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tion XVII). It recommended the application of continental technical cooperation to increase efficiency of production; development and diversification of sound industries; appropriate location and development of industries on the basis of raw materials; and reduction of barriers to international trade, in order that postwar opportunities for both exports and imports might be fully utilized.
Other resolutions formulated by the Subcommission and approved by the Conference related to Legislation Regulating Trade in Seeds (Resolution LXXII) including measures for facilitating the interchange of seeds for purposes of research, without any customs hindrances other than those already established in sanitary laws and regulations; a recommendation regarding Quinua as an American Food Product Free from Restrictions (Resolution LXXIII) which proposed a study of the production, processing and manufacture of the product; a recommendation for Defense Against Discriminatory Measures Affecting Trade in Agricultural Products (Resolution LXXVI) based on the special quality of the products or by reason of their country of origin; and a resolution regarding the Exploitation and Utilization of Forest Products (Resolution XLV) which provided for the exchange of technical information concerning forest products and the undertaking of investigations of new uses for such products. CLASSIFICATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS Subcommission 2 had referred to it a number of projects dealing with classification and standardization of agricultural products. The results of the work of the Subcommission were embodied in one principal resolution on Quality Standards (Resolution LXXV). This recommended that measures be taken for the establishment of quality standards and systems of specifications; that there be created services for inspection, classification, certification and arbitration; that the Pan American Union make known to all American countries the activities of each country in specification matters and when advisable call conferences to study and formulate continental standards for adoption by the American republics; that until such time as continental standards are adopted, progress be made in this direction by studying the possibility of concluding bilateral or multilateral agreements for the adoption of such quality standards; with reference to wool, that the classification standards now used by the United States and the United Kingdom be adopted generally; and that the standardization of containers and packing processes be effected. The Subcommission also recommended the Description of Raw Materials Used in the Manufacture of Textiles (Resolution LXXIV), so that the consumer would be protected by being. informed of the content of textile products.
TRANSPORTATION Subcommission 3, which considered transportation matters, consolidated a number of projects into a resolution on Transportation and Rates (Resolution LXXVII). Summarized, this recommended the encouragement and development of trunk communication systems; the development of secondary and branch systems; the construction of second- and third-class highways to complement railway lines; the construction of double-track, trunk railways; a study of the possibility of concluding bilateral agreements for the creation of shipping enterprises; that representations be made to the Combined Shipping Board to the end of avoiding discriminatory treatment in the assignment of space; that coastwise transportation be developed; that a study be made of the possibility of using air transport for highly perishable agricultural products and of the possible tariff problems in this connection; that the lowest rates possible be fixed for transportation of agricultural and livestock products; that encouragement be given to the development in the American countries of rural roads; that the governments collaborate as far as possible to the end that shipping companies shall eliminate discriminatory freight rates; and that the governments carry out recommendations of recent inter-American and international conferences regarding transportation and rates.
A project considered by the Commission as a whole recommended that each American government regularly provide scholarships for students in agricultural schools in foreign countries for the continuation of their studies; that graduate students be given the means to study and carry on technical observation work in the other American countries; and that competitive examinations be held to select the students to receive scholarships. As revised, this project appears in Exchange of Experts and Students (Resolution LXV). COMMISSION V: AGRICULTURAL MIGRATIONS IN THE
Post-WAR YEARS Commission V was devoted to the topic of Agricultural Migrations in the Post-War Years. The first few meetings were presided over by Señor Julio Suazo Cuenca, Minister of Agriculture from Bolivia. Due to the fact that Señor Suazo Cuenca returned to Bolivia early in the Conference, the later meetings were presided over by the Vice Chairman, Dr. Newton de Castro Belleza, head of the delegation from Brazil.
At the first meeting it was decided to divide the members of Commission V into committees corresponding to the various items listed on the agenda as follows: 1. Movement of rural populations from over-populated regions to
sparsely inhabited ones.
2. Establishment of governmental policies on national and inter
national colonization. 3. Suitable selection and control of immigration in the post-war era
and its application to agriculture. In the afternoon meeting it was decided that the topics were very closely related and the delegates expressed a preference to meet as a group instead of breaking up into committees. From that time forward committee lines were abolished and the members met in general session to consider each resolution.
A total of twenty-one resolutions were submitted to this Commission. Some of these were later combined, a few more referred to other Commissions, and several more withdrawn.
In general, a very genial atmosphere prevailed throughout the meetings of this Commission. Frequently the Chairman would suggest that the spirit of a resolution be approved and that the disagreement on details be worked out later.
Throughout the meetings there seemed to be a feeling on the part of the members that the Commission ought to be concerned more with problems affecting the standards of living of rural people rather than confined to colonization and migration. This spirit is evidenced by the number of resolutions which were passed bearing on this genera topic. For example, see Resolutions LXXXIII and LXXXIV. In addition to these there were several concerning rural education which were referred to Commission III.
According to the Report of the Second Inter-American Conference on Agriculture held in Mexico City in 1942 a Resolution was passed urging that at the next Conference the agenda include a section on standards of living of rural people including such topics as housing, diet, health problems and rural education. Apparently this Resolution was passed over in planning the agenda for the Third Conference. Commission V has again emphasized the desire of the American countries to consider these basic problems at the Fourth Conference. The Resolution as finally passed and approved by the Conference reads as follows:
LXXXIII.- IMPROVEMENT OF RURAL LIFE WHEREAS:
1. Living conditions vitally affect the health and working efficiency of people, and the human satisfactions to be derived from occupation and place of residence;
2. The esteem with which farming as a way of life is held depends upon comparative levels of living of various population groups;
1 Provisional translation of the Final Act issued by the United States Delegation.
3. The advancement of standards of rural living and of agriculture requires community and governmental as well as family endeavor;
The Third Inter-American Conference on Agriculture Resolves:
1. To recommend that, in accordance with the recommendation of the Second Inter-American Conference on Agriculture held in Mexico in 1942, the agenda of the next Conference include as subjects for special consideration the importance to agriculture and the Nation of improving home conditions and raising the standards of living of rural families, and consideration of methods by which this can be accomplished.
2. That rural sociologists, agricultural economists, home economists and other social scientists of each country be invited to assist in drawing up the agenda and preparatory materials, and participate in the conference discussions.
The methods of procedure in this Commission might have been improved. Perhaps too much time was spent discussing the wording of individual resolutions and too little discussion of the conditions and problems prevailing in each country. Within a few minutes after the Fifth Commission opened its first business meeting, the first resolution was introduced; and from that moment forward the time was devoted to the substance and wording of the various resolutions.
The attitude of the various delegates concerning immigration seemed to be that they were hopeful of receiving colonists from western Europe who have fairly high standards of living and who would bring to the Latin American countries farming techniques and living standards considerably above those now generally prevalent among the rural population.
Only two resolutions were submitted by the United States delegation and those were very favorably received. One came through almost unchanged as Resolution LXXXIII. The other resolution was coordinated with four others and appears as Resolution LXXXVIII. The original version of this latter resolution as presented by the United States delegation was worded as follows:
PLANNING LAND SETTLEMENT AND MIGRATION PROJECTS
1. Migration of rural people from poor land to better land within individual countries, and from countries of less to countries of greater agricultural opportunities, will continue to be an important aspect in the welfare of agricultural peoples in the Americas; and
2. Experience shows that there are certain basic principles that are essential to successful settlement, the absence of any of which may cause failure, including:
(a) Productive soil and good climate; (6) Ample and dependable water resources; (c) Adequate size of holdings; (d) Sound relation between the cost of the farm unit and the
anticipated farm income; (e) Satisfactory long term and short term credit, with payments
related to the annual income; (f) Satisfactory transportation and marketing facilities; (g) Satisfactory community facilities, roads, schools, trading
centers and health services; (h) Stable policies of administration with a clear statement of the
total cost to the settler; (i) Selection of settlers on the basis of their adaptability to the
type of farming and adaptability of the family to the com
munity; and (1) Suitable technical educational services to assist the settler with
his farming problems;
The Third Inter-American Conference on Agriculture Recommends:
1. That the Pan American Union request some appropriate organization to create facilities whereby current information regarding past and present migration and land settlement experiences in the Americas can be brought together, interpreted, and the results made available to all countries;
2. That the Pan American Union request some appropriate organization to develop a technical advisory staff of agronomic, engineering, economic and sanitary specialists who will be available to give advice and assistance to countries planning and developing migration and land settlement projects; and
3. That all countries in the Americas be encouraged to make use of those technical specialists in the development and planning of future projects to make sure that every migration and land settlement activity is founded on a sound economic and social basis. It will be noted that most of the “Whereas” was eliminated but that the essentials of the recommendation were incorporated in the second part of Resolution LXXXVIII.
On the whole, the various members of Commission V were cooperative and eager to find some way of registering this cooperative spirit in the form of concrete resolutions. It would be very helpful if