop. about 4,000. (B.)

SAARBRÜCK, såårl-brük or SAAR-BRÜCKI-En, a manufacturing t. of Ger

* Balbi appears not to include in the area and population of Russia in Europe, those portions of the provinces of Caucasus and Georgia, which belong to this section of the globe.

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; nò, not; oo as in good; many, in the Prussian prov. of the Rbine, on the Saar, an affluent of the Moselle. The river is crossed by a stone bridge, whence the name of the town, which signifies “Saar-bridge." Lat. 49° 14' N., Lon. about 7° E. Pop., including the suburb of St. John, on the other side of the Saar, 7,200. (B.)

SAARLOUIS, såår-lool-is, a t. and fortress of the Prussian prov. of the Rhine, on the Saar, 12 m. W. N. W. of the above town. Pop., including the garrison, about 7,000 (P. C.), of which 4,400 belong to the town.

SABINE, sab-een', a r. which rises in Texas, and flowing, at first southeasterly, then southerly, forms, through a great part of its course, the boundary between Texas and Louisiana.

SACK -ETT'S HARBOUR, a t. and port of entry of N. Y., in Jefferson co., on a bay at the E. extremity of L. Ontario. Lat. 43° 55' N., Lon. 75° 57' W. , Pop. of the township of Hounsfield, in which it is situated, 4,146.

Saco, sau/-ko, a r. which rises in the E. part of N. H., and, flowing south-easterly into Me., falls into the Atlantic, 14 m. S. W. of Portland.

Saco, a port of entry of Maine, in York co., situated on the E. side of the Saco r., 6 m. from its mouth. Pop. 4,408.

SAGG HARBOUR, a port of entry of N. Y., in Suffolk co., situated on a bay of the same name. Pop. 3,500.


SAG'-IN-Aw!, a co. in the eastern part of Mich., on a river and bay of the same name. Pop. 2,103. Co. t. Saginaw.

SAHARA, sa-hå-ra, also written Zabara, i. e. the desert," a region of vast extent, which occupies the central parts of N. Africa. It extends from the Atlantic, between Cape Noon (Nun), in 28° 46', and the mouths of the Senegal, in about 16° 30' N. Lat., eastward to the valley of the Nile. On the N. it is bounded by the Barbary states, on the S. by the countries watered by the Senegal r. and by Soodan. Of the actual limits, however, on the N. and S., very little is known. The length of the Great Desert, from E. to W., is near 3,000 m. ; the breadth, from N. to S., may vary from 700 to 1,500 m. The surface appears to be chiefly composed of sandstone or loose sand: every part is almost or entirely destitute of vegetation.

Said or SAEED. See EGYPT.

Saida, si!-då, (Anc. Sildon,) a seaport t. of Palestine, celebrated in remote antiquity as one of the greatest emporiums on the Mediterranean, and as being the parent city of Tyre.' Lat. 33° 34' N., Lon. 35° 20' E. Pop. at present estimated at only about 4,000 or 5,000. (M.)

SAIGON, si-gon', or SAY-GONG! (called by the natives Looknooee), the principal commercial t, of the empire of An-nam, cap. of the prov. of Tsiampa, on a r, of its own name. Lat. 10° 47' N., Lon. about 107° E. Pop. estimated by Balbi at 100,000.


SAINT GERMAIN. See GERMAIN, ST., and so for all the other articles having the prefix of SAINT,

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. SAINTES, sånt, (Anc. Mediola/num; afterwards San'tones, a l. of France; formerly the cap. of Saintonge, on the r. Charente, which is here crossed by a stone bridge. Lat. 45° 45' N., Lon. 0° 38' W. Pop. 7.823. (M.)

SAINTONGE, sin-tinzhl, former prov. of France, now included in the departments of Lower Charente and Charente. It takes its name from the Santones or Santoni, by whom it was anciently inhabited.

SALADILLO, Rio, reelo så-lå-peel-yo, i. e. the “ Little Salt River," the name given to several small streams of S. America, in La Plata.

SALA DO, or Rio SALADO, reel-o sá-lål-Do, i. e. “Salt River," the name of a number of rivers of S. America, in the republic of La Plata. The principal one rises in the N. W. part of this country, and flowing, at first, south-easterly, and then almost due S., joins the Parana, near 3.20 20 S. Lat., and 61o W. Lon. Its whole length is probably above 1,000 m.

SAL-A-MANC-^ or sål-8-mång/-kå, (Anc. Salman/tica,) a noted city of Spain, cap. of a prov. of the same name, on the Torme: (torl-mis,-an affluent of the Douro), here crossed by a handsome stone bridge of 27 arches, about one-half of which is the work of the ancient Romans. At the head of the literary institutions of this town, stands its cele.. brated university, founded about the year 1200, which, during the 15th and 16th centuries, was regarded as the first in Spain, and one of the most distinguished in Europe, and was attended, it is said, by from 10,000 to 15,000 students. It has of later tiines greatly declined, and is now but little frequented. Lat. 41° 5' N. Lon., 5° 43' W. Pop. stated at 14,000. (B.)

Szl-lem, a city and port of entry of Mass., and one of the seats of justice of Essex co., 13 m. in a straight line N. E. of Boston, situated on a tongue of land which projects into the sea. It has a fine museum and an atheneum with above 12,000 vols. Salem is the second town in the state for wealth and commerce, and possesses, also, extensive manufactures. Lat. 42° 31' N., Lon. 70° 54' W. Pop. 15,082.

SALEM, a co. in the S. W. part of N. J., bordering on the Delaware. Pop. 16,024. Co. t. Salem.

SAL-ER/-No or să-lêr/-no, (Anc. Saler'num,) an archiepiscopal city of Naples, pleasantly situated on a gulf of the same name, 28 m. S. E. by E. of the capital. Lat. 40° 40' N., Lon. 14° 46' E. Pop. 11,000. (B.)

SALINE, sal-een', a co. in the S. central part of Ark., on a r. of the same name, which falls into the Washita. Pop. 2,061. Co. t. Benton.

SALINE, a co. in the N. W. central part of Mo., bordering on the Missouri. Pop. 5,258. Co. t. Jonesborough.

SALISBURY, saulz.-ber-re, or New Sal-rum, a city of England, cap. of Wiltshire, on the Avon, 75 m. W. S. W. of London. Pop. 10,086.

SALONICA, sal-o-neel-ka, (called by the Turks Sel-a-neek'; Anc. Thessaloni'ca); a celebrated city and seaport of European Turkey, cap. of a sandjak of the same name, situated at the N. E extremity of the Gulf of Salonica. It is surrounded by high white-washed walls, with five gates, and defended by a fortress with seven towers. Its ap

same name.

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; me, mét; plne or pine, pin; no, not; oo, as in good; pearance, when approached from the sea, is very imposing, but the interior presents the irregularity and many of the deformities common to Turkish towns. There are in Salonica a number of highly interesting monuments of antiquity. One of the gates of the city consists of an ancient triuinphal arch. Salonica holds the second commercial rank among the towns of European Turkey, being inferior only to Constantinople; and is also the seat of some important manufactures. Lat. 40 38' N., Lon. 22° 56' E. Pop. estimated by Balbi at 70,000.

SALONICA, GULF OF (Anc. Silnus Therinalicus), is situated at the N. W. extremity of the Ægean Sea. Length about 70 m.; greatest breadth above 40 n.

Salta, sảll-tå, a t. of S. America, in La Plata, cap. of a state of the

Lat. 24° 10' S., Lon. 64° 20' W. Pop. estimated at 9,000. (B.)

SÅLTI-coats, a seaport t. of Scotland, in Ayrshire, on the Frith of Clyde, 24 m. S. W. of Glasgow. The name is derived from the salt works established for the production of salt from sea-water; but this business is now nearly abandoned. Pop. 4,238.

SA-LU'-DẠ, a r. of S. C., uniting with the Broad r. to form the Congaree.

Saluzzo, så-loot/-so, a t. of the Sardinian states, cap. of a prov. of the same name, on an affluent of the Po, 34 m. S. S. W. of Turin. Pop. about 10,000. (P. C.)

SALVADOR, Sr. See Bahia.

Sal-win or SAL-WEN' (called by the natives Than-Lyeng or ThanLweng), a r. in the S. E. part of Asia, which is supposed to rise in China, near 27° N. Lat., and 99o E. Lon.; flowing southerly, it falls into the Gulf of Martaban, a little below the town of this name. Though it brings down a great volume of water, it is not navigable in the lower part of its course. The upper portion has not been explored.

SALZBURG or Saltz-BURG (Ger. pron, sålts'-bõõrg), an archiepiscopal city of Upper Austria, cap. of a circle-formerly of a duchy-of the same name, on the Salza (sålt/-så), an affluent of ihe Inn, 70 m. E. S. E. of Munich. It is surrounded with walls and bastions, and has eight gates. Though irregularly built, the town contains several splendid edifices, chiefly in the Italian style. Salzburg has a lyceum (in the place of its former university), with a library of 30,000 vols. ; that belonging to the Monastery of St. Peter contains 40,000 vols. The duchy or principality of Salzburg was formerly governed by archbishops, who possessed very great privileges. It was secularized in 1802, and converted into an electorate of the German empire, and in 1814 it was united to Austria. Lat. of the town, 47° 48' N., Lon. 13° 1' E. Pop. about 14,000. (B.)

SALZWEDEL, sålts'-wa.del,a t. of Prussia, cap. of a circle of the same name, on an affluent of the Elbe. Lat. 52° 51' N., Lon. 11° 17' E. Pop. above 6,000. (B.)

SAM-A-RANG' (or Sam-d-rang'), a sea port and commercial t. on the

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; Ty, as in this; n, nearly like ng. N. coast of the island of Java. Lat about 70 S., Lon. 110° 25' E. Pop. estimated at from 36,000 to 38,000. (B.)

SAM-AR', one of the Philippine islands, intersected by the 12th paralJel of N. Lat., and the 125th meridian of E. Lon. Length near 150 m.; greatest breadth about 60 m.

Sam'-AR-CAND', a celebrated but now decayed city of Asia, in Independent Tartary, situated in a fertile valley, about 120 m. E. of Bokhara. It was once the capital of the vast empire of Tamerlane, when its pop. is said to have amounted to 150,000. The tomb of that famous conqueror is still in excellent preservation; his remains repose under a lofty dome, the walls of wbich are superbly adorned with jasper and agate. Lat. 39° 50' N., Lon. about 67° E. Pop. variously estimated at from 10,000 to 30,0 0, and even 50,000.

SAMBOR, sảın'-bor, a t. of Austrian Galicia, cap. of a circle of the same name, on the Dniester. Lat. 49° 32' N., Lon. 23° 17' E. Pop. 9,00

(B.) SAl-Mos (called by the Turks Soo-såm'), a fertile i. of the Greek archipelago, belonging to Turkey, intersected by the parallel of 37° 40' N. Lat. and the 27th meridian of E. Lon. It is separated from the coast of Asia Minor by a strait not 2 m. in breadth. Length about 30 m. ; greatest breadth 17 m. Pop. 15,000. (P. C.) Samos contains several interesting monuments of antiquity; among others, some remains of the great temple of Juno, who was worshipped with particular honour in this island, from its having been (as the Samians maintained) the place of her birth.—Adj. and inhab. Sal-Mi-An or Sam-L-or'.

SAMP!-son, a co. in the S. E. central part of N. C., a little E. of Cape Fear r. Pop. 12,157. Co. t. Clinton.

Sam-Tiago, soung-te-a-go, or St. JA -Go, also written SAN-THIAGO, the largest of the Cape Verde Islands, intersected by the 15th parallel of N. Lat., and the meridian of 23° 40' W. Lon. Length 36 m.; greatest breadth 18 m. Pop. above 12,000. (P. C.) Praya is the cap. of this island and of the whole group.

SANAA or Sana, så -nål, a walled city of Arabia, cap. of the prov. of Yemen Proper, about 150 m. N. N. E. of Mocha. Pop. estimated at 40,000. (M.)

SAN-Dus'-KY, a r. in the N. part of Ohio, which flows into a bay of the same name, on L. Erie.

SANDUSKY, a to. in the N. part of Ohio, at the mouth of the above r. Pop. 10,182. Co. t. Lower Sandusky.

SANDUSKY, a port of entry of Ohio, in Erie co., on the shore of Sandusky Bay, near its opening into L. Erie. Pop. 1,200.

SANDI-wich or sand-widge, one of the original Cinque Ports of England, in Kent, on the Stour, about 2 m. from its mouth, and 65 m. E. by S. of London. Lat. 51° 16' 30" N., Lon. 1° 20' E. Pop. only 2,913.

SANDWICH ISLANDS, one of the Polynesian groups, situated in the Pacific, between 18° 50' and 22° 20' N. Lat., and 154° 40' and 160° 20' W. Lon. The principal islands are Hawaii, Oahu, Atui, Maui,

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