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Fåte, får, fall, fåt; me, mét; plne or pine, pin; nb, not; õő, as in good;

Somerset, a co. in the N. central part of N. J., on the head waters of the Raritan. Pop. 17,455. Co. t. Somerville.

SOMERSET, a co. in the S. S. W. part of Pa., bordering on Md. Pop. 19,650. Co. t. Somerset.

SOMERSET, a co. in the S. E. part of Md., bordering on Del. and the Chesapeake Bay. Pop. 19,508. Co. t. Princess Anne.

SOMERSETSHIRE, sum/-er-set-shịr, a co. in the S.W. part of England, bordering on the Severn and the Bristol Channel. Pop. 435,982.

Somme, a dep. in the N. W. part of France, bordering on the Eng. lish Channel. Pop. 552,706. (B.) Capital, Amiens.

SOODAN, soo-din', or Bel-ed' es Soo-dản', i. e. the "country of the blacks," a name employed to designate all the countries along the S. border of the Great Desert, from Dar Foor on the E. to Senegambia on the W., extending from about 25° E. to 10° W. Lon. Its limits, on the N. and S., are almost or entirely unknown.

Soo-loo' ISLANDS, a group of small islands in the Eastern Seas, be tween Borneo and Mindinao.

SOOL-TÂN-EE'-YĘH (Sultanieh), an ancient city of Persia, once the cap. of that country, under the sovereigns of the race of Gengis-khan. It is now almost or quite deserted, but its magnificent ruins attest its for mer glory. Lat. about 36° 30' N., Lon. 48° 30' E.

SOORABAYA (Surabaya), 600-rå-bil-å, one of the principal sea ports of Java, situated on the N. E. coast, at the mouth of a river of its own name. It is, after Batavia, the most flourishing and commercial towe in the island. Lat. 7° 14' S., Lon. 112° 41' E. Pop. estimated at 50,000. (B.)

SOPHIA, so-feel-a, (in Bulgarian, Triaditza, tre-à-dit/-sł,) a large manufacturing and commercial t. of European Turkey, cap. of a sandjack (or inferior pashalic) of its own name, and of the eyalet of Ron melia; on the Isker, an a ffuent of the Danube, about 310 m. W. N.W. of Constantinople. It is the residence of a Greek metropolitan and a Catholic archbishop; and possesses a flourishing trade and numerous manufactures. Lat. 42° 37' N., Lon. 23° 26 E. Pop. estimated at from 30,000 10 50,000. (B.)

Sorata, NEVADO DE, nå-vål-do då so-rål-tå, a mountain summit of S. America, in Bolivia, the highest in the New World, situated near the village of Sorata, in about 16° S. Lat. and 68° 40' W. Lon. Height, 3,948 toises or 25,250 English ft. (B.) See NEVADO.

SO-RIA, sol-re-8 (Anc. Numan’tia), a t. of Spain, in Old Castile, cap of a prov. of the same name, 113 m. N. E. of Madrid. Pop. 5,400. (B)

SOR-REN-TO (Anc. Surren'tum), an archiepiscopal city of Naples, on the Bay of Naples, 18 m. S. E. of the metropolis, remarkable for the beauty of its situation and for being the birth-place of the poet Tasso Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

SOUDAN. See Soodan,

SOUTHAMPTON, Suth-hamp'-ton, an important sea port t. of England, in Hampshire, on an inlet of the sea called Southampton Water, 70 m.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this ; N, nearly like ng. W. S. W. of London. It forms a little co. of itself, with an area of only about 3 sq. m. Pop. 27,744.


SOUTHAMPTON, a co. in the S. E. part of Va., on Meherrin and Nottaway rivers, and bordering on N. C. Pop. 14,525. Co. t. Jerusalem.

SOUTH WARK, SUTH-ark. See London.
SOUTH-WẠRK, a suburb of Philadelphia.

Spa, spaw (Fr. and Flem. pron. spá), a little t. in the E. part of Belgium, 18 m. S. E. of Liège, celebrated for its medicinal springs and baths. Permanent pop. 3,600. (B.)

SPAIN (Sp. España, És-pån/-yả; Fr. Espagne, es'-páñ'; Anc. Hispal. nia and Iberia), an extensive and once powerful kingdom, occupying the greater portion of the peninsula which forms the S. W. extremity of Europe, situated between 36° 2 and 43° 47 N. Lal., and 3° 21' E. and 9° 16' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. by the Bay of Biscay and by France, S. E. by the Mediterranean, S. by the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar, S. W. by the Atlantic, and W. and N. W. by Portugal and the Atlantic. Length, from E. N. E. to W.S. W., abont 650 m. ; greatest breadth, from N. to S., about 520 m. Area, 183,200 sq. m. Pop. estimated at 13,900,000. (B.) Spain is sometimes divided by geographers into 13 parts, viz.: Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Biscaya or Biscay, Catalonia, Estremadura, Galicia, Leon, Murcia, Navarre, New Castile, Old Castile, and Valencia, corresponding to the former kingdoms, principalities, &c. It is now divided, according to a royal decree, issued in 1833, into 49 small provinces, which, for the most part, take the name of their respective capitals. Roman Catholicism is the religion of Spain. The power of the Spanish sovereigns was formerly nearly or quite absolute; but, since the adoption of the new constitution (first promulgated in 1837), the legislative power is vested in the king and the cortes (kor -tés), which is composed of two legislative bodies, chosen by the people, called the senate and the congress of deputies. Madrid is the capital.-Adj. SPAN-ish; inhab. SpanIARD, span!.yard.

SPALATRO, spå-13/-tro, a seaport, the most populous and commercial t. in Dalmatia, on the Adriatic, opposite the Island of Brazza. It is chiefly interesting for the ruins of a magnificent palace, built by the Roman emperor Diocletian, to which he retired after abdicating the imperial thrope (A. D. 305). This palace was constructed of a beautiful freestone, and is said to have covered an arca of 9 acres! A large portion of the town of Spalatro has been built out of its ruins. Lat. 43° 30' N., Lon. 16° 26' E. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)

SPANDAU, spånl-dou, also written Spandow, a strongly fortified to of Prussia, in Brandenburg, at the junction of the Havel (hål-vel) with the Spree, 7 m. W. of Berlin. Pop. 7,000. (B.)

SPAN-ish Town (or Santiago de la Vega, sản-te-ål-go del-å vkl-ga), the cap. of Jamaica, situated in the S. E. part of the island, on the r. Cobre, about 6 m. from the sca, and 11 m. W. by N. from Kingston. Pop. about 6,000.

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; no, nôt; oo, as in good;

SPARI-TAN-Buro, a dist. in the N. W. part of S. C., bordering op N.C. Pop. 233,669. Seat ot" justice, Spartenburg c. h.

SPECIA. See Spezia.

SPEN-CER, a co. in the N. part of Ky., S. E. of Louisville. Pop. 6,581. Co. t. Taylorsville.

SPENCER, a co. in the S. or S.W. part of Ind., bordering on the Obio. Pop. 6,305. Co. l. Rockport.

SPEY, spł, a r. of Scotland, flowing into Murray Frith.

SPEYER, pronounced and often written SPIRÉ (Anc. Noviom'agus, afterwards Neme/tes), an ancient city of Bavaria, cap. of the circle of the Rhine, on the Rhine, at the mouth of the Speyerbach. It has a collection of Roman and ancient German antiquities, a lyceum, and other institutions. The Observatory is in Lat. 49° 18' 55" N., Lon. 8° 26' 37" E. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)

Spezia, spedi-ze-å, (sometimes written Specia,) a seaport t. of N. Italy, in the Sardinian States, on a gulf of the Mediterranean, to which it gives its name, and which forms one of the finest harbours in Europe. Lat. 44° 5' N., Lon. 9° 51' E. Pop. about 7,000. (P. C.)

SPITZ-BERG/-EN, a group of desolate islands in the Arctic Ocean, being the northernmost land which has yet been discovered, situated between the 77th and 8lst degrees of N. Lat., and the 10th and 25th of E. Lon. Their united area is perhaps equal to half that of Ireland.

SPOLETO, spo-là-/t0,(Anc. Spole/tum or Spole/tium,) a city of Italy, in the Papal State, cap. of a delegation of the same name, 60 in. N. by E. of Roine. In its vicinity are a number of interesting antiquities. Lat. 42° 45' N., Lon. 12° 36' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B.)

Spring/-FIELD, a flourishing t. of Mass., cap. of Hampden co., on the E. side of the Connecticut r., and on the Bosion and Albany Railroad, about 80 m., in a straight line, W. by S. from Boston. It contains a United States arsenal of construction. Pop. of the township, 10,915.

SPRINGFIELD, the cap..of the state of Winois and of Sangainon co. Lut. 39° 48' N., Lon. 89° 33' W. Pop. 2,579.

Sr. See SAINT.

STAFI-FORD, a t. of England, cap. of Staffordshire, 23 m. N. N.W. of Biriningham. Pop., including an area of about 4 sq. m., 9,245.

STAFFORD, a co. in the N. E. part of Va., between the Rappa hannock and Potomac. Pop. 8,454. Co. t. Falmouth.

Starl-FORD-SHIRE, a co. in the W. central part of England, intersected by the Trent and Mersey Canal. Pop. 510,504.

Stam-FORD, a t. of England, in Lincolnshire, 80 m. N. by W. of London. Entire pop. 6,385.

STANl-ly, a co. in the S. part of N. C., on the W. side of the Yadkin r.

Stargard, starl-gart, a t. of Prussia, in Pomerania, on the navigable r. Ihoa (eel-nå), which flows into the Stettiner Haff, 21 m. E. by S. of Stettin. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

Stark, a co. in the N. E. part of Ohio, intersected by the Ohio and Erie Canal. Pop. 34,603. Co. t. Canton.

STARK, a co. near the N. W. extremit; of Ind. Pop. 149.

nois r.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; Th, as in this; n, nearly sike ng. STARK, a co. in the N. W. central part of I., u little W. of the Illi

Pop. 1,573. STAVANGER, stiv-ingl-ger, a sea port I. on the S. W. coast of Norway. Its cathedral is regarded as the finest in the kingdom. Lat. 58° 58 N., Lon. 5° 57' E. P'op. 3,80). (B.)

STE'-PHEN-SÇN, a co. in the N. W. part of III., bordering on the Wisconsin. Pop. 2,800.

STETTIN, stet-teen', an important commercial t., river-port, and fortress of Prussia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, and of the prov. of Pomerania, on the left bank of the Oder, about 36 m. from the junction of the Stettiner Haff with the Baltic. It has a gymnasium, with an observatory, a valuable library, and a number of other literary and scientific institutions. Lat. 53° 24' N., Lon. 14° 36' E. Pop. above 32,000. (B.)

STETTINER HAFF, stet-teel-ner håff, a large haff or lagoon in the N. of Germany, which receives the waters of the Oder, N. of the t. of Stettin. Its length, exclusive of several small arms, is about 30 m.; greatest breadth 12 or 13 m.

STEU-BEN (often pronounced slu-ben'), a co. in the S. S. W. part of N. Y., bordering on Pa. Pop. 46,138. Co. t. Bath.

STEUBEN, a co. forming the N. E. extremity of Ind. Pop. 2,578. Co. t. Angola.

STEU/-BEN-VILLE, a flourishing t. of Ohio, cap. of Jefferson co., on the Ohio r., 35 m., in a straight line, W. by S. of Pittsburg. Pop. 4,247.

STEW-ART, a co. in the W.S. W. part of Ga., bordering on the Chattahoochee. Pop. 12,933. Co. t. Lumpkin.

STEWART, a co. in the N. N. W. part of Tenn., on the Cumberland and Tennessee r., and bordering on Ky. Pop. 8,587. Co. t. Dover.

STEYER, stire, a flourishing t. of Upper Austria, on the Enns, an affluent of the Danube, remarkable for its extensive manufactures in iron, among which we may particularize fire-arms, sword-blades, and razors; it is also the centre of an active trade. Lat. 48° 3' N., Lon. 14° 25' E. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

STIR'-LING, an ancient t. of Scotland, cap. of Stirlingshire, on the Forth, 30 m. W. N. W. of Edinburgh. Its situation is in the highest degree beautiful and romantic. The view from the castle (once the residence of the Scottish kings), which stands on an abrupt basaltic rock, immediately over the river, and about 300 ft. in height, is perhaps the most magnificent in Great Britain. Pop. 8,307.

STIRI-LING-SAỊRE, a co. in the central part of Scotland, extending from the Frith of Forth to Loch Lomond. Pop. 82,057.

STOCKI-HOLM, the cap., and the most important commercial and manufacturing town of Sweden, on the channel which connects L. Mälaren with the Baltic, 24 m. from the latter. It is built partly on the mainland and partly on a number of islands in the above-mentioned channel. Its appearance to one approaching from the sea, is highly picturesque and imposing. The harbour, though of difficult entrance, is capacious and secure. Among the remarkable edifices of the Swe.

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mi?, in'l; pine or pine, p?n; n), ndt; oo, as in good, dish capital, may be mentioned the Royal Palace, which has great architectural beauty, and contains a library, a collection of paintings and antiquities; and the Church of Riddarholm, which contains the trophies of Sweden, and in which the Swedish kings and other distinguished persons are buried. Stockholin possesses an academy of sciences, with an observatory and an extensive library; an academy of belles lettres, history and antiquities; a college of mines, with a rich cabinet of natural history; and a great number of other literary and scientific institutions. Lat. 59° 20° 31" N., Lon. 18° 3' E. Pop. 83,885. (P. C.)

Stock-Port, an important manufacturing t. of England, in Cheshire, 6 m. S. E. of Manchester. Pop. of township, 28,431.

STOCK-TON, or STOCKTON-ON-Tees, a sea port t. of England, co. of Durham, on the Tees, near its mouth. Lat. 54° 34' N., Lon. 1° 18' W. Pop. of township, 9,825.

STOD!-DẠRD, a co. in the S. E. part of Mo., E. of, and bordering on the St. Francis r. Pop. 3,153.

STOKE-UPON-Trent, a parish of England, in Staffordshire, remarkable as the seat of extensive manufactures in earthen ware. The town of Stoke is 14 m. N. by W. of Stafford.

STOKES, a co. in the N. W. part of N. C., bordering on Va. Pop. 16,265. Co. t. Germantown.

STONE-HAI-vỆN, a seaport t. of Scotland, cap. of Kincardineshire, ca the German Ocean, 14 m. S. by W. of Aberdeen. Lat. 56° 56' Na Lon. 2° 12' W. Pop. 3,012.

Sto!-NING-TON, a port of entry of Conn., in New London co., on a rocky point of land, which projects into the E. end of Long Island Sound, about 50 miles S. W. of Providence, with which it is connected by a railroad.

Stour'-BRIDGE, a t. of England, in Worcestershire, on the Stour, an affluent of the Severn, 18 m. N. N. E. of Worcester. Pop. 7,481.

STRABANE, strạ-ban', a t. of Ireland, in Tyrone co., 14 m. S. S. W. of Londonderry. Pop. 5,147. (M.)

Strapl-ford, a co. in the S. E. part of N. H., on the Salmos Falls ra a branch of the Piscataqua. Pop: 23,166. Co. towns, Do- er and Ro. chester.

STRALSUND, strål-soont, a manufacturing and commercial t. of Prus sia, in Pornerania, cap. of a gov. of the same name, on the narrow strait which separates the i. of Rügen from the continent. The celebrated fortifications of this place have been razed, and the remparts converted into public walks. (P. C.) Lat. 54° 19' N., Lon. 13° 32' E. Pop. 14,713. (M.)

STRANRAER, stran-rawrl, a small seaport t. of Scotland, at the S. extremity of a small bay called Loch Ryan. Lat. 54° 54' N., Lon. 5° 2' W.

STRAS-BOURG (Fr. pron. Stråss'-boor! ; Ger Strassburg, stråss'. boðRG; Anc. Argentoratum); a strongly-fortified city of France, on its E. frontier, cap. of the dep. of Lower Rhine, acd formerly of Alsace, on the Ill, near its confluence with the Rhine. The principal public

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