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cussed, shows the inquisitive spirit Schoolmen were the masters' of of the age in which such a work ap those sentences which issued from peared. It evidently owed the po. that body of divinity!” pularity which it obtained to the It was the above celebrated Synod association of disputation with de- which gave stability and ecclesiasference to spiritual authority, which tical recognition to that fatal heresy it systematically enforced.

on the subject of justification. Pré. Dr. Thomas Jackson does not he vious to its sittings, there had exsitate to assert, that “the most re isted a great controversy among the ceived tenets of the Romish Church Divines and Schoolmen respecting were first hatched by the School. it, some of whom maintained the opmen, which never saw the light of posite doctrine, even in the debates heaven, but through the dark-painted of Trent. Such boldness was conglasses of the cells wherein they sidered as countenancing the docwere imprisoned ; and hence ima trines of Luther ; the Council gined our Saviour's form of doc- therefore determined, that justifying trine to be of the same hue with righteousness is infused and inhemidnight duncery or grossest igno- rent righteousness; and that all who rance of sacred dialects.” Hence, beld and taught a different opinion the dogma of seven sacraments, of should be cursed. As a doctrine, sacramental confession, of transub. Scripture and the primitive church stantiation, of half-communion, of rejected and disowned it: Bernard, image-worship, of purgatory, the the last of the Fathers, knew nodisuse of the holy Scriptures, &c. thing of it; but the Schoolmen, In all these corruptions, we disco- who immediately followed Bernard, ver an intimate connexion with the whose characteristic was a desertion question of justification; but in both of Scripture and ecclesiastical those of confession, image-worship, antiquity, for human reason and purgatory, and indulgences, the con human philosophy, gave it, as the nexion is so intimate, so entire, that fruit of their novel mode of illuswe are convinced no such fearful, trating divine things, with singular Christ-degrading errors could have precision and intelligibility. From existed, had there not been a pre- the school of Oxford the heresy was vious and gross departure from the early disseminated, even until the simplicity of the truth as it is in times of the memorable ReformaJesus, on such a vital point. The tion, when it was disputed, and ultidays of Peter Lombard were those mately driven from the Divinity from which we date the introduction chair. The Romanizing Clergy of of the Romish dogma of justifica- the Protestant hierarchy have been tion into our schools and churches; attempting the restoration of the he was the man “who clothed it heresy in the University, but hitherfirst in solemn didactic raiment, in- to their Jesuitical schemes have but vested it with the dignity of formal partially succeeded. theology, ushered it before the Here, then, we have a fundamental Church under high scholastic sanc principle of the Gospel of Christ tion, recorded for coming genera- exhibited to our view, which, if retions, that doctrine of self-righteous cognised in one aspect, exhibits the ness, under shape of a righteousness distinguishing feature of Protestantimplanted and inherent, to justifica- ism; if in another, it discloses the tion, which the Council of Trent peculiar doctrinal marks of the adopted as the model of its decree, man of sin.” “That grand quesand which has stood ever since a tion,” says the judicious Hooker, most lamentable evidence of how " that hangeth in controversy bethe Church of Rome was 'spoiled' tween us and Rome, is about the by the rudiments of the world, matter of justifying righteousness. and the traditions of men, into a We disagree about the nature and rejection of the righteousness of essence of the medicine whereby Christ God. The history of the debates of cureth our disease ; about the manner Trent is a continual proof, that the of applying it ; about the number and

the power of means, which God re and wicked men in the first justifi. quireth in us for the effectual apply. cation, through baptism, without ing thereof to our soul's comfort. works, yet not without faith ; and When they are required to show it taketh away sins both actual and what the righteousness is whereby a original together, with all whatsoChristian man is justified, they an ever punishment, eternal or temswer, that it is a divine spiritual poral, thereby deserved. Unto such quality ; which quality received into as have attained the first justificathe soul, doth first make it to be one tion, that is to say, this first reof them who are born of God; and, ceipt of grace, it is applied farther secondly, endue it with power to by good works to the increase of bring forth such works as they do former grace, which is the second that are born of Him ; even as the justification. If they work more soul of man, being joined to his and more, grace doth more increase, body, doth, first, make him to be of and they are more and more justi. the number of reasonable creatures, fied. To such as diminish it by and, secondly, enable him to perform venial sins, it is applied by holy the natural functions which are pro. water, Ave Marias, crossings, Papal per to his kind; that it maketh the salutations, and such like; which soul amiable and gracious in the serve for reparations of grace desight of God, in regard whereof it is cayed. To such as have lost it termed 'grace;' that it purgeth, through mortal sin, it is applied by purifieth, and washeth out, all the the sacrament (as they term it) of stains and pollutions of sins; that penance; which sacrament hath by it, through the merit of Christ, force to confer grace anew ; yet in we are delivered, as from sin, so such sort, that being so conferred, from eternal death and condemna. it hath not altogether so much power tion, the reward of sin. This grace as at the first. For it only cleanseth they will have to be applied by in- out the stain or guilt of sin commit. fusion; to the end that, as the body ted, and changeth the punishment is warm by the heat which is in the eternal into a temporal satisfactory body, so the soul might be made punishment here, if time do serve ; righteous by inherent grace; which if not, hereafter to be endured, exgrace they make capable of increase; cept it be lightened by masses, as the body may be more warm, 80 works of charity, pilgrimages, fasts, the soul more and more justified, and such like; or else shortened by according as grace should be aug- pardon, by term, or by plenary para mented; the augmentation whereof don quite removed and taken away. is merited by good works, as good This is the mystery of the man of sin. works are made meritorious by it.

This maze

the Church of Rome Wherefore, the first receipt of grace doth cause her followers to tread, in their divinity, is the first justifi, when they ask her the way to justication; the increase thereof, the se- fication. Whether they speak of the cond justification. As grace may be first or second justification, they increased by the merit of good works, make the essence of a divine quality so it may be diminished by the deme- inherent; they make it righteousrit of sins venial; it may be lost by ness which is in us. If it be in us, mortal sin. Inasmuch, therefore, as then it is ours, as our souls are ours, it is needful, in the one case to re though we have them from God, pair, in the other to recover, the loss and can hold them no longer than it which is made, the infusion of grace pleaseth him ; for if he withdraw bath her sundry after-meals : for the the breath of our nostrils, we fall to which cause they make many ways dust. But the righteousness, whereto apply the infusion of grace. It in we must be found, if we will be is applied to infants through baptism justified, is not our own. Therefore without either faith or works; and, we cannot be justified by any inherin them, really it taketh away origi ent quality. The Church of Rome, nal sin, and the punishment due in teaching justification by inherent onto it. It is applied to infidels grace, doth pervert the truth of VOL. XXIII. Third Series. FebRUARY, 1814,


Christ; and by the hands of the to the existence of the sacred treaApostles, we have received other

sury of supererogatory merits ; that wise than she teacheth. Now, con makes auricular confession tolerable, cerning the righteousness of sancti and all the vain inventions of merification, we deny it not to be inhe torious will-worship precious. Next rent :

we grant that, unless we come devices for the defence of work, we ve it not; only we dis these ; and hence the Romish doctinguish it as a thing different in trine of tradition, and of infallibinature from the righteousness of lity, and of implicit faith. Such justification. By the one, we are precisely was the view of the judiinterested in the right of inheriting ; cious Hooker, as furnished in the by the other, we are brought to the extract above given; a writer whose actual possession of eternal bliss. authority will not be denied, as to And so the end of both is everlast. what was the fundamental question ing life.” *

in the days of the Reformation of “ Now here we have,” says the the Church of England in her conBishop of Ohio, “a regular pedi troversy with Rome. In this progree of the most injurious corrup minence of justification, there was a tions of the Romish Church, and all perfect agreement among Protestant traced to the parent cause in her Divines, as well of England as of doctrine of justification. All toge- the Continent. It was in precise ther make up the mystery of the accordance with the view of Hooker man of sin, the maze which the that Luther spake of the doctrine of Church of Rome doth lead her fol- justification as the article of a lowers to tread, when they ask her standing or a falling church ;' that the way to justification;' all consti- Calvin maintained that if this one tute that .building' of manifold head were yielded safe and entire, it error, which Hooker believed must would not pay the cost to make any fall in the presence of the build- great quarrel about other matters in ing of God,' ' as Dagon before the controversy with Rome;'* that Neark.' But the corner-stone on which lancthon said, he and his brethrea that building rests, the clue to that were brought into danger for the maze, the secret of that mystery, is only reason, that they denied the the RomisH DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFI Romish doctrine of justification ;t

that Divines in the Council of Trent ness,-the answer she gives to the opposed the Protestant doctrine of question of a sinner inquiring what justification, because it ‘ abolished he must do to be saved, instead of the punishment together with the that plain answer of St. Paul, “Be guilt, and left no place remaining for lieve on the Lord Jesus Christ, and satisfaction;' I that is, it made all thou shalt be saved.' Embrace the the devices of sacramental penance, answer of Rome, and you have essen propitiatory masses, yea, the whole 'tial Romanism ; carry out the prin maze and mystery of the man of ciple, and you will have developed sin,' unnecessary. Such was the Romanism, in the whole of its maze view universally taken by the earlier and mystery.

Embrace the answer Divines of the Church of England. of St. Paul, and you strike Roman. With such men as Ussher, Hall, Anism to the heart; so that, whatever drews, Beveridge, as well as a host its ramifications, they must all die before them, the Romish justification and pass away; whatever its maze, was always a main and fundamental it is all disentangled and scattered. question, on which the whole build

“It is the Romish doctrine of ing of Romish error ultimately justification that gives value to in rested.” dulgences, need to purgatory, use

With the intention of resuming to the sacrament of penance, motive Professor Huber's work on to the invocation of saints, credence

“ • Bisliop Hall's Works, vol. ix., pp. 44, 45. * Hooker's Discourse of Justification, sect. | Ep. i., p. 120.

" # Paul's Hist. Coun. of Trent, p. 200




" the

y., vi.

English Universities” in a future thority of the Prophets and Apostles. Number, and directing our readers But she had left her first love; she more particularly to their internal had lost the life and power of godlihistory and operations, we bring our ness; her faith in Christ was prospresent remarks to a conclusion; trate and in the dust ; she became inobserving, that the subject on which ordinately attached to the present we have treated at large is highly world; careless about holding the monitory and instructive. Our au light of truth for the guidance and thor has written, as a man of the happiness of mankind; and, anxious world would write, on the political to grasp the sceptre of universal power state and prospects of a nation, a and dominion, she became indiffercountry, a community, or an indivi. ent to the surrender of scriptural dual. He looks upon the “path doctrine and purity which she had chosen " by the Church, in her to make, so that the main object adoption of the new speculative might be secured. The words of tendency,” as a kind of capital hit, Christ were forgotten : “My king“ admirable adroitness," a master dom is not of this world ; and stroke of policy. At this we are not those of St. Paul were regarded as surprised, when we read that “the of less importance than an old alnatural man receiveth not the things manack : " Make straight paths for of the Spirit of God, for they are your feet, lest that which is lame be foolishness unto him; neither can he turned out of the way.” Thus the know them, for they are spiritually Church, like a vessel destitute of a discerned.” That was a dark day, rudder, and having discarded her indeed, when the Church so far for- pilot, became the sport of every got her duty and calling, as to throw erroneous doctrine and carnal policy, herself into the arins of this scholas- until she stranded on the shores of tic philosophy, to the utter rejection ignorance, superstition, and death. of the words of Christ, and the au



With Characteristic Notices.

[The insertion of any article in this List is not to be considered as pledging us to the approbation of its contents, unless it be accompanied by some express notice of our favourable opinion. Nor is the omission of any such notice to be regarded as indicating a contrary opinion; as our limits, and other reasons, impose on us the necessity of selection and brevity.]

Delineation of Roman Catholicism, ter entitled “ The Church," and a consi. drawn from the authentic and acknow- derable quantity of that which is devoted ledged Standards of the Church of to the consideration of the “ General Rome ; namely, her Creeds, Catechisms, Councils.” The shameless attempts of Decisions of Councils, Papal Bulls, of the Papacy to evade or deny the perRoman Catholic Writers, the Records secuting clauses of the third Canon of of History, &c. : in which the peculiar the Fourth Lateran Council, and to Doctrines, Morals, Government, and justify the conduct of that of Constance, Usages of the Church of Rome are in the unprinciples and disgraceful perstated, treated at large, and confuted. secution of John Huss, meet with due By the Rev. Charles Elliott, D. D. Im- consideration and exposure. perial 8vo. Part IX.

64. more than ever convinced of the neces. Mason. This portion of the revised and sity of such a work as this being delibccorrected edition of Dr. Elliott's work rately and universally studied. The contains the concluding part of the chap- untiring efforts of Popery to attain an

We are



ascendancy in this Protestant country of The Women of England." 8ro. arrest the attention of every

pp. 390. Fisher and Co. This volume Wherever we travel, we see Popish will form a very judicious and approprichapels and cathedrals rising to public ate companion to the former productions view : if we compare the present statis of Mrs. Ellis, on the various topics tics of Romanism with those of A. D. connected with female duty and respon1800, we shall find that the increase of sibility. In former treatises the position, sanctuaries and worshippers has been domestic habits, and social obligations of greut beyond all precedent. The bold the women of England generally have and even menacing attitude of modern been exhibited, and of the daughters and Popery must also not be overlooked. wives of England particularly ; but now, The Popish press is extensively at work, our author directs her powerful energies immense numbers of tracts are distri. to the task of delineating the momentous buted gratuitously among the people, influence and responsibility of Mothers; and Popery is boasting of numerous a subject which will not fail to vibrate accessions to her side from the ranks of on a chord most sensitive and thrilling, nominal Protestantism. Let these facts and insure to the volume,-rather on be duly estimated, and the zealous and account of the topic discussed than the hallowed activity of the principles of the character and capability of the author, Reformation be called forth ; let us fear which are too well known and apprecinothing, and pray much ; and the vic ated to receive any additional eulogium tory will infallibly be ours.

from us,—not only an extensive circulaA Memoir of Greville Ewing, Minis tion, which is with us comparatively a ter of the Gospel, Glasgow.

By his

minor consideration, but a serious and Daughter. 8vo. pp. xii, 672. Snow. attentive reading. Every mother, and -We perfectly agree in the opinion of especially every young mother, ought to an able contemporary in regarding this possess the work, in order duly to esti. useful and interesting volume, to a con

mate those duties from which, as a mosiderable extent, as a “ Memoir of the ther, she cannot possibly escape. The Life and Times” of the venerable indi twelve chapters into which the work is dividual whose character it attempts to vided, are devoted to the elucidation of the portray. We discover in his early mi. following :—“A mother's first thoughts; nisterial career, the manifestation of a authority, influence, and example; the principle which has recently been care use of a mind ; elements of character; ried out, with an energy and conscien generosity and affection ; individual and tiousness that have astonished the world, social happiness; moral courage and leading him beyond the boundaries of worldly-inindedness; general duties of a the Church of Scotland, when the glory mother; hints on education ; on the of the Lord had in a great degree de. training of boys; on the training of parted from her sanctuaries, and a fear girls ; on religious influence." Numeful “ Ichabod” had been inscribed both rous extracts, we are aware, might be upon her pulpits and her pews. We introduced in our pages with great adalso see in Mr. Ewing's history, the vantage, did our limits permit: we can, early records, and steady progress, of however, only recommend a prompt and the Edinburgh Missionary Society, of sincere examination of the book, and do which he was an indefatigable, and the not hesitate to say, that all mothers will original, Secretary: In a word, Mr. derive from such perusal, those princiEwing lived for the promotion of the ples and that instruction which will make interests of his Redeemer's kingdom; them better women, better parents, and and although his engagements were

better wives. numerous and varied, he was a faithful Christian Consolation ; or, the Unity

« and feared God above many." of the Divine Procedure a Source of The work must be considered as a valu. Comfort to afflicted Christians. By the able addition to our Christian biogra Rev. E. Mannering, 12mo. pp. viii, phy. Mrs. Mathison has written with 310. Snow. --The excellent author of credit to herself, and with benefit to the this volume has already appeared before church at large, and especially to that the religious world, in two publications, portion of the “family of God” to one entitled, “ Christian Consistency,". which he was attached, this Memoir of and the other, “Christian Happiness," her revered, and now sainted, parent. for the benefit of several youthful It is worthy of being extensively read, verts at that time under his pastoral care. and calculated to be generally useful. That on the subject of Consistency was

The Mothers of England, their Influ. primarily intended to teach them what ence and Responsibility. By the Author they ought to be, then to show them


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