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working classes, especially farm workers, adopt measures of effective cooperation in order that any change in production that may be necessary in the indicated postwar transition period may be effected in an equitable and orderly manner and in order that sources of agricultural production established or expanded during the war, and the existence of which is economically justified, may have an opportunity to continue their development.

5. That in order to avoid the use of artificial measures of an exaggerated economic nationalism, the following measures in particular be applied:

(a) Continental technical cooperation to increase efficiency of production;

(6) Development and diversification of sound industries, especially agricultural industries, which permit, at the same time, the increased employment of farm labor, a decent standard of life and an increased consumption of agricultural products.

(c) Appropriate location and development of industries on the basis of national raw materials;

(d) The reduction of barriers to international trade, in order that postwar opportunities for both exports and imports may be fully utilized.

6. That the forthcoming Inter-American Technical Economic Conference give special attention to the problems mentioned above. XVIII. CREATION OF TECHNICAL ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE

PURPOSE OF INCREASING THE PRODUCTION OF FARM

PRODUCTS WHEREAS:

1. The post-war food needs will require an intensification of the production of all farm-livestock items, in order that it may be possible to supply not only the domestic market of each country but also those countries which for reasons of climate or economy have small or scant production;

2. Fowls, eggs, honey and other farm products constitute foods of prime necessity in the human diet, and it is therefore advisable to increase their production in order to obtain better nutrition which will be conducive to the greater well-being of the population;

3. A majority of the American nations, by means of the application of practical systems of exploitation, will be in a position to increase the production of these foods considerably,

The Third Inter-American Conference on Agriculture

Resolves: To recommend that the American Governments encourage in their respective countries the creation or enlargement, as the case may be, of technical organizations intended to increase farm industries, with a view to satisfying the farmers' own needs and creating surpluses for export.

XIX. ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCERS'

COOPERATIVE ORGANIZATIONS WHEREAS:

1. There should be fixed as an essential objective of the American nations the strengthening of their cooperative organizations for the purpose of promoting production, improving their efficiency and protecting the interests of producers;

2. Such organizations should be directed by the member-producers themselves but it may be necessary to have official assistance in promoting their development.

The Third Inter-American Conference on Agriculture Resolves.

1. To recommend that the governments of the countries of the continent adopt the necessary legislative measures for obtaining the creation of special associations of producers for each line of production, or in the manner required by the nature of the production;

2. That the organizations so formed, when the circumstances of each country permit, shall be financed by the members in each respective line through contributions to the common fund of the organization, in proportion to the annual volume of their production or sales;

3. That these organizations, when the circumstances of each country permit, be organized by producers who will draw up their by-laws and elect their own officers and choose their own employees;

4. That the intervention of the State in the activities of these organizations shall be limited to support and supervision in compliance with the by-laws and the established aims of each country;

5. That the other standards to which these organizations of a cooperative character adjust their development shall coincide in every way with the principles universally adopted by organizations of that kind. The organizations shall enjoy all the benefits and exemptions granted by law to cooperative organizations.

XX. FORMATION OF ASSOCIATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL

PRODUCERS WHEREAS:

The formation of associations of agricultural producers is an important factor of progress, since they derive multiple economic, moral and cultural benefits from mutual cooperation and support; 2. By facilitating ties between the producers and the discussion of common problems, the formation of associations permits the agricultural producers to make thorough studies of the problems which affect their agricultural activities and promotes the adoption of general measures conducive to the solution of such problems;

3. The State through its technical offices is not able to reach every farming or cattle-raising unit with the necessary frequency, whether it be in the matter of extension courses conducted by them or in the matter of publicizing and applying the legal measures which are enacted;

4. This contact of the State and its agricultural experts with the producer is easy when there is an organized rural group in the form of rural associations or commissions for agricultural development which represent the organized group or colony and which take charge of communicating and furthering in each zone the orders and practical measures issued by the technical offices;

5. This spirit of association and solidarity is a basic factor for the defense of common interests, since by permitting the joint study by interested people of economic and technical questions in general assemblies, important conclusions are reached which may have more weight when their complaints or suggestions are directed to the public authorities;

6. Without this spirit of solidarity referred to above, it is useless to attempt the establishment of more perfect econòmic organizations among the rural classes, which fact is proven by the failure of cooperative action in these groups where the spirit of cooperation has not been previously developed;

7. That for the fight against plagues, for the most rational distribution of credit, for the implantation of a cooperative regime, and for technical perfection, it is necessary to create an atmosphere of close solidarity among the agricultural producers;

8. Agricultural associations organized into regional and national federations constitute, by their capacity as a whole, by their knowledge of the "trade” and by the number of persons represented, an active force in the social, economic and political picture of the country,

The Third Inter-American Conference on Agriculture

Resolves: To recommend to the governments of the various American countries that they stimulate by all means within their reach the formation of associations of agricultural producers--and particularly of small producers—by promoting the spirit of solidarity and by granting the facilities necessary for the development of their functions. XXI. AGRARIAN PLANS WHEREAS:

1. The complete solution of agricultural problems helps to give a higher standard of living to the populations of countries;

2. These problems are common and similar in the majority of American countries, for which reason it is urgently necessary to solve them satisfactorily;

3. Only a joint study of the problems of each of the countries can produce a harmonious solution, inasmuch as the problems are closely related;

4. The working out of agrarian plans assures the realization of a defined and continuous policy, removing the policy from political contingencies, changes of government or of any other nature; and

5. With agrarian plans there can be attained a rational and coordinated realization of the agreements of international conferences on agriculture;

The Third Inter-American Conference on Agriculture

Resolves: To recommend to the American nations that they work out their respective agrarian plans, which should be put into practice within a definite and reasonable period and with pre-established investments.

XXII. ENCOURAGEMENT OF THE CULTIVATION OF SPECIAL OR

INDUSTRIAL CROPS WHEREAS:

1. The Second World War has made it clear that the Western Hemisphere is very deficient in the production of most of the crops known as special or industrial crops, among which are the rubber producing species, fibers, medicines, insecticides, aromatic substances, and certain industrial oils for paints, varnishes, lubricants, essences, et cetera;

2. The exploration of native American flora in search of new species that have economic value and that are capable of producing the same or similar raw materials now imported, as well as the experimentation and cultivation of exotic species, is of enormous importance in the future betterment, development, and stability of the social and economic life of the peoples of America;

3. A good many of these products are strategic raw materials the scarcity or lack of which in times of war weakens the national defense and causes substantial hardship among the civil population;

4. The introduction of the special or industrial crops will be beneficial to the ideal so frequently voiced of diversification of agricultural production;

5. It is desirable and opportune to supplement and perfect Resolution No. LI, approved by the Second Inter-American Conference on Agriculture, recommending the development of said crops in America,

The Third Inter-American Conference on Agriculture Resolves:

1. To recommend that in the American economic policy for the postwar period a prominent part be given to the development and realization of the plans for the promotion of the Special or Industrial Crops, and particularly to those species producing raw materials which are scarce in America, such as the rubber-producing species, fibers, medicinal drugs, insecticides, aromatic substances, certain oils, et cetera.

2. To ask the Pan American Union to include with special emphasis in the Agends of the Fourth Inter-American Conference on Agriculture a joint Study of the Progress of Special or Industrial Crops in America.

XXIII. ESTABLISHMENT OF CACAO INSTITUTES The Third Inter-American Conference on Agriculture Resolves:

1. To recommend that the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, in agreement with the Government of Ecuador, establish a Cacao Institute” in that country and in such other countries as it may consider advisable, with an inter-American radius of activity.

2. That the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences coordinate the work which the several countries of America are doing for the improvement of cacao.

XXIV. IMPROVEMENT OF PLANT TYPES WHEREAS:

1. The development of improved types of plants grown for food and other purposes has been of inestimable value in increasing the efficiency of crop production and utilization;

2. Considerable progress has been made in the selection of useful .plants endowed with superior resistance under unfavorable environmental conditions, with a greater inherent productivity, and a superior quality for nutrition and other uses; and

3. It is desirable to encourage even further the study of natural varieties and the development of improved types of plants essential

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