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XXVIII. 1. The vowels a, e, i, ä, and ö, are similar to the German. 2. Å sounds like the English o.
3. O, at the end of a syllable, is like our oo; in other cases, like o in not.
4. U appears to blend the sounds of short e and of oo, being somewhat similar to d’-00. It has been represented, in the present work, by 00; this sound being the nearest to it of any in our language.
5. Y is the same as in Danish ; or, in other words, is similar to the French u.
6. The Swedish consonants are for the most part pronounced like the English, with the exception of j, and g before e, i, ä, ö, and thg which are equivalent to y consonant, and of z, which sounds like ts.
7. Kj sounds like the English ch; thus, Kjöping (written, also, simply Köping) is pronounced chöp-ing.
The following Table is intended to exhibit the striking diserepancy in the mode of writing the same geograpbical names, which occurs in the works of respectable authon. (See Preface, page ril., and Introduction, page 28)
Small capitals are used to denote the mode of spelling which occurs in the Gazetteer, and which the autton coas je dered to be the preferable orthography.
An asterisk denotes that the pronunciation of the spelling to which it is appended is different from that of the others. But when a name occurs with two or more different spellings, pot marked by an asterisk, it is to be understood that the pronunciation of all these is essentially the same.
If the reader will bear in mind that co in English, or in French, and u in Italian and German, have the same sound; that i in all the languages of continental Europe is similar to ee in English; that j, in two-thirds of the European las guages, is like our y; that ch in French, and sch in German, is equivalent to our sh, and that ; and g before e and i) ia French is like our il-or z in azure-and nearly like the German sch; a clue will be furnished to nany of the per plexities with which geographical spelling and pronunciation so much abound. Some other difficulties are explained in the Table by reference to the Introduction: é.5. Habana, Havana; Xingu, Chingt,
(App.) placed after a name, indicates that it is to be found in the Appendix. ABOOKEER, Aboukir.
CANTON, *Quangtong. (mire, Kashmire. ABOOSHEHR, Abuschehr, Abouchehr. Writ. CASHMERE, Cachemir, Kashmeer, Kache. ten also Bushire (boo-sheer');
Caubul. See CABOOL. Achmouneyn, OsHMOONEYN.
CELLE, Zelle, (XX. 18 and 30.) Aichstadt, Eichstadt.
Charkow, Kharkow, KHARKOF, Kharkov. AKHMYM, Achmim, Ekmim.'
Chat-el-Arab, SHATT-EL-ARAB. ALEN TEJO, ALEM-TEJO.
Cheboygan, SHEBOYGAN. Amarapoura, UMMERAPOORA.
CHIENNE, Cheyenne, Shienne, (App.) AMASERA, Amasreh.
Chingu, XINGU, (XXVI. 11.) Anoo, Amu, Amou.
COAHUILA, Cohahuila, (App.). AMOOR, Amour, Amur.
COMANCHE, Camanche, (App.) AMRETSIR, Amretseer, Umritseer. CORDOVA, Cordoba, (XXVII. 4.) ANADEER, Anadir.
CORUNNA, *Coruña. Anatolia. See NATOLIA.
Courland, KOORLAND, Kurland. ANDUJAR, Anduxar,
Dantzic, Danzig. ANGORA, *Engoor, *Enguri.
DARFOOR, Darfur, Darfour, Dar Foor. ANZOOAN, Anzouan, * Anjouan.
DEZFOOL, Dezphoul, Dezfoul, Dezful. ARKEEKO, Arkiko.
Djidda or Djeeda. See JIDDA. ARGOON, Argoun, Argun.
*Douro, *Duero. AssWAN, Assouan, Assuan.
DOVREFIELD, Daavrefjeld, Dofrafield. ATCHEEN, Acheen.
DROHOBICZ, Drohovitsch. ATFE, Atfih.
DRONTHEIM, Trondhiem, Trondjem. Axoom, Axum, Axoum.
DUNKIRK, Dunkerque. AYASOOLOOK, Ayasalouk, Ayasaluk. Ebora, Evora, (XXVII. 4.) Azor, Azoph, Azoy.
EDINBURGH, Edinborough. Badakhshan, BUDUKHSHAN.
EICHSTADT, Aichstadt. Bairout. See BEYROOT.
*ELATMA, Yelatma, Ielatma. *BALFUROSH, Balfroosh, Balfrouch. EKATERINBURG, lekaterinbourg. Baschkirs, Bashkeers, (a race of Tartars, ELISABETGRAD, Yelisavetgrad.
dwelling south of the r. Irtish in Siberia.) | Erzroom, Erzeroum, Erzrum, Ardzroom, BASsoRA, Bussora, Basrah, (XIX. 1 Obs.) Arzerum, Arzeroum. BEDOUIN, BEDOWEEN, Beduin.
FERRO, *Hierro. BEYROOT, Bairout, Beirout, Berut.
GHEEZEE, Gizeh, *Jizeh.
Guext, Gent, *Gand. BRAAMAPOOTRA, *Burrampooter.
GLOUCESTER, Gloster. BUDUKHSHAN, Badakhshan, (XIX. 1 Obs.) GooldsHA, Guldscha, Gouldja, *Kuldsha. Burma, Birma.
GOTTINGEN, Goettingen, (XX. 8.) *Burrampooter, BRAHMAPOOTRA.
Guelders, GELDERS. BURSA, Boursa, Boorsa, *Brusa.
HAARLEM, Haerlem, Harlem. Bushire. See ABOOSHEHR.
Havana, Habana, (XXVII. 4.) CABOOL, Cabul, Caubul, Caboul.
[dostan. Cachoeira, CAXOEIRA.
HINDOSTAN, Hindustan, Hindoostan, InCAIRO, *Kahira, *Qahera.
HINDOO, Hindu. Camanche, COMANCHE, (App.)
HIMALAYA, *Himmaleh. CAMBODIA, Cambodja, *Camboge.
Iaroslav, Jaroslaw, YAROSLAB. CAMPEACHY, Campeche.
Indostan. See HINDOSTAN.
Jakutsk or Iakoutsk. See YAKOUTSK.
TABLE OF DIFFERENT SPELLINGS.
Jalisco, Jalisco, (App.)
Oural, URAL. Jussa, Yanina, Joannina.
OURGHENDJ, Oorghendj, Urghendj, Ur. Jaroslaw See YAROSLAT.
ghenz, Urgantz. See Kuiva, Gazetteer Jesd? YEDDO.
PETIC, Pitic. JESSir, lesen, Yesso, Yeso.
Ruse, Rhein, Rhyn. JEYFOOR, Jyepoor, Jypoor.
ROOMELIA, Roumelia, Rumelia. Jins, Didda, Djeeda.
Room ELEE, Rum Ili, Roum Ili. Joki, Zitomir, ZHITO MEER.
SAREE, Sari. JCCDPOOR, Joudpoor.
SCANDEROOX, *Iskenderoon JORILLO, Xorullo.
[Russia) Schoa, Su0A, Xoa. Jeg. You, r. (a branch of the Dwina, in *Schonen, SKAONE, (XXVIII. 2.) See CAIRO.
SHÓA, Schoa, Xoa (XXVI. 11), kShwa. KALONGA, Kalnuga, Kaluga.
Sioot, Siout, *Osioot, * Esioot. HANTCHATEA, Kamischatha. (See Note, p. Sivas, SEEVAS. 22.)
*Sleswick, Slesvig, *Schleswig. Kuzluk, Kharkow, Charkow, Kharkov. Siwah, SEEWAH. KBAZI0OY. Khartum, Khartoum.
Soodan, Suudan, Sudan. Rass, Kbeeva.
SOOR MOOL, Sourmoul, Surmul, (a smail KEF, Kiew, Kieff, Kiev.
town of Persia.) KIEVASSHAH, Kirmanshaw.
SOOLTASEEYEN, Sultanieh, Soultania. *KITNA, Krishna.
SOORABAYA, Surabaya. Sourabaya. KLASESFURTH, Clagenfurth.
Suez, Sooez, Soueys. K ABOVA, Coahom.
STABIA, Swabia. KOOBKur, Kour.
Tanti, Otaheite. KOOBLASD, Kurland, Courland.
TABREEZ, Tabriz, *Tauris. KOODISTAN, Kurdistan. Curdistan.
TABAREEYEH, Tabarieh. KOORSK, Koursk, Kurek.
TAR8004, Tarsous, Tursus. KOOBILE, Kurile, Kourile.
TCHER NIGOF, Czernigow, Tchernigoff Kuld-ba. See GOOLDSHA.
TIBET, Thibet. KTTANEI, Kootaiab, Koutaieh.
*TIMBUCTVO, Tombucwo, Tombooctno, La Baca, La Vacca, (App.).
Tombouctou, * Tenbocto. LASCEROTA, Lanzarota, (XXVII. 5, 18.) Toola, Toula, Tula. LEPIC, Leipzig.
TOORKISTAX, Turkistan. LETDEN, Leiden.
Tonkin, Tonquin. Libadia, LIVADIA.
TORZHOK, Torschok, Torjok. LISLE, Lille.
Trondjem or Trondhiem, DEONTHEIM. LIST2, Linz.
TRUXILLO, Trujillo, LIVADIA, Libadia, (XXI. 11.)
Torneo, 'l'orneao, (XXVIII. 2.) LCCERSE, *Luzern.
Tver, Twer. MAAS, Maese, *Meuse.
URAL, Oural. MAASTRICHT, Maestricht.
Uria See OORFA. MA ELA REX, Mälaren.
Urmiah. See OOROO YELA. MJORCA, Mallorca.
USBECK, Oozbek, Ouzbek. Manchoria, NA NICHOORIA, Mandshuria. VIBORG, Wiborg. MBASHAM, Maranhao.
Vitebsk, Vitepsk, WITEBEK. MAKAVI, Maravee.
VOLGA, Wolga. MARDEEX, Merdin.
VORONEZH, Voronege, Voronej, WoroMARWORA, Marmara.
nesch, *Voronetz, Woronetz. MAROSCH, Maros, (XXII. 12.)
WASHITA, Ouachita, MATAREEYEH, Mataria. Mataryeh.
Wisconsin, Wiskonsan, Quisconsin. #MATHINA. Muttra, (XIX. 1 Obs.)
WūRTEMBERG, Wirtemberg. MEKINEZ, Mequinez, Meknas.
XALAPA, Jalapa. MERGUI, Merghi.
Xalisco, JALISCO, (App.)
Xoa. See SHÓA.
YAKOOTSK, Iakoutsk, Jakutsk, Yakutsk. NATOLIA, * Anatolia, * Anadoli, *Anatoli. Yanina. See JANINA. NEZUEEN, Nejin, Neschin.
YABKUND, Yarkand, (XIX. 1 Obs.) NIZHNEE, Nijni, Nischnei.
YAROSLAF, Iaroslav, Jaroslaw. OLIVENZA, Olivença.
YEDDO, Jeddo. OORFA, Uria, Ourin.
YEsso, Jesso. OOKOOMEEA, Crumiya, *Ourmiah, Urmia. Zahara, SAHARA. 000ST100G, Ustiug, Oustioug.
Zaragoza, *SARAGOSSA. Olaheite, TAHITI.
ZEBU, Cebu, (XXVII. 5 and 18.) Owhyhee, HAWAII.
Zelle, CELLE, (XX. 18 and 3.) OsFMOOSETX, Achmouneyn.
Zhitomeer, Jitomir, Schitomir, Zytomir, Ouachita, WASHITA.
*Zitomirz Ouisconsin, Wisconsis.
ZUYDER ZEE, Zuider Zee..
ABBREVIATIONS, SIGNS, ETC., EMPLOYED IN THIS WORK.
county. Conn. Connecticut. Dan Danish. Del. Delaware. dep. department. E. east. E. G. Edinburgh Gazetteer. Flem. Flemish. Fr. French. ft. feet. Ga. Georgia. Ger. German. gov. government or province. Gr. Greek. Hung. Hungarian. i. island. inhab. inhabitant. III. Illinois. Ind. Indiana. Int. Introduction. Ky. Kentucky. La. Louisiana, L. Lake. Lat. Latitude. Lon. Longitude. m. mile or miles. M. McCulloch.
1. The vowels a, e, i, o, marked with a point underneath (A or a, por e, &c.) have an obscure sound, similar to short u, thus, Merton should be pronounced almost můr/-tún or můrl-t'n. (See Introduction, VIII.) 2. x with two points underneath sounds like d.
3. o has a sound similar to the French eu or nearly like that of e in her. It may be anglicized by e. (See Introduction, XX., 8.)
4. U is like the French u, being intermediate between ee and oo. (XIX., 5.)
5. A letter when it has a line underneath, or when italicised, is silent; e.g. in WALKER, GREENĘ, ob-oh.*
6. to, small capital, in the pronunciation of a name, indicates that its sound is similar to th in this.
7. to and K, small capitals, indicate the sound of the German ch or one similar to it. (VI. and XX., 19.)
8. tu, small capital, has a sound nearly similar to the preceding, but more resembling a strongly aspirated h.
9. I (l liquid) is to be pronounced like lli in million : it blends the sounds of I and y consonant. (XXVII., 12.)
10. n and n, small capitals, are nasal, being similar in sound to ng. (XIX., 19.)
11. R, small capital, has the sound of ry in terror. (XIX., 24.)
12. u, small capital, indicates the sound of the French eu. It is pronounced nearly as u in tub or in fur.
13. fw, capital, has a sound similar to our v. 14. Y and ey, at the end of an unaccented sylable, sound like e in me. 15. Ai and ay are considered to be equivalent to a in fate. 16. Au and aw have the sound of a in fall. 17. éē indicates a sound similar to i in pit or in spirit.
18. Ow, when the o is not marked long (ow), is to be pronounced Gike ou in hour.
19. Gh is sometimes employed in pronunciation for ghara.
20. g is to be pronounced more softly than simple g. (XVII., 13, and XXVII., 10.)
21. ş sounds like z.
r The sounds of the figured vowels are explained at the top of the page, in the body of the work.
1. Every letter, or combination of letters, occurring in the pronunciation of a word or name, is to be pronounced with its proper English sound; e.g., ou is to be sounded as in our, sour, &c., and not like oo, as in tour, and some other words of French origin: g must be hard, as in get, give, &c.; ch, as in chill, choose, unless the h be marked as silent, in which case ch has the sound of k.
2. In the pronunciation of foreign European names, care should be taken not to allow å to fall into the third or broad sound of this vowel --an error to which American and English speakers are very prone—it would be much less a fault, generally speaking, to pronounce it like a in fat. It should, however, be observed, that a preceding the nasal n in French, is usually broad, almost like o in not. (See Int. XIX., 19, 20, and 21.)
4, in some names, appears to have a sound intermediate between å and á.
• The h, in this and similar instances, is employed in order to enable the learner more readily to pronounce the vowel short, as in not: were it omitted, thus, ob-o, the inexperienced pupil might be in danger of pronouncing thu o long, as in no, or indistinctly, as we often hear it in piano.
# It is intended that the mere English scholar shall pronounce these letters with their proper English sound. (See Introduction, VI.)