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ment, and also every grant and conveyance of the exclusive 1836. right under any patent, to make and use, and to grant to others to make and use, the thing patented within and throughout any specified part or portion of the United States, shall be recorded in the Patent Office within three months from the execution thereof, for which the assignee or grantee shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of three dollars.

Sec. 12. And be it further enacted, That any citizen of the Caveat may be United States, or alien who shall have been resident in the United States one year next preceding, and shall have made oath of his intention to become a citizen thereof, who shall have invented any new art, machine, or improvement thereof, and shall desire further time to mature the same, may, on paying to the credit of the Treasury, in manner as provided in the ninth section of this act, the sum of twenty dollars, file in the Patent Office a caveat, setting forth the design and purpose thereof, and its principal and distinguishing characteristics, and praying protection of his right, till he shall have matured his invention ; which sum of twenty dollars, in case the person filing such caveat shall afterwards take out a patent for the invention therein mentioned, shall be considered a part of the sum herein required for the same. And such caveat shall be filed in the confidential archives of the office, and preserved in secrecy. And if application shall be made by any other person within one year from the time of filing such caveat, for a patent of any invention with which it may in any respect interfere, it shall be the duty of the Commissioner to deposite the description, specifications, drawings, and model, in the confidential archives of the office, and to give notice, by mail, to the person filing the caveat, of such application, who shall, within three months after receiving the notice, if he would avail himself of the benefit of his caveat, file his description, specifications, drawings and model ; and if, in the opinion of the Commissioner, the specifications of claim interfere with each other, like proceedings may be had in all respects as are in this act provided in the case of interfering applications: Provided, however, That no opinion or Proviso. decision of any board of examiners, under the provisions of this act, shall preclude any person interested in favor of or against the validity of any patent which has been or may hereafter be granted, from the right to contest the same in any judicial court in any action in which its validity may come in question.

Sec. 13. And be it further enacted, That whenever any patent Patents which has heretofore been granted, or which shall hereafter be live specifications granted, shall be inoperative or invalid, by reason of a detective or may be surreninsufficient description or specification, or by reason of the patentee claiming in his specification as his own invention, more than he had or shall have a right to claim as new; if the error has, or shall have arisen by inadvertency, accident, or mistake, and without any fraudulent or deceptive intention, it shall be lawful for the Commissioner, upon the surrender to him of such patent, and the payment of the further duty of fifteen dollars, to cause a new paient to be issued to the said inventor, for the same invention, for


mak additions to
bis patent.

Courts may ren.
tora sum

1836. the residue of the period then unexpired for which the original

patent was granted, in accordance with the patentee's corrected description and specification. And in case of his death, or any assignment by him made of the original patent, a similar right sball vest in his executors, administrators, or assignees. And the patent, so reissued, together with the corrected description, and specification, shall have the same effect and operation in law, on the trial of all actions, hereafter commenced for causes subsequently accruing, as though the same had been originally filed

in such corrected form, before the issuing out of the original patent. may And whenever the original patentee shall be desirous of adding

the description and specification of any new improvement of the original invention or discovery which shall have been invented or discovered by him subsequent to the date of his patent, he may like proceedings being had in all respects as in the case of original applications, and on the payment of fifteen dollars, as hereinbefore provided, have the same annexed to the original description and specification; and the Commissioner shall certify, on the margin of such annexed description and specification, the time of its being annexed and recorded; and the same shall thereafter have the same effect in law, to all intents and purposes as though it had been embraced in the original description and specification.

Sec. 14. And be it further enacted, That whenever, in any, judgment action for damages for making, using, or selling the thing whereof exceeding three the exclusive right is secured by any patent heretofore granted, of actual dam or by any patent which may hereafter be granted, a verdict shall

be rendered for the plaintiff'in such action, it shall be in the power
of the court to render judgment for any sum above the amount
found by such verdict as the actual damages sustained by the
plaintiff, not exceeding three times the amount thereof, according
to the circumstances of the case; with costs; and such damages
may be recovered by action on the case,


court of competent jurisdiction, to be brought in the name or names of the person or persons interested, whether as patentee, assignees, or as granices of the exclusive right within and throughout a specified part of the United States.

SEC. 15. And be it further enacted, That the defendant in any plead the general such action shall be permitted to plead the general issue, and to

give this act and any special matter in evidence, of which notice
in writing may have been given to the plaintiff or his attorney,
thirty days before trial, tending to prove that the description
and specification filed by plaintiff' does not contain the whole truth
relative to his invention or discovery, or that it contains more
than is necessary to produce the described effect; which conceal.
ment or addition shall fully appear to have been made for the
purpose of deceiving the public, or that the patentee was not the
original and first inventor or discoverer of the thing patented. or
of a substantial and material part thereof claimed as new,
it had been described in some public work anterior to the sup
posed discovery thereof hy the patentee, or had been in public
use, or on sale with the consent and allowance of the patentee
before his application for a patent, or that he had surreptitiously




issue &c.

or that

or unjustly obtained the patent for that which was in fact invent- 1836. ed or discovered by another, who was using reasonable diligence in adapting and perfecting the same; or that the patentee, if an alien at the time the patent was granted, had failed and neglected for the space of eighteen months from the date of the patent, to put and continue on sale to the public, on reasonable terms, the invention or discovery for which the patent issued; in either of which cases judgment shall be rendered for the defendant, with costs. And whenever the defendant relies in his defence on the fact of a previous invention, knowedge, or use of the thing patented, he shall state, in his notice of special matter, the names and places of residence of those whom he intends to prove to have possessed a prior knowledge of the thing and where the same had been used : Provided, however, That whenever it shall satisfac- Proviso. torily appear that the patentee, at the time of making his application for the patent, believed himself to be the first inventor or discoverer of the thing patented, the same shall not be held to be void on account of the invention or discovery or any part thereof having been before known or used in any foreign country, it not appearing that the same orany substantial part thereof had before been patented or described in any printed publication. And provided, Provtao. also, That whenever the plaintiff shall fail to sustain his action on the ground that in his specification of claim is embraced more than that of which he was the first inventor, if it shall appear that the defendant had used or violated any part of the invention justly and truly specified and claimed as new, it shall be in the power of the court to adjudge and award as to costs as may appear to be just and equitable.

Sec. 16. And be it further enacted, That whenever there Interfering pa shall be two interfering patents, or whenever a patent on application shall have been refused on an adverse decision of a board of examiners, on the ground that the patent applied for would interfere with an unexpired patent previously granted, any person interested in any such patent, either by assignment or otherwise, in the one case, and any such applicant in the other case,

, may have remedy by bill in equity; and the court having cognizance thereof, on notice to adverse parties and other due proceedings had, may adjudge and declare either the patents void in the whole or in part, or inoperative and invalid in any particular part or portion of the United States, according to the interest which the parties to such suit may possess in the patent or the inventions patented, and may also adjudge that such applicant is entitled, according to the principles and provisions of this act, to have and receive a patent for his invention, as specified in his claim, or for any part thereof, as the fact of priority of right or invention shall in any such case be made to appear. And such adjudication, if it be in favor of the right of such applicant, shall authorize the Commissioner to issue such patent, on his filing a copy of the adjudication, and otherwise complying with the requisitions of this act. Providerl, however, that no such judgment or adjudication shall affect the rights of any perso:

tenis, &c.


States, &c.


exter ded
years in certain

1836. except the parties to the action and those deriving title from or

under them subsequent to the rendition of such judgment. Accions cogniza." Sec. 17. And be it further enacted, That all actions, suits, courtso United controversies, and cases arising under any law of the United

States, granting or confirming to inventors the exclusive right to their inventions or discoveries, shall be. originally cognizable, as well in equity as at law, by the circuit courts of the United States, or any district court having the powers and jurisdiction of a circuit court; which courts shall have power, upon bill in equity filed by any party aggrieved, in any such case, to grant injunctions, according to the course and principles of courts of equity, to prevent the violation of the rights of any inventor as secured to him by any law of the United States, on such terms and conditions as said courts may deem reasonable : Provided, however, That from all judgments and decrees, from any such court rendered in the premises, a writ of error or appeal, as the case may require, shall lie to the Supreme Court of the United States, in the same manner and under the same circumstances as is now provided by law in other judgments and decrees of circuit courts, and in all other cases in which the court shall

deem it reasonable to allow the same. Patents my be

Sec. 18. And be it further enacted, That whenever any seven patentee of an invention or discovery shall desire an extension

of his patent beyond the term of its limitation, he may make application therefor, in writing, to the Commissioner of the Patent Office, setting forth the grounds thereof; and the Commissioner shall, on the applicar's paying the sum of forty dollars to the credit of the Treasury, as in the case of an original application for a patent, cause to be published, in one or more of the principal newspapers in the city of Washington, and in such other paper or papers as he may deem proper, published in the section of country most interested adversely to the extension of the patent, a notice of such application and of the time and place when and where the same will be considered, that any person may appear and show cause why the extension should not be granted. And the Secretary of State, the Commissioner of the Patent Office, and the Solicitor of the Treasury, shall constitute a board to hear and decide upon the evidence produced before them both for and against the extension, and shall sit for that purpose at the time and place designated in the published notice thereof. The patentee shall furnish to said board a statement, in writing, under oath, of the ascertained value of the invention, and of his receipts and expenditures, sufficiently in detail to exhibit a true and faithful account of loss and profit in any manner accruing to him from and by reason of said invention. And if, upon a hearing of the matter, it shall appear to the full and entire satisfaction of said board, having due regard to the public interest therein, that it is just and proper that the term of the patent should be extended, by reason of the patentee, without neglect or fault on his part, having failed to obtain, from the use and sale of his invention, a reasonable remuneration for the time, ingenuity, and expense bestowed upon the same, and the introduction


thereof into lise, it shall be the duty of the Commissioner to 1836. renew and extend the patent, by making a certificate thereon of such extension, for the term of seven years from and after the expiration of the first term; which certificate, with a certificate of said board of their judgment and opinion as aforesaid, shall be entered on record in the Patent Office; and thereupon the said patent shall have the same effect in law as though it had been originally granted for the term of twenty-one years. And the benefit of such renewal shall extend to assignees and grantees of the right to use the thing patented, to the extent of their respective interest therein: Provided, however, That no exten- Proviso. sion of a patent shall be granted after the expiration of the term for which it was originally issued.

Sec. 19. And be it further enacted, That there shall be Library of Patent provided for the use of said office, a library of scientific works and periodical publications. both foreign and American, calculated to facilitate the discharge of the duties hereby required of the chief officers therein, to be purchased under the direction of the Committee of the Library of Congress. And the sum of fifteen hundred dollars is hereby appropriated, for that purpose, to be paid out of the patent fund.

Sec. 20. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the m «te li to be clasa duty of the Commissioner to cause to be classified and arranged, in such rooms or galleries as may be provided for that purpose, in suitable cases, when necessary for their preservation, and in such manner as shall be conducive to a beneficial and favorable display thereof, the models and specimens of coinpositions and of fabrics and other manufactures and works of art, patented or unpatented, which have been, or shall hereafter be deposited in said office. And said rooms or galleries shall be kept open during suitable hours for public inspection.

SEC. 21. And be it further enacied, That all acts and parts former acta reof acts heretofore passed on this subject, be, and the same are pealed. hereby repealed : Provided, however, That all actions and pro. Provizo. cesses in law or equity sued out prior to the passage of this act, may be prosecuted to final judgment and execution, in the same manner as though this act had not been passed, excepting and saving the application to any such action, of the provisions of the fourteenth and fifteenth sections of this act, so far as they may be applicable thereto. And provided, also, That all applications Proviso. or petitions for patents, pending at the time of the passage of this act, in cases where the duty has been paid, shall be proceeded with and acted on in the same manner as though filed after the passage thereof.

Approved, July 4, 1836.

sified and arrang. ed.

CHAP. 358. An ACT confirming claims to land in the State of Louisiana.

(Sec. 1.) Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the decisions in favor of land claimants made by the regis

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