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they prove a bigh degree of unity of be right in their object, or mistaken, principle, as well as the existence of Wesleyan Methodism is opposed to a discipline opposed to agitation and strife and division. strife. There is the discipline cal The second of the three points on culated to preserve unity, and there which the “Record” has chosen to is the union which makes the disci- attack the Wesleyans, I have repline efficient. It is true, there are served for consideration in the last

congregations” which bave left place; and for this reason,-that I the Wesleyan Methodists. But let feel it difficult to treat it as it dethe principles which have been striv

Their dogma of the pering to gain the ascendancy, both in fectibility of human nature." Is it Church and State, for the last fifty possible that the writer could be years, be remembered, -and then otherwise aware than that he was let the nature of the various seces writing what was not true? If on sions of which I am speaking be any subject Mr. Wesley wrote exlikewise remembered,--and who that plicitly, it was upon that of the knows any thing of the workings of Christian perfection which he taught, human nature, in a country of true and which he believed he found in freedom like this, will wonder that the oracles of God. Repeatedly such secessions have taken place ? does he declare in his writings, that Instead of proving the divisive, they he does not refer to any perfectiprove the anti-divisive, tendencies of bility of human nature. Whether Methodism. Let the “ Record” bis doctrine was, or was not, scriplook at home. Can any thing like a tural, this was not his doctrine. similar spectacle be shown there? With him it was the perfection of The Wesleyans are one in doctrine divine love, to which all who are and discipline, all over the world; brought, are brought to it by the and ONE IN AFFECTION too. Will grace of the Holy Spirit, given the “Record” say that the Church through the atoning blood of the is so? Will the writer say that the adorable Redeemer. He applied the Church is to be blamed for divisive terin perfection to the state in which tendencies, because there are those the soul of man is entirely influwho have seceded from her commu enced by holy love, and the princi. nion? The advocate of a commu. ples which that love supposes and nity split into contending parties, implies. Beautifully does the Book agreed scarcely on any one point of Common Prayer teach us to pray but that they only, in this country, for pardon, and continued acceptconstitute Christ's church, does not ance with God, through our Lord occupy a position warranting him to Jesus Christ. But is this all ? censure the Wesleyans for preserv

When it instructs us ing their Christian unity by remov “Cleanse the thoughts of our heart ing from their communion those by the inspiration of thy Holy Spiwho seek to subvert the constitution rit, that we may perfectly love thee, to which they are attached. They

They and worthily magnify thy holy judge not the parties who have thus name,” (one of the profoundest, formed plans of their own; and weightiest prayers that ever was exthey are accountable neither for pressed in language merely human,) their existence nor their proceed- does it refer to a blessing which ings. If, indeed, they professed to God has not promised to bestow, be all one body while thus opposing or which, baving promised, he is each other,-if they were parties in unable or unwilling to perform? Wesleyan Methodism, - the case That prayer, answered, gives the would be different. But even then whole doctrine of Christian perfecthe Recordought not to con tion, as held by the Wesleyans ; demn them. Let it be, however, and what is there in it of the per. recollected, that they are not Wes- fectibility of human nature? I will leyan Methodists. They exist as not argue the doctrine ; but I will separate bodies ; and their separate say, that they who admire that existence proves that whether they prayer have no right thus to sneer

VOL. XXIII. Third Series. FEBRUARY, 1844. K

to say,

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at us. The truth is, few who attack “ Record” represents is perpetually, Methodism trouble themselves to and rightly, calling attention to learn what Methodism really is. the advancement of Popery, Roman The study of Mr. Wesley's Ser. and Anglican ; and yet, for the sake mons, his Appeals, his treatise on of that very dogma of exclusiveOriginal Sin, and his tracts

which is the strong-hold of Christian Perfection, would make Popery in every form, does it not the Clergy far better theologians only separate from those who, though than too many of them are,-would true Protestants, are not Churchserve to render them eficient work. men, but attacks them, and attrimen, and true builders-up of the butes to them doctrines which they Church, --would prepare them for repudiate from their heart. It is pursuing with advantage that other. time to make a public and decided wise most bewildering task, the protest against this most mischierous study of the Divines of their own sectarianism, and to declare that Church, far more noted for their they are the true schismatics who praise of uniformity, than their refuse communion with all whose avoidance of diversity, of opinion in discipline is not the same as their matters of religion.

own. These really are strange times. A Friend to TRUTH AND PEACE. That part of the Church which the Jan. 6th, 1844.



The English Universities. From the German of V. A. Huber, Professor

of Western Literature at Marburg. An abridged Translation. Ву Francis W. Newman, Professor of the Greek and Latin Classics at Manchester New College, and formerly Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.

Two Volumes. 8vo. pp. lxi, 450; xv, 740. Pickering. This elaborate and interesting contemporaneous events in England work exhibits to the English reader is carefully traced. To the learning a veneral view of the Universities usually characteristic of Germans, of Oxford and Cambridge, from their the author adds a remarkable inearliest history, to the Revolution of sight into the working of British 1688. “It contains ample details institutions; and his developement concerning the ancient University of the action and re-action which constitution, and its later changes; goes on between aristocratic sociconcerning that curious and dark ety, the Church, the Universities, subject, the academic nations ; the and the State, will be read with in. town-corporations, and their long terest. The work has the peculiarstruggle with the Universities; as ity of presenting both our great naalso the relation of the latter with tional Universities in a single view, the Church, the Crown, and finally and illustrating them aliise by their with the Parliament.” As far as the analogies, and by their contrasts. materials allow, the internal and Considering the ignorance prevail. moral history of the Universities ing among us as to the real compohas been carried down to the pre sition and interior management of sent day. Many of the most re institutions so influential and valu. markable personages connected with able, and the number of questions them are particularly described; concerning them on which an en. and the connexion of University lightened curiosity desires reply, the sentiments and manners with the publication of Professor Huber's


But we

history, in our own language, will upon a footing as equal as possible, not fail to prove serviceable.

mitigates, in no inconsiderable de. The above is a brief description gree, and ameliorates, those disadof the work itself, and of the pur. vantages and jealousies, if not aniposes for which it has been pre- mosities, which are inseparable from sented to the public of Britain ; and all distinctions of rank. Aristocracy, we do not doubt that our readers of every kind, has a natural tenwill be interested in those portions dency to exclusiveness. Each has of the history of our public Uni- its narrow pride, which induces it versities which in the following to insulate itself within its peculiar pages will be introduced to their circle, and to despise all distinctions notice.

but its own. There inay be some The grand object originally con truth in the theory espoused with so templated, in the establishment of much bitterness, and exaggerated these national seminaries, was not with animosity no less vulgar and to train poets or philosophers, but unphilosophical than the arrogance to fit men for the discharge of the which they condemn, by some of duties of active life. This is a point the second-rate novelists and the of which many are not willing to party-writers of the day, that the recognise the value. The hereditary aristocracy has maintainnity of some literary characters, as ed a jealous and undue ascendancy to the relative importance of their over the government of the country. own favourite pursuit, is occasion. The real extent, and the advantage ally inflated, overweening, and or pernicious consequences to the ludicrous. Allowing that England community from this long-predomi. has produced, within the last fifty nant influence, would be, to a canyears, as many really great men did and dispassionate mind, a subin letters as any country ever did ject of historical inquiry of equal within a similar period; and grant, interest and importance. also, that any one of these has done do not scruple to assert, that, but higher honour, and more lasting for the public system of education good, to the world, than can come above alluded to, this influence, of a score of mere able labourers in whatever it may have been, would any liberal profession, properly so have become more dangerous and called: let it not be forgotten, and repugnant to the independent spirit mankind at large will cordially con of the nation. It is at the public cur in the opinion, that any one school that birth and wealth receive such able and honest labourer in their first, and their most salutary, any of those walks of practical use lessons of equality. The aristocracy fulness, on which crowds of literati of title and fortune has its first col. think themselves entitled to look lision with the aristocracy of talent ; down with an unfriendly scowl, is and is taught that it may, and worth a whole regiment of author- will, without strenuous exertions, lings; and is, by the unanimous be worsted, and be obliged to subverdict of society, more estimable mit to confessed inferiority in the living, and has, moreover, a better contest. It is there first taught, that chance of being honourably remem there is something besides heredibered when dead.

tary distinction which is of importOne great advantage of our gene ance in the estimation of the public ral system of education, as followed at large. The boy who, in Eton in our public seminaries, is, that it phrase, is frequently “sent up for is in perfect accordance with our good,” stands higher with the indenational institutions. We have heard pendent mass of his schoolfellows it remarked, that a social system than the expectant heir to twenty like oars admits of a three-fold aris- thousand a year, or to a ducal title. tocracy ; namely, that of birth, The trifling distinctions which are wealth, and talents; and whatever, permitted to persons of rank in our in the order of things, tends to min- great schools, as well as in the Uni. gle together the different classes versities, enforce little respect among



the boys themselves : unless he is and Cambridge this pest is unknown; gentlemanlike in his manners, cour but in several minor, although pubteous and unpresuining in his beha- lic, seminaries it remains. We shall viour, the young patrician will come rejoice to witness these popular nain for his share of that ruder disci- tional institutions maintaining their pline by which boys are apt to cor moral influence on society, and esrect presumption and insolence. Apecially on the sons of the higher plebeian boy will thrash an imperti. aristocracy, and on youths who are nent lordling with most indiscrimi- intended for the learned professions; nating impartiality; and a high- purged of those Popish tendencies born dunce will be laughed at with which of late years have exerted a as little scruple as the blundering mischievous influence on the minds son of a tradesman. If the aris of the scholars; and divested of tocracy have not degenerated into a those bigoted and exclusive princicaste,-if it have not kept entirely ples by which many have been prealoof from the common opinions, cluded from participating in their feelings, and interests of society, - privileges and sharing their howe may rejoice at this early association, if not amalgamation, with other Professor Huber considers that, classes. The flatterer, with para- in order to understand so important sitical assiduity, may incessantly a phenomenon as the rise of Unibeset them in the commencement of versities, the subject should be con. their scholastic career ; but the ge sidered in connexion with the geneneral and prevailing tone, in a well ral state of western Christendom regulated public school, is that of during the Middle Ages, when Unibold and generous independence; versities had an existence on the not only cleverness and superior Continent before those of this counattainments, but strength and ac try. tivity,—success in the cricket-field, or pulling a good oar in the boat, “ All these institutions are to be refrank and open manners, come in garded as phenomena characteristic of for their full share, with high birth

the Middle Ages; and each separate or the command of money, in the

University was, at that time, intimately popular distribution of respect and

connected with the state of European

civilization. Even this circumstance, estimation. Incidental evils,

were this all, would demand from an hisdoubt, arise out of this intimate

torian of the English Universities, preunion of boys of different stations,

viously to examine the older institutions and different expectations, in life. of a similar kind. But, in fact, we canSome, whose parents can ill afford not dispense with the information to be the necessary expenses of the school, derived from this source ; for our acmay be tempted to rival the prodi counts of the English Universities are gality of boys of twenty times their too scanty to be understood without such fortune; in others the inhorn ser

illustrations. Moreover, it is well known, vility of character may be developed

that they stood in close relationship with by the vulgar desire of being on

the Universities of the Continent, and familiar terins with a boy of rank.

especially with that of Paris; so that In some schools, of a public charac

this preliminary inquiry legitimately

falls within our province. But it will ter, the diabolical fag system has

be somewhat more laborious, because we been carried out to a most cruel and have come to conclusions essentially difoppressive extent,-a system which ferent from those which are current conhas proved the tomb of all that has cerning these matters; and we must been generous and noble in the therefore detail our

own views more mind of the youth, and calculated fully.” (Vol. i., p. 2.) to destroy, at one fell stroke, that feeling of English independence Anterior to the establishment of which all our large scholastic estab. Universities, properly so called, lishments should encourage and fos schools of learning' were institer, rather than depreciate or de tuted: these, however, were of little stroy. In the Universities of Oxford use to the advancement of know



ledge, or of rational theology, be the most pleasing effects; and it is cause very few in those days were recorded by Bede, that, when he acquainted with the true nature of himself wrote, individuals were found the liberal arts and sciences, or with amongst the scholars of those learnthe important ends which they were ed masters, to whom the Latin and adapted to serve. Although the Greek languages were as familiar as Universities of the Continent take their native tongue. To account the precedence, with regard to time, for the possibility of an African deliof those of England, -nevertheless, vering lectures to an English or in our land schools were established Saxon audience, it should be reeven before the days of good King membered that Latin was the comAlfred; and in this respect we were mon language of all the Ecclesiasthappier than other nations of Europe. ics of the Romish Church ; that This, it will be recollected, was Benedict Biscop had not only acted owing, in a considerable degree, to as interpreter, but as teacher, of the the zeal and enterprising spirit of Saxon; and that the principal hearTbeodore, Archbishop of Canter ers of Theodore were persons enbury, in the eighth century. A gaged in ecclesiastical offices, or native of Tarsus, in Cilicia, a Monk educating for them. To his" of Rome, and originally a Greek (Theodore's) memory,” says Priest, he had been consecrated modern writer, “we owe respect Archbishop, and sent into England, and gratitude: he brought into our by Pope Vitalian, in 668. He was island a most invaluable library of skilled in the metrical art, astro Greek and Latin books, with several domy, arithmetic, church-music, copies of the Scriptures, which hapand the Greek and Latin languages; pily survived the wreck of ages : he and brought with bim what was planted among us the language of then called and esteemed a large the Gospels, and sowed those seeds, library, consisting of copies of the both of divine and human learning, Scriptures, and many Greek and which, under the blessing of Provi. Latin books; among which were dence, bave grown and flourished in Homer, in a large volume, written our country; have exalted our relion paper with most exquisite ele- gion, and consequently our morality; gance; the Homilies of Chrysostom, expanded our minds, embellished on parchment; the Psalter; and them with science, and added to Josephus's Hypomnesticon; all in our physical enjoyments the comGreek. He was accompanied into forts of the arts. Those who unEngland by Adrian, a Neapolitan fortunately cannot relish the aniMonk, and a native of Africa, learn- mated, pious effusions of Chrysosed in the holy Scriptures, versed in tom, (which, however, would have monastic and ecclesiastical disci. equally served religion and virtue, pline, and excellently skilled in the had they been less severe upon Greek and Latin tongues; who, women,) may, at least, respect the having declined the honour of the man who brought the επεα πτεροεντα ecclesiastical primacy in favour of of Homer to our shores.” Our his friend Theodore, had been ap- author observes : pointed by the Pope to the abbacy of St. Austin, at Canterbury. They “While it will be conceded, that no were both escorted from Rome by natural and healthy developement of Benedict Biscop, a Saxon youth, a

human existence takes place, except so native of Northumberland. Theo far as its outward forms are shaped by dore, in conjunction with Adrian, the silent yet powerful working of the expounded the Scriptures publicly; mind; equally certain is it, that such endeavoured to excite a taste for

working is eminently promoted by instiletters, by delivering lectures to the

tutions in which the highest knowledge most crowded audiences his exer

attainable in the age is cultivated and

transmitted. tions could procure; and established

“Before the time of Charlemagne, schools in most parts of England. monastic and cathedral schools existed These honourable labours produced in Italy and in England : after his time

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