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Thus the a in the penultimate syllable of ALABAMA, is somewhat longer than in fat, though not so broad as in far. It may be remarked that some orthoepists assign such a sound to a in certain English words, e.g. in f18t.

3. When e and o end a syllable in the pronunciation of a word, they are always to be pronounced distinctly with their first sound (as in me or no.)

4. E is rarely figured when occurring in a syllable with the primary accent (IX.); in other cases e, and also the other vowels, are frequently thus marked, in order to guard against their being pronounced indistinctly.

5. O marked long (o), though often einployed in English names, in order to show merely that this letter has its first sound, when it occurs in the pronunciation of foreign words or names, always indicates that the sound of the vowel is to be prolonged. In like manner, o indicates that this letter has a sound like o, in not, to be pronounced distinctly but very short.

6. The sound of u before a vowel, in Spanish words, is usually represented by w. Thus nuevo is pronounced nwa'-vo, which is nearly equiva. lent to noo-a'-do. In Italian, the u before a vowel appears to be sounded more distinctly: accordingly, we have indicated the pronunction of nuovo, duomo, by noo-o'-vo, doo-o'-mo. In these cases, however, n00-0 and doo-o are to be pronounced almost in one syllable.

7. When two or more geographical names, with the same spelling, occur in succession, and the pronunciation of the first only is given, it is intended that all shall be pronounced alike.

9. The pronunciation of a name is distinguished from the name itself, by its not beginning with a capital. In examples like the following, Bres'-LAU or bres'-lou, the latter spelling has reference to pronunciation only, while the former gives the true mode of writing the name and the pronunciation at the same time. Had we written BRESLAU, bres'-lau or bres'-lou, the same end would have been attained, but at the expense of brevity.

9. The number of syllables in a word or name is indicated by the hy. phens; e.g. SMYTHE not being divided by a hyphen, is to be pronounced in one syllable; pane'-ya in two: the e, in such syllables as pane, is silent, being only used to render the preceding a long, as in fate. In some few cases, how. ever, where a name of two or more syllables is necessarily familiar to all, we have not divided it by hyphens, nor indicated the pronunciation in any way; e. g., HENRY, William, &c. In Latin names, the accent only has been marked.

10. When the right or left bank of a river is spoken of, the reader is supposed to be looking down the stream, or, in other words, going with the current.

11. It may be remarked, respecting the adjective and appellation of the inhabitants, derived from the names of places (see PREFACE, pages vi. and vii.), that, if the latter has man for its termination, in the singular, the plural is often expressed by the adjective; e. g., singular, FRENCHMAN; plural, the FRENCH : singular, SCOTCHMAN; plural, the Scorch, &c. We sometimes hear also “THE SPANISH," instead of "THE SPANIARDS;" but such expressions are not to be approved.

12. When no date is given, the population of places in this country has reference to the census of 1840; the population of Great Britain to the census of 1841, and that of France to the census of 1836.

13. When, immediately after a geographical name, there occur one or more names beginning with a capital, enclosed in a parenthesis, these are to be understood as different modes of writing the first, but if the word enclosed begins with a small letter, it is merely the pronunciation of the first name.

1

UNIVERSAL

PRONOUNCING GAZETTE ER.

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pln; no, nôt; óð, as in good ; ou, as in our; th, as in thin; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng.

Ai, ai, the name of several small rivers of Europe, in France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Germany.

AACHEN. See Aix-LA-CHAPELLE.

AALBORG, oll-borg, a t. of Denmark; cap. of a bishopric of the same Dame, in Jutland, on the S. side of the extensive arm of the sea called Lymfiord. Lat. 57° 2 N., Lon. 9° 57' E. Pop. estimated at about 9,000. (B.)

Aar or ÁARE, åår, a r. in the N. part of Switzerland, which rises near the E. extremity of the canton of Berne, and, traversing the lakes of Brienz and Thun, passes through the cantons of Soleure and Aargau, and falls into the Rhine, 28 m. E. of Bâle. Length, about 170 m. It becomes navigable at its egress from the lake of Thun.

AARGAU, dårl-gou, (Fr. Argovie, ar'-go-vel; Lat. Argo/via), a canton in the N. part of Switzerland, bordering on the Rhine. Area, 505 sq. m. Pop., in 1836, 182,755. (M.)

AARHUUS, OR/-hooce, a seaport t. of Denmark, in Jutland; cap. of a bishopric of the same name, on the E. coast. Lat. 56° 9' 35" N., Lon. 10° 14' E. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)

ABAKANSK, 8-68-kånsk', a t. of Siberia, on the Abakan', an affluent of the Yenisei, in the prov. of Kolyvan, remarkable for the ancient tombs discovered in its vicinity, which contain ornaments of silver and gold, and on which are to be seen statues of men froin seven to nine feet high, with carved work of an extraordinary character. It appears that this country, at present so imperfectly civilized, was once inhabited by a people acquainted with writing and other arts. (B.) Lat. about 540 N., Lon. 91° 15' E.

ABANCAY, åb-an-kil, a t. of Peru, 60 m. W. by S. from Cuzco. Lat. 13° 40' S., Lon. about 73° W. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

ABANO, d-bål-no, a t. of Italy, near Padua, noted for its hot sulphurous baths. Permanent pop. 2,600. (B.)

Fåte, får, fåll, fit; mo, mot; pine or pine, pin; n, nit; öð, as in good;

AeAscia or ABASSIA, ab-ash'-e-a, a country of Russia, E. of, and bordering on, the Black Sea. Adj. and inhab., ABASCIAN or ABASSIAN, abashl-e-an.

ABBEVILLE, åb'-vill', a fortified manufacturing town of France, in the dep. of Somme, on the r. Somme, 25 m. N. W. of Amiens. Lat. 50° 7 N., Lon. 1° 50' E. Pop. 13,842. (M.)

AB-BE-VILLE', a dist. of South Carolina, on the Savannah. Pop. 29,351. Seat of justice, Abbeville.

ABI-ER-BROTH'-ock, or ARS-BROATH, a seaport t. of Scotland, in Forfarshire, 48 m. N. N. E. of Edinburgh. Lat. 56° 34' N., Lon. 2° 32' W. Pop. 7,218.

AB'-ER-DEEN', a city of Scotland, in Aberdeenshire, consisting of two parts; or, more properly, forining two distinct towns.

OiD ABERDEEN, on the right bank of the Don, was a place of some importance in the 12th century. It has a university called King's College, founded by James IV., in 1494.

New ABERDEEN, the cap. of Aberdeenshire, stands on the left bank of the Dee (which forms its harbour), 91 m. N. N. E. of Edinburgh. It has a university named Marischal College, in honour of Earl Marischal, who founded it, in 1593 or 1594. Lat. 57° 9' N., Lon. 2° 6' W. Entire population of the burgh, including both towns, 63,285.

AB-ER-DEEN-SHIRE, a co. in the E. part of Scotland, bordering on the sea. Pop. 192,387.

ABERGAVENNY, ab-er-ga-ne, a small t. in England, in Monmouthshire, 11 m. W. from Monmouth.

AB'-ER-ISTI-WITH (with) or ABERYSTWITH, a sea port t. of Wales, Cardiganshire. Lat. 52° 24' N., Lon. 4° 5' W. Pop: 4,975.

Ap/-ING-DỌN, a t. of England, in Berkshire, on the Thames, 56 m. W. N. W. of London. Pop. 5,585.

ABO, ål-bo, (Sw. ÅBO, 0/-boo), formerly the cap. of Finland, situated on a promontory, between the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. Pop., formerly, 12,500. (P. C.) Lat. 60° 27' N., Lon. 22° 17' E. It was almost utterly destroyed by the dreadful conflagration of 1825, but is. now slowly rising from its ruins. (B.)

ABOMEY, ab-o-ma', a populous t. of Africa, cap. of the kingdom of Dahomey. Lat. about 7° 30' N., Lon. 1° 45' 1.' Pop. 24,040. (B.)

AB-00-KEER! (Aboukir), a t. of Egypt, with a castle, 13 m. N. E. of Alexandria. Lat. 31° 20' N., Lon. 30° 7' E.

ABOOSHEHR, å-boo-shaih'ri, (Abuschehr or Aboushehr, also written Bushire, boo-sheer/; and Bender or Bunder Boshavir, bo-shå-veer',) a seaport t. of Persia, on a peninsula in the Persian Gulf, 10 m. W. S. W. of Shiraz. Lat. 28° 57' N., Lon. 50° 52' E. Pop. formerly estimated as high as 12,000, and even 15,000, but now reduced by pestilence war, and other causes, to 1,500. (B.)

AB-00-TIZH' or ABOOTISH (written usually Aboutij or Abutige), a t. in Upper Egypt, on the W. bank of the Nile, celebrated for its excellen! opium. Lat. 27° 5' N., Lon. 31° 20' E.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. ABRANTES, å-brån/-tés, a t. of Portuguese Estremadura, 74 m. N. E. of Lisbon. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

ABROLHOS, á-brole-yoce dangerous sand-banks and rocks on the coast of Brazil, in about 18° S. Lat., 30° 20' W. Lon.

ABBUD BA'NYA, ob-rood' biản'yoh', a small t. of Transylvania, remarkable for its gold mines. Lat. 46° 28' N., Lon. 22° 10 E.

ABRUZZO, å-broot-so, an extensive territory forming the N. E. portion of the Neapolitan dominions. It is divided into Abruzzo Ultra (00l/-trå), and Abruzzo Citra (cheel-trå), or, farther and nearer Abruzzo.

ABUSCHEHR. See A BOOSHEHR.
ABUTIGE. See ABOOTIZH.

AB-IS-SIN-1-4, a kingdom of Africa, bounded on the E. by the Red Sea, N. by Sennaar, W. and S. by Sennaar, Kordofan, and barbarous regions; about 770 m. long, and 550 broad. The ranges of mountains, with which it is everywhere intersected, preserve the air cool, and afford a sufficient supply of water. In conseqnence of this physical structure, Abyssinia is exceedingly fertile, and is exempted, in a great measure, from that sand which dooms so large a portion of Africa to sterility. The chief alimentary plants are, millet, barley, wheat, maize, and teff.* All travellers concur in praising the fine wheaten bread of Abyssinia ; but it is eaten only by people of rank. Tefl'grows on every soil, and affords the bread which is in universal use.

This once powerful kingdom, which during so many ages preserved its independence against the efforts of pagrinisin and the word of Mahomet, is now a prey to anarchy, and completely dismembered. Among the various kingdoms into which it has been divided, the following are the principal: The kingdom of Amhara, of Tigre, and of Shoa or Suwa. These will be spoken of in their respective places - The Abyssinians profess Christianity, but their religion is filled with Judaical observances.-Adj. and inhab., AB-YS-SIN-L-AN.

ACAPULCO, åc-à-pool/-co, a t. of Mexico, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Its port is the finest in Mexico, and has few equals in the world. Lat. 16° 50' N., Lon. 99° 49' W. Pop. 4,0 '0. (B)

Ad-CO-MACK', a county of Virginia, on the E. shore of Chesapeake Bay. Pop. 17,096. Seat of justice, Accomack c. h.

ACHEEN. See ATCHEEN.
ACHMIM. See AKUMYM.
ACHMOUNEYN. See Osn MOONEYN.
ACQUI. See AQUI.

ACRA, 8/-krą, or Ad-crẠ, a kingdom on the gold coast of Africa, about 26 m. in length, and from 12 to 20 in breadth. Also the chief t. of the above kingdom. Lat. 5° 30' N., Lon. 0° 15' W. Pop. estimated at 12,000. (B.)

ACRE, ål-k'r or 'k'r, (Turk. and Arab. Akłki,) an ancient city and sea port of Palestine, in a pashalic of its own name, on a bay of the

*"The teff or tafo is a grain smaller than mustard seed, and well tasted Blumenbach thinks that it is the same with the Poa Abyssinica.(M. B.)

Fate, får, fall, fåt; m', mit; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; öð, as in good ; Mediterranean, in a situation rendered unhealthy by the neighbouring marshes. It is small, but very populous and well fortified. This city has been celebrated from remote antiquity. Strabo calls it AKE (Axr). Another appellation is, St. Jean D'Acre, which it probably acquired from the knights of St. John, so distinguished for their valour against the Mahometans. It is 23 m. N. N. W. of Jerusalem. Lat. 32° 54' N., Lon. 35° 6' E. Pop. estimated at near 20,000. (B.)

A-Dair', a co. in the S. central part of Ky., intersected by Green r. Pop. 8,466. Co. t. Columbia.

Adair, a co. in the N. part of Mo., near the border of Iowa.

Adalia, å-dal-le-å, or Satalia, a sea port and cominercial t. of Asiatic Turkey, on the Mediterranean. Lat. 36° 53' N., Lon. 30° 45' E. Pop. variously estimated from 8,000 to 30,000. (B.)

Adl-Ams, a co. in the most westerly part of III., on the Mississippi r. Pop. 14,476. Co. t. Quincy.

Adams, a co. in the E. part of Ind., a little S. of the Maumee r. Pop. 2,264. Co. t. Decatur.

Adams, a co. in the S. W. part of Miss., on the Mississippi r. Pop. 19,434. Co. t. Natchez.

Adams, a co. in the S. part of Ohio, on the Ohio r. Pop. 13,183. Co. t. West Union.

Adams, a co. in the S. part of Pa., a little W. of the Susquehanna r. and bordering on Md. Pop. 23,044. Co. t. Gettysburg.

Adana, ål-da-nå, a t. of Asiatic Turkey in Caramania, on a river of the same name. Lat. 36° 59' N., Lon. 35° 6' E. Pop. estimated by M. Kinneir at near 3 !,000; but during the heat of summer it is almost deserted. (B.)

Adda, åd?-dá, a river of Italy, which runs through the Valtellina into Lake Como, and joins the Po near Cremona.

Ad-DJ-8°N, a co. of Vermont, bordering on Lake Champlain. Pop. 23,583. Co. t. Middlebury.

Adel, å-dell, a territory of Africa, immediately S. E. of Abyssinia. Zeila is the chief town.

Aden, ål-den or d-den, a seaport t. of Arabia, on a gulf at the S. extremity of the Indian Ocean, to which it gives its name. of this place, said to have been 30,000 in the 17th century, had become reduced a few years since to about 800 (M.), when it was taken possession of by the British, and made a commercial depot, and a station for the steamers running from Suez to Bombay. It is now represented as being in a very flourishing state, the pop. being estimated at between 10,000 and 20,000. Lat. 12° 45' N., Lon. about 45° E.

Adige, adl-e-je, * (It. pron. al-de-j\; Ger. Etsch ; Anc. Ath'esis;) a r. of N. Italy, which rises in the country of the Grisons, on the borders of Tyrol, and flows into the Gulf of Venice, near the mouths of the Po. It is a rapid stream, and navigated with difficulty.

The pop.

Like him wayworn
And lost, who by the foaming ADICE,
Descending from the 'Tyrol

Rogers's Italy, Part first, VIII.

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