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Fåte, får, fall, fit; mé, mit; plne or pine, p?n; nd, not; oo, as in good; 12 and 12° 30 N. Lat., and 60% and 73° 20' W. Lon. ; bounded on the N. by the Caribbean Sea, N. E. by the Atlantic, S. E. by Guiana, S. by Brazil, and W. by New Granada.' Length, from E. to W., near 950 m.; greatest breadth, from N. to S., about 660 m. Area estimated by Balbi at 401,000 sq. m. Pop. in 1839, 945,318. (P. C.) The climate of 1 Venezuela resembles, in the main, that of other tropical countries. The temperature is high, except in very elevated regions. The year is divided into the wet and dry seasons. The wet season, corresponding to our summer, is called winter, though the heat is then greatest. The vegetable productions of Venezuela are mostly those which are common to the tropics-maize, cotiee, the cocoa, the plantain tree,' the yucca, potatoe, sugar, wheat, indigo, tobacco, and cotton are the principal objects of cultivation. Caraccas is the capital.

VENICE, ven'-iss, (It. Venezia, věn-ed'-ze-á) a celebrated maritime ! city of Austrian Italy, cap. of E. Lombardy, and formerly of a powerful republic of its own name, situated on a cluster of small islands, in a shallow but extensive layoon, at the N. W. extremity of the Adriatic. The appearance of this town, froin whatever side it inay be viewed, is striking and singular in the extreine. Oning to the lowness of the islands on which it is built, it seems to float. It is divided into two principal portions by the Great Canal (Canale Maggiore, kả-nă-l madjo-ral), a serpentine channel crossed by the Rialto (re-åll-to), the principal bridge of the city, and one of the finest in Europe. The various islets which form the foundations of these two grand divisions, are connected by a multitude of bridges, which are intended only for foot-passengers. Alinost all the principal houses have on one side a canal and on the other a cale (kå!-!:) or foot-walk. The canals which intersect every part of the town, form the “ water streets" of Venice: by means of them nearly all the intercourse of the place is carried on, and gondolas are the universal substitute for carriages and horses. Venice is remarkable for the multitude of its superb edifices, among which we must not pass unnoticed the celebrated Church of St. Mark (the patron saint of the city), with its 500 columns of marble, alabaster, bronze and verd antique, and its paveinents of jasper and porphyry; over the entrance, in front of the building, are the famous bronze horses, which, having been cast, as is supposed, at Corinth, during the period of Grecian glory, successively adorned Athens, Rome, and Constantinople. Venice has, among other literary and scientific institutions, two royal gymnasia ; a lyceum, with a rich cabinet of natural history; besides the library of St. Mark, with 65,000 vols. and about 5,000 manuscripts. Lat. 45° 26 N., Lon. 12° 21' E. Pop. 103,000 (B.); in 1769, before the fall of the republic, it amounted to 139,000. (P. C.)-adj. and inhab. VENETIAN, ven-ee-shun.

The plaintain tree brlongs to the same species as the banana. The fruit has a farinaceous flesh, in colour resembling the finest yellow butter, It sometimes attains the weight of 60 and even 80 lbs. (P. C.) Some varieties have an exqu. site tlavour, surpassing, it is said, that of the finest kinds of pear.


ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; th, as in this; N, nearly like ng. VENLOO, vin'-lo', a fortified t. of Holland, prov. of Limburg, on the Meuse (Maas). Lat. 51° 22 N., Lon. 6° 10' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

VERA CRUZ, val-ra crooce, the principal seaport and commercial t. of Mexico, cap. of a state of its own name, on the S. W. shore of the Gulf of Mexico. It is enclosed with walls, is regularly built, with wide and well-paved streets, and contains many excellent houses. Though its harbour is very imperfect, and the town is situated in a sickly and barren region, it appears to be gradually advancing in commercial importance and in population. Lat. 19° 12' N., Lon. 96° 9 W. The pop., before the war which separated Mexico from Spain, was estimated at 16,000; it was afterwards reduced to half that number (P. C.), but at present is stated to amount to 15,000. (B.)

VERCELLI, vēr-chel-le, (Anc. Vercellæ,) an archiepiscopal t. of N. Italy, in the Sardinian States, cap. of a prov. of the same name, about 40 m. E. N. E. of Turin. Pop. about 15,000. (P. C.)

VERDUN, vêr'-dun', (Anc. Virodu'num or Verodu'num,) a t. and fortross of France, in the dep. of Meuse, on the Meuse, where it begins to be navigable. Lat. 49°9' 31" N., Lon. 5° 22' E. Pop. 9,151. (M.)

VER-MIV-1-9N, a co. in the W. part of Ind., between the Wabash, on the É., and Il. on the W. Pop. 8,274. Co. t. Newport.

VERMILION, a co. in the E. part of III., bordering on Ind. Pop. 9,303. Co. t. Danville.

VER-MONT', one of the U. S., between 42° 40' and 45° N. Lat., and 71° 30' and 73° 30' W. Lon., bounded on the N. by Canada, E. by New Hampshire, from which it is separated by the Connecticut r., S. by Massachusetts, and W. by New York; and divided into 14 counties.* Length, from N. to S., near 160 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., about 90 m. Area variously estimated from 8,000 to 10,000 sq. m. Pop. 291,948. Montpelier is the seat of government.

VE-RO-NĄ (It. pron. va-rol-nå), a celebrated city of Austrian Italy, cap. of a prov. of the same name, and the head-qnarters of the Austrian army in Italy, on the Adige, 64 m. W. of Venice. It is pleasantly situated, and very well built, and is surrounded by old walls, flanked with towers. Verona is remarkable for its interesting historical associations, and its monuments of antiquity, and of the middle ages. The ancient amphitheatre, about 510 ft. in length and 410 in breadth, is, after the Coliseum of Rome, the largest existing struc*'re of its kind : a considerable part of it has fallen into ruins, but it is estimated that, when entire, it was capable of accommodating 22,000 spectators. Verona is distinguished for its manufacturing industry, and carries on a considerable trade. It possesses numerous institutions for education; arnong which are, a lyceum: a royal house for the education of young ladies, which is one of the best establishinents of the kind : three gymnasia, and a school of painting and design. Lat. 45° 26' N., Lon. 11° 1' E. Pop. 47,000 (B.): the P. C. says it amounts to near 60,000,

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* Addison, Bennington, Caledonia, Chittenden, Essex, Franklin, Grand Isle, Lamoille Orange, Orleans, Rutland, Washington, Windham, Windsor.

Fate, får, fall, fit; m', mit; p ne or pine, pin; nd, n?:; v) as in good; but this perhaps is intended to include the military.- Adj. and inhab. VER-O-NESE'.

VERSAILLES, ver-sailz!, (Fr. pron. vir'-sill or vir-såle—see Int. XIX., 18.) a handsome though somewhat decayed t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Seine and se, and formerly the principal residence of the royal court, in an undulating plain, 9 m. S. W. of Paris. This place was a inere village in the time of Louis XIII., who used to hunt in the neighbouring woods, and built here, about the year 1627, a small hunting seat, which Louis XIV. converted (1661-72) into the most magniticent palace in Europe, and the village of Versailles grew into a handsome city of about 80,000 inhabitants. (B.) The palace bas not been occupied by the court since 1789, and was falling out of repair, when his present majesty, Louis Philippe, caused it to be restored and converted into an historical museum, which is filled with an immense collection of statues and paintings, exhibiting the principal personages and events in the history of the French monarchy, from Clovis to the present time. Lat. 48° 48' N., Lon. 2° 8' E. Pop. 28,776. (B.)

VERVIERS, vër-ve-al, a flourishing and important manufacturing ! of Belgium, 14 m. E. by S. from Liege. Pop. above 19,000. (B.)

Vesoul, veh-zool', a t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Upper Saone. Lat. 47° 38' N., Lon. 6° 10' E. Pop. about 6,000. (B.)

Ve-sul-vl-us (lt. Vesuvio, va-sool-ve-o), a celebrated volcanic mountain of S. Italy, in the kingdom of Naples, 10 m. E. S. E. from the Neapolitan capital. It is remarkable as the only active volcano of any consequence at present existing in continental Europe. Lat. 40° 45 40" N., Lon. 14° 27' E. Height 3,890 ft.

VIATKA, ve-åt/-kå, a t. of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, on the r. Viatka, an affluent of the Volga. Lat. 59° 22' N., Lon. 49° 45' E. Pop. 6,890. (M.)

VIBORG (Wiborg), veel-borġ, an ancient t. of Denmark, in the cen. tral part of Jutland. Lat. 56° 27' N., Lon. 9° 26' E. Pop. about 3,000. (B.)

V1-CEN-ZĄ (It. pron. ve-chen/-ză; Anc. Vicentia or Vice'tia), a manufacturing and commercial city of Austrian Italy, cap. of a prop of the same name, on the Bacchiglione, 26 m. E. N. E. of Verona. 'It is distinguished by the number of its edifices, remarkable for their architectural beauty or grandeur, a superiority which it owes to the cele braled Palladio, who was born in this town. It has a lyceum, with ten professors : a gymnasium, with fourteen professors, and a town library of 36,000 vols. Vicenza has long been known for its silk manufactures, the most important of the kind in the Venetian States. Lat. 45° 32' N., Lon. 11° 33' E. Pop. 31,000. (B.)- Adj. and Inhab. ViCENTINE, ve-sen-teen!.

Vich, vik, a manufacturing t. of Spain, in Catalonia, 36 m. N. of Barcelona. In its vicinity are mines of copper and coal. Pop. near 13,000. (B.)

VICKS-BURG, a city and port of entry of Miss., cap. of Warren co., on the Mississippi r., 54 m. by the railroad W. from Jackson. Pop. 3,104


ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. VIENNA, ve-en-nạ, (Ger. Wien, ween; Anc. Vindobona,) the largest city of Germany, cap. of the Austrian empire, on the right bank of the Danube, where it is joined by the small rivers Wien and Alster, 190 m. E. of Munich. It consists of the interior or old city, and the suburbs. The old city is nearly circular, and not above three miles in circumfer

It is surrounded by a broad fosse, and a wall from 40 to 50 ft. high. The houses in the old town are generally high; the streets are narrow and crooked, but well-paved and very clean. The places or squares are irregular, and comparatively small; in one of them, called tho Josephsplatz, is a colossal equestrian statue of Joseph II., which is said to be finely executed. The most remarkable pnblic edifice in the Austrian capital, is the Cathedral dedicated to St. Stephen; it was built in the 12th and 13th centuries, and is one of the finest specimens of ancient German architecture; it has four towers, one of which is among the loftiest in Europe; the height is variously stated, from 420 to 480 ft. The Burg (borg, i. e. “castle"), or imperial palace, is an immense building of irregular construction, but offering parts of great architectural beauty and magnificence; it contains the imperial jewel office, one of the richest museums of valuable curiosities in Europe, with a cabinet of medals, which far surpasses every other collection of the kind; an extensive cabinet of natural history, &c. The Imperial Library, connected with the Burg, has above 300,000 printed vols., besides 16,000 manuscripts; it contains, among other curiosities, the Tabula Peutingerana, a map of the Roman empire in the fourth century, one of the most interesting and precious monuments of ancient geography extant; and Tasso's own manuscript of his “ Jerusalem Delivered" attached to the library, is a collection of 300,000 engravings, which was commenced by Prince Eugene, and is now one of the most extensive and valuable in Europe. The splendid Palace of the Archduke Charles contains an extensive library, with a collection of 180,000 engravings and 15,000 drawings, by old masters. Among the multitude of literary and scientific establishments belonging to the Austrian capital, we may mention, besides those already adverted to, the University, founded in 1365, and afterwards greatly extended and improved by Van Swieten, under the patronage of the Empress Maria Theresa : it is now one of the principal institutions of the kind in Europe, and, with respect to medicine, the first in Germany ; it has 80 professors, and above 2,000 students, and possesses a library of 100,000 volumes, an observatory, a botanic garden, and other appendages: the Josephinum, founded by Joseph II., a medical institution for preparing surgeons for the army, with very valuable collections: the Imperial Oriental Academy, and the Academy of Fine Arts, of which Prince Metternich is president. As no people are more disposed to works of charity and beneficence than the Austrians, the hospitals and other charitable institutions are numerous and well endowed. The Observatory is in Lat. 48° 12' 35" N., Lon. 16° 22' 58" E. Pop. in 1840 (including the garrison of 14,000 men), 358,127. (P. C.) - Adj. and innab. VIENNESE, ve'-en-neez.

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Fåte, får, fall, fàt; me, mét; p'ne, or pine, p?n; nd, nöt; oo as in good;

VIENNA, a port of entry of Md., in Dorchester co., on the Nanticoke r.

VIENNE, ve'-enn', (Anc. Vien'na,) a manufacturing t. of France, in the dep. of Isère, on the Rhone, here crossed by a suspension bridge, 16 m. Š. by E. of Lyons. It appears to have been formerly a far more important and larger town than at present, and it still retains many monuments of its ancient splendour; among which may be mentioned a Corinthian temple, resembling the Maison Carée of Nisines, but not so elegant. Lat. 45° 33' N., Lon., 4° 54' E. Pop. 14,000. (M.)

Vienne, a dep. in the W. central part of France, intersected by a r. of the same name, which flows into the Loire. Pop. 288,002. (B.) Capital, Poitiers.

VIENNE, Upper, (Fr. Haute-Vienne, ole ve'-enn'.) a dep. in the S.W. central part of France, on the sources of the r. Vienne. Pop. 293,011. (B.) Capital, Limoges.

VIGEVANO, ve-jev!-å-no, a t. of N. Italy, Sardinian States, near the right bank of the Ticino, 20 m. S. W. of Milan. Pop. 12,000. (P. C.)

Vıl-go, a co. in the W. part of Ind., bordering on N., and intersected by the Wabash. Pop. 12,076. Co. t. Terre Haute.

Villach, vil!-låk', a small, but formerly important t. of Illyria, on the Drave. Lat. 46° 35' N., Lon. 13° 52' E.

VILLA-Real, veell-yå ra-Ål', (i. e. “ royal town,") a t. and formerly a fortress of Spain, about 4 m. from the sea, and 33 m. N. N. E. of Va. lencia. Pop. estimated at about 8,000. (M.)

Villa-Rica, vil!-lå reel-kå, (i. e. "rich town,") a t. of Brazil, cap. of the prov. Minas Geraes (meel-nás zha-rål-is,) 190 m. N. N. W. of Rio Janeiro. The produce of the famous gold mines, to which this town owes its origin and name, has greatly diminished, and the population of the place has been reduced from about 30,000 to 9,000 (B.), but it is still one of the most important manufacturing and commercial towns in the interior of Brazil.

VILLEFRANCHE, veel'-frånsh', a t. of France, in the dep. of Aveyron, on the r. Aveyron. Lat. 44° 23' N., Lon. 2° 2 E. Pop. 8,147. (M.)

VINCENNES, vin-senz', (Fr. pron. van'-senn',) a small t. of France, situated about 3 m. E. of Paris, remarkable for its ancient royal castle, which is now used as a state prison.

VINCENNES, a t. of Indiana, cap. of Knox co., on the Wabash, about 150 m. from its mouth. It was settled by the French, from Canada, in the early part of last century, and is one of the oldest towns in the western states. Pop. between 2,000 and 3,000.

Vin'-cent, ST., one of the W. India Islands, belonging to Great Britain, intersected by the parallel of 13° 20' N. Lat., and the meridian of 61° 15' W. Lon. It is 18 m. long, and 11 m. broad, with an area of 131 sq. m. Pop., in 1834, 27,122; of whom, 1,301 were whites. (P. C.) Kingston, near the S. end of the island, with about 2,000 inhabitants, is the capital.

VINCENT, CAPE ST., (the Sacrum Promontorium of the ancients,) a

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