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ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. extremity of France, bordering on Italy. Pop. 159,045. (B.) Capital, Digne.

ALPs, UPPER, (Fr. Hautes-Alpes, ote zålp,) a dep. in the S. E. part of France, N. of, and bordering on the preceding. Pop. 131,162. (B.) Capital, Gap.

ALSACE, &1-såss', a former prov. of France, now divided into the deps. of Upper and Lower Rhine.

Als, åls, usually, tbough improperly, written Alsen, áll-sen, a fertile island in the Baltic, lying between Fünen and the E. coast of Sleswick. It is about 20 m. long and 8 broad. Pop. about 15,000. (P. C.)

ALTAI ål-tål-e or ål-til, mountains of Asia, which commence near the sea of Aral, and terminate at East Cape, on the Pacific Ocean, in the 17uth degree of W. Long. They traverse, under different names, an extent of near 5,000 miles. The highest part of the chain is computed at 11,512 feet (1,800 toises) above the level of the sea. (B.)

ALTA yAha, aul'-ta-ma-hau', a r. of Georgia, formed by the union of the Oconee and Ocmulgee. It runs S. E., and empties into the sea about 60 m. S. W. of Savannah. It is navigable for vessels of 30 tons as far as Milledgeville, on the Oconee branch, about 300 m. from the sea.

ALTAMURA, &l-ti-mool-så, a t. of Naples, in the prov. of Bari. Lat. 40° 47' N., Lon. 16° 33' E. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)

ALTENBURG, all-ten-burg', (Ger. pron. all-ten-bõõrg',) a t. of Germany; cap. of the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, on the Pleisse, with several important literary institutions. Lat. about 51° N., Lon. 12° 30' E. Pop. about 12,000. (B.)

ALTON, aull-ton, a Nourishing t. of III., in Madison co., on the Mississippi, 3 m. above the mouth of the Missouri. In commercial advantages, it is second to no other place in the state. Pop. 2,340.

ALTONA or ALTENA, åld-ton-á', a city of Holstein, the second town of the Danish dominions, as regards industry, commerce, and population; on the Elbe, about 2 m. W. of Hamburg. It is a free port, and contains a mint, besides several important literary and scientific institutions. The Observatory is in Lat. 53° 32' 51" N., Lon. 9° 56' 50” E. Pop. estimated at above 27,000. (B.)

ALTORF, ål-torf, or ALTDORF, (i. e. “Old Village,") the cap. of the Swiss canton of Uri, about 2 m. from the S. E. extremity of the lake of Lucerne. Here the tyrant Gessler proceeded to those indignities which, through the patriotism of William Tell, laid the foundation of Swiss independence. Lat. 46° 53' N., Lon. 8° 38' E. Pop. about 1,500. (B.)

ALTZEY or ALZEY, ålt-si, a t. in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, 14 m. N. W. of Worms. Pop. 3,600. (B.)

AMAGER, ål-må-ger, a small island in the Baltic, lying opposite to Copenhagen, with which it is connected by two bridges. It is about 9 m. long, and, on an average, 3 broad. It supplies the neighbouring town with garden vegetables, milk, butter, and cheese. À part of Copenhagen, called Christianshavn, is built on this island.


Fåte, får, fåll, fit; me, mit; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; öð, as in good ;

AMALFI, å-mill-fe, a t. of Naples, 10 m. S. W. of Salerno. It was quite celebrated in the middle ages, and possessed no inconsiderable

Present pop. scarcely 3,000. (B.) Lat. 40° 38' N., Lon. 14° 35' E.


Amasia or AMASIEH, å-inål-see-a, (Anc. Amasi'a or Amasscila,) a t. of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, on the Yesheel (Yeshil) Ermak, 390 m. E. of Constantinople. It is an extensive and populous place, but the streets are narrow and dirty. The greater portion of the houses are of wood, though many are built of stone and covered with tiles. The river here is large and rapid, and the water is raised in buckets by means of large wheels turned by the stream. These buckets empty themselves into reservoirs, whence the water is conveyed to the baths and fountains of the city. This town was the birth-place of the famous geographer, Strabo. Pop. 60,000 or 70,000. (E. G.) Lat. 40° 30' N., Lon. 36° 23' E.

AMASERA, å-mål-ser-a, or AmasREH, (Anc. Ames/tros,) a t. of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, on a point of land projecting into the Black Sea, 150 m. E. N. E. of Constantinople. Lat. 41° 46' N., Lon. 32° 24' E.

AM'-A-ZỌN, (Sp. Marañon, må-rån-yonel: called by the Indians Am-ås'. so-na, i.e." boat destroyer,") a r. of S. America, the largest in the world, formed by the union of the Tunguragua and Ucayali. It empties itself into the Atlantic, under the equinoctial line, after a course of more than 4,000 m. The mouth of this river is 180 m. wide, and it flows into the ocean with such violence that it carries its own waters unmixed into the sea to the disiance of 80 leagues. In the freshets, the country, for several hundred miles, is laid under water. This river is also called the ORELLANA (o-rél-yål-nå).

AM-A-zol-N1-A, a region in the central part of S. America, discovered in 1539, by Francisco Orellana, who sailed down the Amazon to the Atlantic. Observing, as he states, companies of women in arms on its banks, he called the country Amazonia, and the river Amazon.*

AMBERG, åm/-béry, a t. of Bavaria, 32 m. N. of Ratisbon. It has a castle, arsenal, and mint, and various manufacturing establishments. Pop. 8,000. (B.) Lat. 49° 25' N., Lon. 11° 50' E.

AMBERT, åm'-bair', a t. of France, in the dep. of Puy de Dôme, on the Dore, possessing above 100 paper-mills, besides various other manufactories. Lat. 45° 33' N., Lon. 3° 48' E. Pop. 8,016. (M.)

AMBOISE, åmb -wảzł, (Anc. Amba'cia,) a t. of France, in the dep. of Indre and Loire, 14 m. E. of Tours. Lat. 47° 24' N., Lon. 0° 58' E. Pop. 4,695. (M.)

AM-BOY', a small t. of Middlesex co., N. J., at the mouth of the Raritan, about 30 m., in a straight line, S. W. of New York, with an excellent harbour. It is a port of entry.

AM-BOYS-NẠ, an island of Malaisia, intersected by the parallel of

It is not improbable that the Indian name of the river may have suggested this account of the armed women.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. 3° 40 S. Lat., and the 128th meridian of E. Lon. It is the chief of the Moluccas, all the others being dependent on its jurisdiction. Length about 55 m. The vegetable productions are numerous, but the clove tree is the principal object of attention.—Adj. and inhab. AM-BOY-NEŞE'.

A MBOYNA, the cap. of the above, is situated on a large bay, which divides the island into two unequal peninsulas. It is neat and regularly built, though its streets are unpaved. Lat. 3° 40' S., Lon. 128° 15' É. Pop. about 7,000. (B.)

AMELAND, ål-mel-ằnt, a small island belonging to Holland, off the coast of Friesland. Lat. 53° 27' N., Lon, about 5° 50' E.

AM-BY-L1-4, a co. of Va., on the Appomattox r., S. W. of Richmond. Pop. 10,320. Seat of justice, Amelia c. h.

AMELLA, an island on the coast of Florida, about 50 m. N. of St. Augustine. It is 13 m. long, and 2 broad ; is very fertile, and has an excellent harbour.

AM-ER'--CẠ, one of the five grand divisions of the globe ; bounded on the E. by the Atlantic, which separates it from Europe and Africa ; and on the W. by the Pacific, which separates it from Asia. Towards the N. its limits are but imperfectly known. At the S. it termiDates in a point called Cape Horn. It is more than 9,000 m. long, and, on an average, about 1,500 broad, and extends from about 35° to 168° W. Lon., and from 71° N. to 56° S. Lat. According to Hassel, it contains about 16,500,000 sq. m. America is remarkable for the size and grandeur of its mountains, lakes, and rivers. A range of mountains runs from N. to S. through its whole length. This continent is divided by the isthmus of Panama into North and South America.Adj. and inhab. AM-ER/-I-CẠN.

AMERSFORT or AMERSFOORT, al-mers-fort, a manufacturing and commercial t. of Holland, in the prov. of Utrecht, on the navigable r. Eem (aim), which flows into the Zuyder Zee, 25 m. E. S. E. of Amsterdam. Lat. 52° 12' N., Lon. 5° 22' E. Pop. about 9,000. (B.)

AMHARA, åm-hål-rå, a general division and kingdom of Abyssinia, comprehending the provinces W. of the Tacazzé. Its cap. is Gondar. -Adj. AMHARIC, am-hå-ric.

AM-UÆRST, a co. in the central part of Va., N. of, and bordering on, James river. Pop. 12,576. Seat of justice, Amherst c. h.

AMHERST, a township of Hampshire co., Mass., 76 m. W. of Boston, with a flourishing college, founded in 1821.

AM-HERST-BURG', the cap. of Essex co., Upper Canada, on L. Erie, near the mouth of the Detroit r. There is a safe and commodious harbour, with a good anchorage, in 34 fatboins water. Lat. 42° 5' N., Lon. 83° 5' W.

AM'-I-ENS, (Fr. pron. å-me'-ân',) formerly the chief t. of Picardy, and now the cap. of the dep. of Somme, on the r. Somme, 40 m. from the sea, and 75 m. N. of Paris. It has a number of literary and scientific institutions, and various manufactories. Amiens was the birth-place of Peter the Hermit, and the astronomer Delambre. Lat. 49° 53' N., Lon. 2° 17' E. Pop. 45,000. (B.)

Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mét; plne or pine; pin; nd, not; öö as in good.

AMITE, am-eet', a co. near the S. W. extremity of Miss., bordering on La. Pop. 9,511. Co. seat, Liberty.

Amlwch, aml-look, a seaport t. of Wales, in the N. E. corner of Anglesey. There are extensive copper-mines in the vicinity. Pop. of parish, 6,217.

AM'-MỌN-00 -SUCK, UPPER and LOWER, two rivers of N. H., rising in the White Mountains, and flowing into the Connecticut.

Amoo or AMU. See Oxus. AM-oor! (Amur or Amour), called also the SAGHALIAN, sig-hål'e-an, a large r. in the E. part of Asia, formed by the union of the Argoon and Shilka, in about 536 N. Lat. and 12P E. Lon. Its general course is easterly, and it empties itself into the Gulf of Saghalian, between the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk, in Lat. 52 30 N., Lon. about 140° E. Entire length, including the Argoon, its principal branch, above 2,000 m.

AMRETSIR, åm'-ret-seer', or UM-RIT-SEER' (the pool of immortality, an important commercial t. of Hindostan, in Lahore, on the high road between Cabool and Delhi, Cashmere and the Dekkan. The name is derived from a sacred basin, immersion in which is supposed by many tribes of the Hindoos to cleanse from all sin. Pop. 100,000. (B.) Lat. 31° 33' N., Lon. 74° 50' E.

AM-STER-DAM' (Dutch pron. åm'-ster-dảm'), the largest, richest, and most populous city of the Netherlands, situated on the Y. It was, in former ages, a simple village, meanly built, and inhabited by fishermen, having first acquired the name of a commercial town about the year 1370; it was encompassed with walls and other fortifications in 1482, and in the 17th century arose to the first rank among the trading cities of Europe. The river Amstel divides it into the old or eastern, and new or western towns. It is intersected throughout by canals, which cross each other in a thousand different ways. The name is said to have been derived from Amsteldam, i. e. “ dam or dyke of the Amstel,” which was afterwards softened into Amsterdam. Lat. 52° 22 N., Lon. 4° 53' E. Pop. above 201,000. (B.)

AN-A-DEER' (Anadir), a r. in the E. part of Siberia, which flows into a gulf of the same name, near 64° N. Lat., and 178° E. Lon.

Ancona, ản-co’-nå, a seaport t. in the Papal state, and the cap. of a delegation or prov. situated on a point of land running into the Adriatic Sea. It is the most commercial place in the Papal state. In 1732 it was declared a free port, and became the rival of Venice. Lat. 43° 38' N., Lon. 13° 29' E. Pop. about 30,000. (B.)

ANDALUSIA, an-da-lul-she-a, or VANDALUSIA, (Sp. Andalucia, ån-då. loo-theel-å,) a prov. or division of Spain, comprising the four Moorish kingdoms, Seville, Cordova, Jaen, and Granada. It is bounded on the N. by La Mancha and Estremadura, E. by Murcia, S. by the Mediterranean, the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Atlantic, and W. by Portugal. Length, from E. to W., 300 m.: greatest breadth, from N. to S., about 150 m. The name, it is supposed, was given to it by the Vandals, who

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. established themselves here about the beginning of the 5th century. (P.C.)- Adj. and inhab. ANDALUSIAN, an-da-lu-she-an.

AN-DA-MAN ISLANDS, a group on the E. side of the Bay of Bengal, consisting of four large islands and several small ones. Three of these are almost contiguous, being separated only by very narrow straits, so that they are usually regarded as one island, and named the Great Andaman. The other of the four is called the Little Andaman. The former, including all its parts, is about 150 m. in length, and 20 in breadth. The latter, lying 30 m. S. of it, is 28 m. long, and 17 broad. Lat, from 10° 30' to 13° 40' N., Lon. about 93° E.

ANDELYS, LES, laze ånd'-lel, a manufacturing t. of France, in the dep. of Eure, on the right side of the Seine, about 50 m. N. W. of Paris. It consists properly of two towns, the Great (Grand), and the Little (Petit) Andely. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

ANDERNACH, ån-der-nåk, (Anc. Antunacum,) a small t. of Rhenish Prussia, on the left bank of the Rhine, 10 m. W.N. W. of Coblentz, with a considerable trade in millstones and trass, a substance which, when pulverized and mixed with water, becomes as hard as stone.

ANDES, an-diz, (called by the Spaniards Cordillera de los Andes, kor-deel-yal-rå då loce ảnl-dis,) the southern portion of the mountain chain wbich, under various names, extends through the whole length of the American continent. The principal ridge follows, in general, the windings of the Pacific coast, from which it is distant from 50 to 150 m. The highest peaks of the Andes are the Nevado de Sorata, the Nevado de Ilimani, and Chimborazo. (See SoRATA, ILLIMANT, and CHIMBORAZO.)

ANDORRA, ản-dor/-rå, a little republic of Catalonia, Spain, under the protection of France, intersected by the parallel of 42° 30' N. Lat. and the meridian of 1° 30' E. Lon. Area, 192 sq. in. Pop. 15,000. (B.)

ANDORRA, the cap. of the above, has a pop. of about 2,000.

ANI-DO-VER, a t. of Essex co., Mass., 20 m. in a straight line N. of Boston, on the railroad which connects this city with Portland, in Maine. A Theological Seminary, under the direction of the Congregationalists, was established here in 1808. It is richly endowed, and enjoys a high reputation. Phillips' Academy, of this place, is one of the best endowed and most flourishing institutions of the kind in the country.

AN-DREW, a co near the N. W. extremity of Mo.

AN-DREWS, ST., an ancient city of Scotland, in Fifeshire, on the German Ocean, 31 m. N. E. of Edinburgh. The University of St. Andrews is the oldest in Scotland, having been founded in 1411. It is attended by about 800 students, and has a library of 40,000 vols. Lat. 56° 20' N., Lon. 2° 48' W. Pop. 3,959.

ANDRO, ån/-dro, (Anc. An'dros,) an island of the Grecian Archipelago, about 8 m. from the S. E. extremity of Eubea. It is 25 m. long, and 8 broad, and contains a pop. of about 18,000. (P. C.)

Ax-DROS-COGI-GIN, a r. of Maine, which, rising from Umbagog Lake,

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