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in that country the exercise, not of of territory, or with its subsequent authority, but of predominant in- enlargement, we are not going to fluence. Presently the storm of enter, nor even to insinuate an opianarchy subsided, violence disap- nion respecting the answers which peared, the balance between the would have to be given to them. revenue and the expenditure was What we have to do with is not the restored, and commerce and indus- past history of British power in try, enjoying the protection of the India, but the duties, under one Government, flourished in every aspect at least considered, to the town and village, until the whole performance of which our acquiland became the abode of plenty sitions bind us. We only make one and contentment. Nearly the same observation that might even seem to thing has occurred in a hundred approach these subjects; and we places in India, where on the fron- make that for the sake of the object tiers the same difference is observ- which we have in view. It is well able between the Company's terri known that different opinions have tories and those of the native Chiefs, been expressed respecting the dealas in the valley of the Nile between ings, in former times, of the British the cultivated land and the desert. rulers of India with the native

We esteem it no slight matter Princes. Under those Princes, howthat, through the indefatigable exer. ever, the people themselves were in tions of our countrymen, the revolt a state of complete vassalage, have ing system of T’huggee has been ing little security either as to proalmost extinguished. Most persons perty or person. They were taxed have been rendered familiar with not merely according to the necessithe organized body of murderers ties, but according to the will, of denominated T’hugs. They existed their masters. The case is now in nearly all parts of Hindůstan and altered. The people of India are no the peninsula ; and were so nume- longer the slaves of despotism, but rous, and conducted their assassina the acknowledged subjects of a tions with so much secrecy and power which recognises the rights of success, that to travel alone became the subject, as well as his obligaan enterprise of the greatest danger. tions. Under British rule, the peoIn every conceivable disguise mur. ple of India have obtained political derers presented themselves to the existence ; and the testimony of all wayfarer, accompanying him cheer. honest and observant beholders confully and merrily until the favour. firms the declarations we have quoted able moment for action occurred, above, and proves to us that (emwhen they strangled or stabbed ploying the beautiful imagery of him. At present, even M. de War. Scripture) they may sit each under ren himself might revisit that coun his own vine, or his own fig-tree, no try, and travel along the Queen's or one making them afraid. Company's highway, without dan The effects are already becoming ger of the noose. Major Sleeman apparent. Human nature is essenhas almost annihilated the Brah- tially active; and let it once be seen minical disciples of Hassan Sooba, that activity will not be thrown who imitate the devotees of the Old away, and it is instantly put forth, Man of the Mountain, without any and put forth in proportion both to of those romantic accompaniments the certainty and the amount of the which diffused a certain poetical air anticipated profit. Society, as comround the atrocious antagonists of posed of men acting for themselves, the Crusaders.” (Pp. 218–221.) feeling themselves at liberty (within

We quote the foregoing state- the limits of honesty, of course) to ments merely as referring to the choose their own object, select their condition and prospects of India, own means, and prosecute their considered as one of the territories work without fear of interruption, under the dominion of the British society, thus considered, is in India Crown. Into the political questions only in its infancy; but as the connected with the first acquisition activity is great, so the growth will

be rapid. And many circumstances dia has peace. Foreign wars and will contribute to promote it. On civil cominotions are alike undreadthe one hand, there is a considerable ed. The people possess all the acti. variety of climate, and, therefore, of vities of human nature ; they have natural production, in the many the materials on which to employ countries now united under one go- them; they have leisure and security; vernment; and, on the other, there they have the stimulating and diis the powerful stimulus applied by recting example of those who, if the intercourse with the people who they have conquered their Princes, have conquered their rulers, but have befriended themselves. India who treat them not as slaves ; and must prosper. who are, they cannot avoid seeing, But Indian prosperity must adfar, very far, in advance of them vance under peculiar circumstances. selves, in point of social civilization. Wealth and leisure, however vaAlready, too, have the inhabitants riously distributed, will be distriof India begun to be visiters of buted extensively; and the Indian England, and even of Europe. Nor who has wealth to expend, and lei. is this a trifle. It is more to an sure to occupy, will naturally have Iudian, than a visit to India would his eye fixed on the example of his be to an Englishman. The English. European governors and superiors. man goes to India with the map of British habits in India are modified the world in his mind,—with the by the climate; and thus will they geography of the world in his me be more easily imitated. It will be mory: He knows, in theory, all seen that the British owe their posi. that he will find in practice. Till tion to superior knowledgę; and lately, and till Britain became the education, therefore, will become instructer, all was different in India. more general. European literature The compilers of the sacred books is becoming more and more accessiseem to have overlooked the possi- ble to the higher classes, at least, of bility of geographical improvement. our Indian fellow-subjects. Now, Science and mythology are so mixed if even the corrupted forms of truth up, that whatever gives them cor have not been able to keep possesrect views as to the former, must sion of the minds of the educated in show them the utter falsehood of countries like Spain, and Portugal, the latter. Teach a Hindoo what and Italy; if the errors which in an ordinary schoolboy in England some sort seem hallowed by their would be ashamed not to know, and connexion with truth, and which the entire system of his theology are rendered far less gross than if fades away. And this improvement the error were unmixed, unmitiis not merely speculative, nor does gated, are nevertheless seen to be it depend on mere speculation. It errors where the light and activities is plain matter of fact, settled at of literature are experienced, and ooce by a steam-voyage to England. the very truth is rejected along with

What, then, is the real condition them; if advancing knowledge leads of the social state in India ? Under to infidelity, as in Romanist counBritish rule, especially as now exer tries it does ; what must be its tenicised, in distinct reference to the dencies in a country where error is light and to the decisions of public so gross, so entire,—and where the opinion, India must prosper. It systems of religion, hitherto held cannot be otberwise. Not only is fast, not only oppose the first princithere social activity, but, to an al- ples of argumentation, so that they most unlimited extent, the materials cannot bear up against the moveon which social activity works, ments of thought when it becomes aided by the stimulus of the pre- enlightened, and vigorous, and insence of a people whose power they dependent, but are likewise equally have been constrained to acknow- opposed to the more obvious rudiledge, and whom they feel to be ments of science, physical and histheir benefactors, in every point in torical? Hinduism cannot exist in which they are their superiors. In a mind even moderately acquainted Vol. XXIII. Third Series.

MAY, 1844.

2 F

" The

with astronomy, and geography, and work of Providence to perform; and chemistry, and history. The phan: what that is, no one can fail to untasms of the Hindoo pantheon and derstand who remembers what are mythology can only be painted on now the nature and character of the the mind in a state of complete divine governinent of mankind. darkness. Even imperfect light The government is upon His shoulrenders the figures indistinct; and ders. Of the increase of His governif the shutters are opened, and sun ment and peace there shall be no end." shine be admitted, they entirely dis- The Mediator is Sovereign. All appear. There is a great danger power is committed to him in hea. that Heathenism should have its ven and earth, and he must reign place occupied by infidelity. And till he hath put all enemies under this is a more serious matter than his feet. God's design is, that all many would suppose. Infidelity, mankind should be enlightened and considered only in theory, and gene- influenced by the Gospel. rally, never furnishes good subjects earth shall be full of the knowledge to an empire. It contributes no of the Lord.All the movements thing to either the purity or the of Providence are directed to the stability of society. The Christian accomplishment of this purpose as patriot will, therefore, always look their great result. The zeal of the to the possibility of its existence Lord of hosts shall perform this." with dread; and will endeavour to It follows, therefore, that especially guard against its occurrence in any where large territories, yet heathen, of the shapes which it may assume. are intrusted, and that by a remarkBut politically, and perhaps even able concurrence of circumstances, morally, considered, its worst shape to a Christian people, the design of is that which is derived from the this particular result of the divine modern French school. It tends to administration is, that all proper make man, individually, an intel means be employed, earnestly, con. lectual animal, a refined voluptuary, stantly, and, as far as is possible, in devoted to the pleasures of sense, proportion to the object sought to unable to appreciate life according be secured, and to the difficulties to its true value, and, therefore, re which may oppose themselves, to gardless of it; hard-hearted when diffuse the light and energy of the quiet, ferocious when disturbed. Gospel throughout the whole range And its social tendencies are of the to which the providential indication most mischievous character.

Its points. immediate products are the seeds of Whether Britain has endeavoured insurrection, and its triumphs are thus heartily to fulfil this evident found in the wildest storms of anar obligation, is a question easily, anchy, and in reigns of terror. And swered, -answered, indeed, whenif, through our neglect, India should ever a Missionary map of India is receive the lessons of infidelity, it inspected. Something, certainly, has will be the infidelity of the modern been done; and, if compared with French school ; and thus, having the apathy which existed a century sinned against the Lord, we may be ago, perhaps, we might say, much sure that our sin will find us out, has been done. But no one can and itself supply the instruments of look at the wide-ranging territory, a fearful punishment.'

and its teening population, submitWe have said, sinned against the ted to the sovereignty of Britain, Lord. The establishment and spread and at the few-and-far-between staof British dominion in India point tions of the different Missionary to a providential interference which Societies, and say that such an cannot be mistaken. Our sovereignty effort has been made as the provithere is God's gift; and such a gift dential obligation requires. Every was not bestowed to swell the pride section of Christ's church in Eng. of national greatness, or gratify the land is concerned in this; for the cravings of national ambition. Sent obligation is a Christian, not a secthere by Providence, we have a tional, one.

Each section, while

acknowledging that the others, hold. This is the Lord's doing; and adoring the Head, are members of the ingly grateful ought the Wesleyans same spiritual body, yet is of opi- to be, that such is the case. But, nion that some important portions considering the position thus occuof truth are held particularly by pied by the Wesleyan Missionary itself; and this persuasion should Society,-considering, also, the imadd to the general obligation, the portant character of those views of force of the argumentum ad hominem. religious doctrine which the WesWe think we

are, in these re leyans have been led to take,-it spects, more right than others : it becomes a question inore than ordiis, then, our duty to employ our narily serious, Should not more be utmost efforts in Missionary under. done by the Wesleyans for India ? takings, that what we believe to be And if what is really a primary truth more clearly, or more con obligation may be strengthened, and sistently, may by our instrumentals obedience to‘it stimulated, by subity be promoted.

ordinate considerations, may not Thus should the Wesleyan sec

this addition be made to the queg. tion of the visible church in Eng- tion,-Should not more be done for land reason,—and reason in regard India by the Wesleyans, seeing that to India. By God's blessing, though Puseyism is labouring for supremacy the Wesleyans are far from being an there? Let each reader of these affluent people, their Missionary So- remarks decide for himself, what ciety has been enabled to take an answer he thinks the questions ought honourable position among the other to receive. Alissionary Societies in the country.


PART 11.

(To the Editor of the Wesleyan-Methodist Mugazine.) In the twelfth and thirteenth cen of which many of their brethren turies, those Christians known in emigrated to that part. Soon the history by the name of Vaudois, neighbourhood assumed a new apWaldenses, and Albigenses, who pearance; villages rose in every condemned the corruptions by which direction; the hills resounded with the Church was everywhere infected, the bleating of flocks, and the val. penetrated through the Alps, and leys were covered with corn and established themselves in various vines. The prosperity of the new parts of Italy. In 1231, Pope Gre- settlers excited the envy of the surgory IX. published a furious Bull rounding villagers. The Priests also against them, ordering that they observed, that although these should be sought out, and delivered strangers regularly paid tithes, acover to the secular arm to be pu- cording to their agreement with the nished. This Bull was also sent by proprietors, yet they practised none the Pope to the Archbishop of of the ceremonies usual at the inMilan, with an injunction to see it terment of the dead, had no images executed in his diocess.

in their chapels, did not go in pilIn 1370, some of the Vaudois, grimage to consecrated places, and being straitened in their own terri. had their children educated by fo. tories, came into Italy in search of reign teachers. Hence they began a convenient settlement. Having to raise the cry of heresy against discovered in Calabria, within the these simple and inoffensive people. modern kingdom of Naples, a dis. But the landlords, gratified to see trict uncultivated, and thinly peo- their grounds improved, and to repled, they bargained with the pro ceive large rents for that which had prietors of the soil ; in consequence formerly yielded them nothing,


interposed in behalf of their tenants; by the representations and promises and the Priests finding their tithes of the Lord of the soil. Meanwhile, to increase in value, prudently kept the Monks procured two companies silence. The colony received ac of foot-soldiers to be sent into the cessions hy the arrival of their bre- woods, who hunted the inhabitants thren who fled from the persecu

of Santo Xisto like beasts of prey; tions raised against them in France and, having discovered their lurkand Piedmont, and continued to ing-places, fell on them with cries flourish ; till, in the sixteenth cen of "Murder them! murder them!” tury, it contained four thousand Some of the fugitives took refuge persons, who occupied two towns, on a mountain ; and, having secured Santo Xisto, and La Guardia. themselves, demanded a parley with

About the year 1538, the Pope the Captain. After en treating him sent two Monks to suppress these to take pity on them, their wives, Waldensian Churches, or to bring and children, they said, that they them into subjection to the Church and their fathers had inhabited that of Rome. These Monks, on their country for some ages, without gir. first arrival, assumed an air of great ing any one cause to complain ; gentleness. Having assembled the that if they could not be allowed to inhabitants of Santo Xisto, they remain in it any longer, without retold them that they had not come nouncing their faith, they hoped for the purpose of hurting any one; they would be permitted to with. but merely to warn them, in a draw to some other country; that friendly way, against hearing any they would go, by sea or by land, teachers but those appointed by the to any country that their superiors Bishop; that if they would dismiss might be pleased to appoint; that those who had led them astray, and they would engage not to return; live in future according to the rules and that they would take with them of the Roman Church, they had no only what was necessary for their thing to fear ; but if the acted support on their journey; for they otherwise, they would incur the would rather part with their propunishment of heretics, and expose perty than do violence to their cunthemselves to the loss of property

They implored him to and of life. The Monks then ap withdraw his men, and not oblige pointed a time for the celebration of them reluctantly to defend them. mass, which they required all pre. selves, as they could not answer for sent to attend. But, instead of the consequences, should they be complying with this injunction, the driven to extremities. Instead of inhabitants in a body quitted the listening to this reasonable offer, the town, and retired to the woods; Captain ordered his men to advance leaving behind them only a few by a narrow pass; upon which aged persons and children.

those on the hill attacked them, Hereupon the Monks went to killed the greater part, and put

the La Guardia ; and, having assem rest to flight. bled the inhabitants, told them that The Papal party immediately retheir brethren of Santo Xisto had solved to revenge on the whole body renounced their erroneous opinions, this unpremeditated act of resistand gone to mass ; exhorting them ance on the part of a few. The to follow so dutiful and wise an ex Monks wrote to Naples, that the ample. The poor, simple people, country was in a state of rebellion ; crediting this report, and alarmed at upon which the Viceroy despatched the danger held out, complied; but several companies of soldiers to no sooner did they ascertain the Calabria ; and, to gratify the Pope, truth, than they resolved instantly he followed them in person. On to leave the place, with their wives his arrival, by the advice of the and children, and to join their bre- Inquisitors, he caused a proclamathren, who had taken refuge in the tion to be made, delivering up Santo woods : a resolution from which Xisto to fire and sword; and, by they were with difficulty diverted, another proclamation, he offered


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