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portunity for discussion of mutual problems which was not afforded by the commission meetings.
The commission took favorable action on a broad statement of the significance to agriculture and nations of the improvement of human nutrition and made nine specific recommendations for action by each nation. In addition, it recommended that all of the American nations, through the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and through succeeding meetings of the Conference, cooperate in exchange of ideas and research findings which can be used to develop higher levels of nutrition, and that they should inform the Pan American Union before the holding of the Fourth Inter-American Conference on Agriculture what has been done concerning the fulfillment of paragraphs (a) and (6) of Point 1 of the resolution, namely: (a) Discover what foods its people are eating and what is the
nutritive value of their diets. (6) Determine nutritional requirements and the status of nutritional
health of its people. In addition, four resolutions were approved regarding the place in the diet of certain commodities or groups of commodities, namely, milk (Resolution 68); enriched wheat flours (Resolution 69); fishery products (Resolution 70); and quinua (Resolution 73). RESOLUTIONS 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56: SOILS AND CLIMATE
This subcommission considered soil mapping, classification and utilization, soil and water conservation, and agricultural climatology. Two resolutions were concerned with developing uniformity of classification and nomenclature in soil mapping and urged the international exchange of information in this regard. One resolution urged the strengthening of national societies of soil science and the creation of an Inter-American society of soil science. The first meeting of this international society was suggested for Buenos Aires within three years after date of the Caracas Conference. Two resolutions dealt with the conservation of soil water and natural resources, commending those countries which had taken national action to promote conservation, and proposed an Inter-American conference on the conservation of natural resources.
RESOLUTIONS 25, 54, 57, 58: ENGINEERING Stimulation of research in agricultural engineering was recommended and the exchange of research information and equipment waproposed. Resolution 25 set forth the importance of research in storage of agricultural commodities. Number 54 proposed river control and development of international streams through international agreement and collaboration between the countries concerned and resolutions 57 and 58 dealt with stimulation of research in agricultural equipment and the establishment of an agricultural machinery research department in the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences.
RESOLUTIONS 18, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 33, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 72:
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, EDUCATION, AND PLANT SCIENCE Enlargement of technical organizations and the stimulation of research, including the international exchange of information and research technicians, was urged for the purpose of increasing production for subsistence needs and to stimulate production of industrial agricultural crops such as rubber, fibers, medicinal drugs, insecticides, aromatic substances and oils. The stimulation of the production of cacao was the subject of resolution 23 which recommended close collaboration for this purpose between an Inter-American institute of agricultural sciences and the Government of Ecuador. Special emphasis was placed upon the development of improved plant types and methods to facilitate the ready international exchange of plant material and seeds.
With respect to research, resolutions included proposals to provide for standardization of research methods and urged close inter-American collaboration in agricultural research through exchange of experts, students, and information.
Two resolutions dealt with stimulation of agricultural extension. One urged the direct interchange of information among extension agents of the American nations who work in similar or agricultural zones,
and the other recommended the employment of specialized females in national agricultural extension service.
There was considerable interest in agricultural education and much discussion was devoted to it. Resolutions recommended the provision of agricultural education in primary and secondary schools for both children and adults, and that special emphasis be given in providing agricultural training for rural teachers. An inter-American study was recommended to guide the correlation of curricula in veterinary instruction to establish standards in the veterinary profession, and to facilitate the practice of veterinary medicine by foreign veterinarians.
RESOLUTIONS 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 59: ANIMAL
PRODUCTION AND SANITATION
Great interest was shown in the improvement of all phases of livestock production. Special emphasis was placed upon the improvement of livestock through strengthening the training of students and research workers in animal husbandry and the interchange of scientific knowledge, students and specialists, and the upgrading of native animals by the introduction of improved breeding stock. Intensified research to determine the possibilities of artificial insemination and secure rapid and safe transport of semen was recommended to facilitate a breeding program. Paragraphs one and four of Resolution 49 of the Second Inter-American Conference on Agriculture, with reference to the standardization of registration systems and procedures in accordance with the standards agreed upon by the international convention held in The Hague in 1936, were reaffirmed. Accelerated research in forage crops and animal feeds and the interchange of information concerning them was urged as an essential step in improving the animal industry. It was recommended that the Pan American Union establish an institute of veterinary investigation, diagnosis and sanitation to facilitate interchange of information in respect to the occurrence, control and regulation of animal diseases, and also to make a comparative study which might lead to the coordination of various national livestock sanitation regulations.
Under this heading were included plant pests, diseases and agricultural weeds. International cooperation by exchange of information and collaborative research was proposed as the best means to provide for the rapid adoption of measures for the control and the prevention of spread of pests and diseases. To facilitate this, the creation of a plant sanitation section in the Pan American Union was proposed. It was also recommended that there be periodical review of the plant and animal quarantine regulations of the American nations to determine whether established regulations are still required or if the establishment of new measures is indicated. Research work and the exchange of information in respect to the control of cereal blights and in the control and eradication of weeds was especially recommended.
The discussions indicated that clear through the Americas there were common forestry problems and urgent reasons for providing permanent channels for the exchange of technical views. Dependence by the Latin-American countries on European centers of forestry did
not pay the dividends that they expected. North American forestry institutions were in a better position to be of service to the LatinAmerican countries. To effectuate this desire for establishing an Inter-American forestry organization, Argentina and Mexico urged the establishment of an Inter-American forestry agency which, after discussion, was translated into a resolution seeking to have the Pan American Union establish a division in forestry and also a request that an early Inter-American conference on forestry be called.
While there is much to be done in the biological fields in order to insure perpetuation and development of forests in the Americas, there are many utilization and exploitation problems which need early attention. Latin Americans are concerned that the destructive exploitation (in such virgin forests in Latin America as are still intact) may follow the pattern of North American exploitation. Underlying all discussions there appeared to be definite indications that the Latin American countries desire the help and advice of the forestry agencies of the United States.
INTER-AMERICAN TECHNICAL COLLABORATION
The desire on the part of all delegations to maintain and expand inter-American technical collaboration was obvious throughout the Conference. Sixteen resolutions, dealing with animal industry, medicinal plants, storage, plant pathology, forestry, water and soil conservation, soils and climate, extension, human nutrition, dairy industry, stressed the desirability of facilitating the exchange of information and of students and agricultural experts. Three of these resolutions (Nos. 33, 62, and 65) dealt entirely with the subject of inter-American collaboration, although two of them referred only to the continuance of bilateral collaboration with the United States.
This spirit of collaboration was also evident in adjusting differences of viewpoint between the delegations as they considered resolutions to the extent that several resolutions were withdrawn and one was so modified as to delete most of its original intent when some of the other delegations, principally the United States, objected to certain of its provisions.
PRODUCTION OF COMPLEMENTARY AGRICULTURAL CROPS
It was interesting to observe the attitude of other countries with regard to agricultural research to stimulate production of complementary crops. Four resolutions (Nos. 14, 22, 34, and 58) referred specifically to complementary crops and urged that work be continued to establish their production in this Hemisphere.
COMMISSION IV: MARKETS AND TRANSPORTATION At the first meeting of Commission IV the following officers were elected:
Chairman: Marte R. Gómez, Mexico
Assistant Secretary: Arturo Croce (Secretariat) Upon a preliminary examination of the projects which had been referred to Commission IV, it was proposed and approved that there be created three Subcommissions to deal, respectively, with projects relating to 1) commerce and economy; 2) classification and standardization of agricultural products; and 3) transportation matters. Representatives of the following countries were appointed to the three Subcommissions: Subcommission 1: Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Guatemala,
United States, and Venezuela
Subcommission 3: Colombia, Panama, and Peru More than thirty projects were referred to Commission IV for consideration. The work of the Commission may be summarized as follows:
COMMERCE AND ECONOMY Expansion of Trade and Consumption (Resolution LXXI). This resolution recommended improvement in the marketing distribution, and systems of production of agricultural products; establishment of adequate facilities for the preservation, storage, handling, packing and marking of food and other agricultural products; provision for the collection and prompt dissemination of market news; promotion of international trade in agricultural commodities of primary necessity to encourage production and consumption and thereby yield a higher standard of living for all peoples; the adoption of a sound commercial policy in accordance with the Economic Charter of the Americas adopted at the Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and Peace at Mexico City; the orientation of all measures adopted to increase commerce and consumption toward maintaining a standard of living for the rural population equivalent to that enjoyed by the urban population; and a study of the possibility of establishing standard rules for commercial transactions.
The resolution, Orientation for Promotion and Development of Agricultural and Livestock Industries in the Continent, included recommendations of the Commission regarding the avoidance of the use of artificial measures of exaggerated economic nationalism (Resolu