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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. SAXE-ALTENBURG-—ál'-ten-burg', (Ger. Sachsen-Altenburg, såk/-senall-ten-boÓRG',) a small duchy of Germany, between 50° 44' and 51° 6 N. Lat., and 11° 20' and 12° 40' E. Lon. It consists of two nearly equal portions, separated from each other by the territory of Reuss. Area, 483 sq. in. Pop. 121,590. (P. C.) Altenburg is the capital.

Saxg-Co -BURG-GOTHA, (Ger. Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, såkl-sen kolbőrg go-tå,) a duchy of Germany, consisting chietly of two large portions, viz. the principalities of Coburg (see Coburg), and Gotha. The latter is principally between 50° 35' and 51° 6' N. Lat., and 10° 20 and 11° E. Lon. Area about 590 sq. m. Pop. 96,658. Total area of the duchy, about 790 sq. m. Total pop. near 138,000. (P. C.) Gotha is the capital.

SAXE-MEININGEN-HILDBURGHAUSEN, sa x-mil-ning-en hilt-bõõrg-houlzen, a duchy of Germany, composed of the ancient duchy Meiningen, the principalities of Hildburghausen and Saalfeld, and some other districts. It lies chiefly between 50° 12 and 50° 53' N. Lat., and 10° 7' and 11° 40 E. Lon. Area about 882 sq. m. Pop. 144,294. (P. C.)

SAXE-Weimar or Saxe-WEIMAR-EISENACH, sax-wil-mar-il-zen-åk, (Ger. Sachsen-Weimar, sảk-sen-Wi-mar,) a grand-duchy of Germany, consisting of the two principalities of Weimar and Eisenach, comprised of several detached portions, between 50° 23' and 51° 30' N. Lat., and 9° 50' and 12° 15' E. Lon. Area about 1,400 sq. m., of which Eisenach occupies about 445. Total pop. 245,813. (P. C.) Weimar is the capital.

Saxl-O-NY (Ger. Sachsen, såkl-sçn), in its largest sense, is used to designate an extensive country in the N. of Germany, stretching from the Weser, on the W., to the frontiers of Poland, on the E. Its limits appear never to have been definitely and permanently settled. It was formerly considered to include Westphalia. The name properly denotes the country of the Saxons; and as the boundaries of their dominion often changed with the changing tide of conquest, we may readily understand why the appellation of Saxony has been so variously and vaguely applied.

Saxony, KINGDOM OF, a state in the central part of Germany, between 50° 10' and 51° 28' N. Lat., and 11° 55' and 15° 3' E. Lon. Length above 140 m.; greatest breadth about 75 m. Area 5,788 sq. in. Pop. 1,652,114. (P. C.) The government is an hereditary limited monarchy. Dresden is the capital. --Adj. and inhab. Saxl-on.

Saxony, PRUSSIAN, a prov. of the Prussian dominions, consisting of the territories formerly belonging to Prussia, together with those which were dismembered from the kingdom of Saxony in 1815. It is bounded on the N. and N. E. by Brandenburg, E. by Silesia, S. by the kingdom of Saxony, and W. by Hesse, Brunswick, and Hanover. Its forin is very irregular: the area falls but little short of 10,000

sq. m.


SCAN-DER-OON', Gulf of, forms the N. E. extremity of the Mediter

It is near 40 m. long and 30 m. broad. SCANDEROON or ISKENDEROOM. See ALEXANDRETTA.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, mit; p'ne or pine, płn; nd, not; õő, as in good;

SCAN-DJ-NAI-vy-AN PENINSULA comprehends the N. W. portion of Europe, between 55° 20' and 71° 6' N. lat., and 5° and 31° E. Lon. It is chiefly included between the Baltic, on the E., and the Atlantic, ca the W. and N. W. Length near 1,200 m.; breadth about 470 m. The greater portion of it is covered with sterile mountains, and it is in general thinly inhabited. The appellation is derived from SCANDINAvia, the ancient name of this country, or at least of that portion of it which was known to the Romans.


Scarl-BC-RỌUGU, a sea port t. of England, in the N. Riding of Yorkshire, on the N. Sea, 36 m. N. E. of York. Pop. of the borough, with an area of above 3 sq. m., 10,060.

SCHAFFHAUSEN, shaf-houl-zen, (Fr. Schaffhouse, shảf-ooz/,) the most northern of the Swiss cantons, situated on the N. side of the Rhine. Area 116 sq. m. Pop. 31,125. (M.)

SCHAFFHAUSEN, a walled t. of Switzerland, cap. of the above canton, on the Rhine, about 50 m. E. by N. of Basle. It possesses a college. with ten professors; a gymnasium; a town library, containing the books belonging to the celebrated Müller, a native of this place; and other institutions. For the Falls of Schaffhausen, see Rhine.


SCHELDT, skelt, (Dutch, Schelde, skell-dch; Fr. Escaut, es-köl; Anc. Scaldis ;) a r. that rises in France, in the dep. of Aisne, and, flowing into Belgium, with a general N. N. E. course, passes Antwerp a few miles below wbich town it divides into two arms, called the Fast and the West Scheldt. Its length is estimated at 210 m. Ships of war can ascend to Antwerp (where the tide rises 12 feet), and small boats to Cambray, which is only about 20 m. from the source of the river.

SCHELESTADT, shell-es-tåd!, (Anc. Elce/bus or Elcebum.) a manufac turing t. of France, in the dep. of Lower Rhine, on the Ili, an affluent of the Rhine, 26 m. S. S. W. of Strasburg. The invention of glazing earthenware is ascribed to this town. Pop. in 1831, 9,384. (P.C.)

SCHEMNITZ, shem-nits, (Hung. Selmecz Banya, shil-mets båån-yok,) an important mining town of Hungary, on a river of the same name, 46 m. N. by E. of Gran. Its gold and silver mines are considered as the richest in Hungary. Lal. 48° 27' N., Lon. 18° 50 E. Pop. above 22,000. (B.)

SCHENECTADY, sken-ek/-ta-de, a co. in the E. part of N. Y., intersected by the Mohawk r. Pop. 17,387.

SCHENECTADY, a city of N. Y., cap. of the above co., 16 m. N. W. of Albany. Lat. 42° 48' N., Lon. 73° 55' W. Pop. 6,784. Schenectady is the seat of Union College, a flourishing institution, founded in 1795.

SCHIEDAM, skee-dim', a t. of S. Holland, on the Schie (=kee), an affiuent of the Meuse or Maas, 3 m. W. of Rotterdam. It has acquired a celebrity not very credilable, from its being the great centre of the

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; N, nearly like ng. gio manufacture in the kingdom of Holland. Lat. 51° 55' N., Lon. 4° 24 E. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

Schoa. See SHOA.

SCHOHARIE, sko-harl-re, a co. in the E. S. E. or S. E. central part of N. Y., W. of Albany. Pop. 32,358. Co. t. Schoharie.

SCHOUW EN, SKoul-Wen, an i. of Holland, on the right side of the E. Scheldt, at ils mouth, forming a part of the prov. of Zealand.

SCHUYLER, skiller, a co. in the W. part of III., bordering on the Illinois r. Pop. 6,972. Co. t. Rushville.

SCHUYLKILL, skooll-kill, a r. wbich rises in the E. part of Pa., and flowing south-easterly, falls into the Delaware about 6 m. S. of Philadelphia. Its whole length is estimated at 120 in. It is navigable for sloops to Philadelphia, but a little above that city there are falls; yet, by means of lockage, dams, and side-canals, boats may ascend to Port Carbon, above Pottsville.

SCHUYLKII.L, a co. in the E. part of Pa., on the sources of the above river. Pop. 29,053. Co. t. Orwigsburg.

SCHWABACH, shwal-bảk, a thriving manufacturing t. of Bavaria, on a r. of the same name, an affluent of the Regnitz, 9 m. S. S. W. of Nuremberg. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)

SCHWARZBURG, shwarts/-burg or sh wirts/-booro, a principality in the central part of Germany, consisting of two principal portions, the more southern of which is called the Upper County, the more northern, the Lower County. The former lies between 51° 34' and 50° 55' N. Lat., and 10° 50' and 11° 23' E. Lon. The Lower County is situated between 51° 13' and 51° 27' N. Lat., and 10° 32' and 11° 16' E. Lon. The house of Schwarzburg is now divided into two branches, Rudolstadt (rood-dol-stått), and Sondershausen (rond-ders-houl-zen), each of which has a part both of the Upper and the Lower County. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt contains an area of 408 sq. m. Pop. 65,600. (M.) Rudolstadt, the capital, on the Saale, has a pop. of 4,000. (B.) Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, possesses a territory of 360 sq. m. in extent, and about 54,000 inhabitants. (M.) Sondershausen, with a pop. of 3,600 (B.), is the capital.

SCHWEIDNITZ, shwite-nits, a fortified t. of Prussian Silesia, on the Weistritz (Wicel-trits), an affluent of the Oder. Lat. 50° 51' N., Lon. 16° 27' E. Pop. above 9,000. (B.)

SCHWERIN, shwa-reen', a t. of N. Germany, cap. of the grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, on the W. side of a lake of its own name. Amoug the remarkable buildings, we may mention the ducal palace, containing a fine picture-gallery and museum. Lat. 53° 36' N., Lon. 11° 30' E. Pop. above 13,000. (P. C.)

Schwitz or Schwyz, shwits, à canion in the N. E. central part of Switzerland, which has given its name to the whole confederation. It is intersected by the 47th parallel of N. Lat., and the meridian of 8° 50' E Lon., and borders on the L. of Lucerne. Area, 341 sq. m. Pop.

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mé, mét ; plne or pine, pin; no, nðt; oo, as in good; 40,650. (P. C.) Schwitz, the capital, stands about 3 m. N. E. of the 1. of Lucerne, and has a pop. of about 4,000.

Seul-Ly Islands, a group belonging to England, lying about 30 m. W. by S. from Land's End. There are a great number of islets and rocks, but only a few islands of any importance; St. Mary's, the largest, contains between 2 and 3 sq. m. The pop. of the entire group in 1831 was only 2,465. (M.)

Scil-o, or sheel-o, (Mod. Gr. Chio (X40),heel-o; Anc. Chios:) a fi nile anů beautiful i. belonging to Turkey, in the Ægean Sea, inter sected by the parallel of 38° 30' N. Lat., and the 26th meridian of E. Lon., and separated from Asia Minor by the Strait of Scio, whicb is about 5 m. wide. Length about 35 m.; greatest breadth 13 m. In 1820 the pop. was estiinated at 100,000, but, in consequence of so many of the inhabitants having been massacred or carried into slavery, in the late Greek war, it has been reduced, it is said, to less than 20,000. (P. C.) The wine of Chios is celebrated as among the best in the Le vant, and it had the same reputation in ancient times. Chios clains the honour of having given birth to Homer.-Adj. and inhab. Chiot, keel-ot; or Chil-Àn, when the ancient island is referred to.

Sçi-o'-ro, a r. of Ohio, which rises in the S. W. central part of the state, and, flowing at first south-easterly, and afterwards nearly S., falls into the Ohio r. at Portsmouth. It is about 200 m. long, and is navigable for boats 130 m.

Scioto, a co. in the S. part of Ohio, at the mouth of the above r. Pop. 11,192. Co. t. Portsmouth.

Scor-LẠND, a country occupying the northern portion of the island of Great Britain, between 54° 381 and 58° 41' N. Lat., and 1° 46' and 6° 13' W. Lon. It is bounded on all sides by the sea, except on the S., where it is separated from England by Solway Frith, the Cheviot hills and the Tweed. Length, from N. to S., about 280 m.; greatest breadth above 170 m. Area 26,014 sq. m. Pop. 2,450,764; of the islands belonging to Scotland, 169,420 ; total, 2,620,184. The kingdom, with its dependencies, is divided into 32 counties. Before the accession of Jarnes VI. (afterwards James I. of England), to the English throne, in 1603, Scotland constituted an independent kingdom. Till the Union, which was consuminated in the reign of queen Anne, though under the same sovereign with England, it still had its own parliament. Ac. cording to the Articles of Union, ratified Jan. 16, 1707, the peerage of Scotland is represented in the house of lords of the United Kingdom by 16 peers, chosen by the whole body of Scotch peers at the commence. ment of each parliament. The counties were to be represented by 30 members in the house of commons, and the boroughs by 15 members. This arrangement continued till 1832, when the borough representation received an addition of 8 members, making in all 53. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, and was formerly the residence of the Scottish kings.--Adj. Scotch or Scotl-Tish; inhab. Scor or SCOTCH-MẠN.

Scotland, a co. in the N. E. part of Mo., bordering on Iowa.

nois r.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Scott, a co. near the S. W. extremity of Va., bordering on Tenn. Pop. 7,303. Co. t. Estillville.

Scort, a co. in the S. central part of Miss., a little E. of Pearl r. Pop. 1,653. Co. seat, Hillsborough.

Scott, a co. in the W. part of Ark., bordering on the Indian territory. Pop. 1,694. Co. t. Booneville.

Scott, a co. in the N. N. E. part of Ky., E. of Frankfort. Pop. 13,668. Co. t. Georgetown.

Scott, a co. in the S. part of Ind., near the Ohio r. Pop. 4,242. Co. t Lexington. Scott, a co. in the W. part of Ill., E. of, and bordering on the Illi

Pop. 6,215. Co. t. Winchester. Scott, a co. near the S. E. extremity of Mo., bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 5,974. Co. t. Benton.

Scott, a co. in the S. E. part of lowa, bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 2,140.

Scrivl-EN, a co. in the E. part of Ga., bordering on the Savannah r. Pop. 4,791. Co. t. Jackson bo cugh.

SCUTARI, scoo'-tå-re, (called ly the Turks Is'-koo-dar!; Anc. Chrysop'olis,) a commercial t. of As atic Turkey, on the Bosporus, opposite Constantinople, of which it is regarded as a suburb. Pop. estimated at 35,000. (B.)

SCUTARI ('Turk. Is-kan-der-ee'yeh ; Illyrian, Sco'-dra), a town and formerly an important fortress of European Turkey, in Albania, on a lake of its own name. Lat. about 42° N., Lon. 19° 30' E. The pop. which perhaps formerly amounted to 35,000 or 40,000, cannot, at present, exceed 20,000. (B.)

SEAR'-CY, a co. in the N. part of Ark., a little S. W. of White r. Pop. 936.

SEBASTIAN, ST., sẹnt se-bast-yun, (Sp. pron. San Sebastian, sản sibås-te-ån'), a seapori t. and foriress of Spain, cap. of Guipuzcoa, on a tongue of land ivhich projects into the Bay of Biscay. It was burnt by the English and Portuguese, in 1813, and has since been rebuilt on a regular plan, and is now one of the handsomest towns in Spain. Lat. 43° 19' 30" N. Lon. 1° 58' W. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

Sedan, sed-ån', a fortified t. of France, the largest in the dep. of Ardennes, on the Meuse, 13 m. E. S. E. of Mézières. It has been noted for its woollen manufactures since the time of Louis XIV. Lat. 490 42 N., Lon. 4° 58' E. Pop. 14.000. (B.)

SEEVAS, commonly written Sivas, see'-vås', (Anc. Cabi/ra; afterwards Sebas/te,) a t. of Asiatic Turkey, cap. of an eyalet of its own

Lat. 39° 20' N., Lon. about 37° E. Pop. uncertain : it is said to contain about 6,000 families. (P. C.)

Seel-wah (Siwah), the modern name of the oasis of Ammon, once $0 celebrated for its temple and oracle of Jupiter. The town of Seewah is in 29° 12' N. Lat., and 26° 17' E. Lon. Pop. about 8,000. (P.C.)

Sego, a city of Africa, cap. of the kingdom of Bambarra, on both


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