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the mansions of his Father's house Greek of the New Testament must above ; (John xiv. 2 ;) and when the be interpreted, should pass by the people met our Saviour with accla peculiar idiom of the original, and mations, hailing him as having come play on the surface of an English to them in the name of the Lord, version, is extremely dishonest. It "the multitudes that went before, is not a whit less discreditable than and that followed, cried, saying, the wretched trifling of those moHosanna to the Son of David ;' nastic scribblers who expound, after and, as if seeking the confirmation their manner, such sentences of the of their prayer, (na p'wy, “Save, Vulgate Latin version as Hoc est we beseech thee,”') they repeated, corpus meum, and Sacramentum hoc “Hosanna" ("save us”) “in the magnum est; thinking to establish highest ;" that is, in heaven. (Matt. the fable of transubstantiation, and xxi. 9.) And so Christ, using the the abomination of clerical celibacy. same figure to express divine con It is grievous to be sent back again firmation of divinely-authorized ac. to the first elements of hermenentions, tells his Apostles, that whose tics; but we must return to them, soever sins they forgive on earth now that they are thrown aside by shall be forgiven in heaven, and men who attach more value to pawhose soever they retain, shall be tristical speculation, than to the retained there.
common rules of language. In short, the meaning of the me Be it premised, however, that the morable sentences with which this Holy Spirit was given to the Apospaper is headed, appears to be sim- tles, that they were qualified by pleply this : that the Apostles, being nary inspiration for the acts to be subjects of plenary inspiration, performed. To them, as thus inshould be infallible masters in the spired, the words before us were Christian church, commissioned by addressed ; and to them, therefore, Christ to perform all the functions they must be restricted. Being of that necessary office; and that thus qualified, they were to remit our submission to their instruction and retain sins; not as these words and decisions is challenged and jus- sound, but as they signify; for the tified by the declaration of Christ remission is not potential, but dehimself, that they are approved and clarative. confirmed in heaven. No other set By a peculiarity of the Hebrew of men so commissioned, or even verb, transferred from that language pretending to write canonical Scrip- into the Hebraized Greek, the distures, has ever appeared in the tinction between an action and the church ; 80 that, waiving argumenta- declaration of an action effected, or tion, it is bistorically false to say to be effected, was obscured; but that there is, or ever was, an apos- might be elicited by the plain comtolical succession.
mon sense of the reader, when the The first two passages from the first and more obvious meaning of Gospel according to Matthew have the words involved an impossibility, been taken together in this com an untruth, or an absurdity. Yet ment, because they are parallel ; by us, who study the sacred origibut we must now proceed to the nals in dead languages, and are prethird, as recorded by St. John. It possessed, beside, by inaccuracies of is very different in form, yet similar versions, and by popular misapprein purport; and is cited by those of hensions, the faculty of discriminathe high sacerdotal school in sup tion can only be acquired by habitport of their pretensions to ghostly ual study, not merely of the paspower. The words are,
sages to be interpreted, but of the ye the Holy Ghost : whose soever languages themselves. We must sins ye remit, they are remitted unto become familiarized with the idiom. them; and whose soever sins ye atic use, but apparent confusion, of retain, they are retained.” That the conjugations of Hebrew verhs. learned men, who cannot be igno. The kui, or simple indicative, for rant of the rules by which the example, may be used for the pihel,
-מדינין הקשיח לבנו מיראתך :
or intensive. Either of these may gatum cum pronuntiabil : “That is be substituted for the more powerful to say, he shall pronounce him to be and explicit hiphil, causative or de. cleansed.” Our translators agree clarative. Hence a plain indicative with Augustine, and say, “The form may be employed to declare Priest shall pronounce him to be that the action has taken place, al. cleansed.” With these the modern though by an agent not named, or translators generally agree. that some intended effect has been Isai. lxii. 17. nn nos or shall be produced. Amidst all : this latitude of meaning, there is This remarkable example of the little or no literal variety; and in idiotism above described is literally addition to this fact must be taken translated in our English Bible: into the account another, that the “O Lord, why hast thou made us to three conjugations here mentioned err from thy ways, and hardened our can only be expressed in Greek by heart from thy fear ?" The English the one active voice, corresponding words speak a doctrine which is to the Hebrew kal, simple and un denounced in other parts of Scripchanged by any infection whatever. ture as injurious to the divine Ma. Hence a literal version of a Hebrew jesty. But the original does not, as or Hebraized Greek sentence often it is rightly interpreted by Hebrew conveys a sense totally incorrect, scholars, – Dathe, for example : and foreign from the meaning of the Ruare permitteres, ut deflecteremus a writer. Papists and Tractarians may viis tuis ? ut in animis nostris sensus take shelter under this ambiguity; religionis occallesceret? “
Why dost and it is not very easy to disabuse thou permit that we should depart the common English reader by a from thy ways ? that the sense of sufficiently popular exhibition of religion should become dull in our one of the most important philo- hearts?” The evidence of Jewish logical facts which are presented to commentators in questions of mere the professional student. To abbre- grammar may be confidently adviate the labour, in this instance, a duced ; and in this place, as far as few passages shall be transcribed, they have been referred to, they with brief notation of their mean, agree in the same interpretation. ing ; so as to present a brief speci Psalm cxix. 10, is a parallel ex. men of the very numerous class to ample. which the one before us certainly Jer. i. 10. “See, I have this day belongs.
set thee (7'77707) over the nations, Exod. xx. 7.
na apgy N3 and over the kingdoms, to root out, : NYW5 19w ng nei 708—“The and to pull down, and to destroy, Lord will not make him innocent and to throw down, and to build, that taketh his name in vain." and to plant.” No correct translaThe Septuagint, being very literal in tion of this text could take another the Pentateuch, has, ou un kabapion, form; yet no candid expositor would “will not purify.” So the İtala, affirm that God had invested the non mundabit, " will not cleanse." Prophet Jeremiah with authority to But the Vulgate gives the true do these things, but that he apsense, non habebit insontem, which pointed him to declare that they agrees with the English, “ will not were done by God himself. That hold him guiltless.”
he did thus declare, his prophecies Lev. xiii. 6. The Priest shall ex are proof, amine the person said to be leprous; Matt. x. 35. “I ain come," said but if he find that he is not so, Christ, “to set a man at variance 0.777 17.901) then shall the Priest against his father, and the daughter "make him clean,” (1701) " and he against her mother, and the daugh. shall be clean.” So say the old ter-in-law against her mother-inLatin versions, and the Septuagint; law.” It were superfluous to argue but St. Augustine, although not a that this was not ihe end of Christ's linguist, judiciously interprets the coming into the world, and that he Latin text by saying, Hoc' est, pur- did not excite division, since no one,
except be be an infidel, can imagine tents, to be a part of their work, or that he did, the contrary being fact. did not conceive such acts as proper But the passage is intelligible enough to be recorded for our imitation. by aid of an established canon, But in every recorded case they prothat “active verbs are attributed ceeded in a totally different manner; even to those who do not properly, and yet God never reproved them and by their immediate influence, for with holding the precious boon do that which the verbs signify, but of mercy, which he would assuredly only concur in some manner,” certa have done, had they been unfaithful ratione. And the reader is re to their trust. ferred to the author of this canon, It little concerns us to investigate as cited below.
how Fathers, Councils, and ReformActs X. 15. "A ó Ocòs ékadápioe, ers have understood difficult pasoù un koivov. “The things which sages. Most of the Fathers were God hath cleansed, do not thou but mean critics. Jerome and Au. pollute.” The Itala, and most an gustine, like Hillel and Shammai, cient versions, translate to this pur are types of the dissension which port : Quæ Deus mundavit, tu com rendered unity impossible mune ne feceris. But the Vulgate among them. The Councils were gives the sense by using the word parties in ecclesiastical disputes ; so dixeris, with which exactly agrees that the decision cannot be with our version,—" What God hath them. The Reforiners nobly dashed cleansed, that call not thou com- away the fetters of ecclesiastical domon."
mioation; but they may have been These are a few examples out of a heated in dispute with the priest. multitude collected by grammarians hood of their day; and the writer and scholiasts; and are such as may of these observations humbly probe found frequent throughout the fesses to believe that one honest sacred writings; and the words of exegesis of the sacred text is worth Christ, “Whose soever sins ye re more than volumes in the present mit," &c., are exactly of the same controversy; and he leaves the inclass. As the Priest purified him terminable polemic, conducted on that was clean, or polluted him that, other grounds, to more patient and being a leper, was unclean; as more learned brethren. They who Jeremiah set up the nations which please can dispute ecclesiastically, God established, and rooted out and while the reader of the Bible can pulled down those whom God de. enjoy the heavenly and forcible sim. stroyed; so, being also Ministers of plicity of God's own book. The God, did the inspired authors of the rules of grammar, the witnesses of Christian code pardon the forgiven, biblical antiquity, and the analogy and condemn the guilty. In this of faith, are the lamps which light sense, and in no other, can the pas- his study; but he would presume sage be rightly explained. And if into the sanctuary, and implore from the dy Tivov, “whose soever," be the Father of lights the influences objected against this view of the which are promised to guide him sentence, as indicating, a personal into all truth. Confident that his administration of pardon, imme- prayer is heard, he reposes while diately applied by the Minister to the turmoil of controversy rings the penitent, the reply is ready. around: he views his Bible with There are no traces of such an ad- reverential satisfaction, and seems ministration in the apostolic bistory; to read therein, as if an angel's whence it is clear that either the finger had traced the words in chaApostles did not understand the racters brighter than any antique pardoning of confitents, or peni- illumination, and lovelier than any
* Glassii Philologia Sacra, lib. i., tract. iii., rubric, can. 22.
ΤΟΥΤΩ ΝΙΚΑ. .
DR. ADAM CLARKE ON SPONSORS IN BAPTISM.
As to sponsors, the next object of The engagements that sponsors your inquiry, I would just say, the now take upon them they neither institution is very ancient, was very can fulfil, nor do they design or good, and very useful. In the com wish it. There is much guilt inmencement of the Christian church, curred by this in all cases in the many Heathens permitted their chil. Church. I never employed any perdren to be taken by Christians, to son to stand for any of my children; be baptized, and brought up in the and I have absolutely refused even Christian faith. In those cases the to stand for my brother's first-born. order of the church required that Now, as to the baptisms among the some Christians should come for- Methodists, I would say they are ward at the baptism, and bind them- perfectly legal, they are perfectly selves to see that those children scriptural, and they answer to all should be brought up in the Chris. the intents and purposes of Christian faith, as there was no proba- tian, efficient, and legal baptism; bility that their heathen parents and if the Preacher take pains, and would or could thus instruct them. do his duty in the administration, The Church of Rome and the they may be greatly owned in point Church of England still preserve of public edification. I have seen the rite, though the general diffu- great grace rest on the whole con. sion of Christianity renders this gregation at our public baptisms. utterly useless. Hence I never re There is no need to go either to quire sponsors; for the duties to parish church or chapel for baptism which they bind theinselves can be or register. In the Church, accord. fulfilled only by the parents; and ing to its present form, they cannot on the parents, in all cases where baptize without sponsors; and those I administer baptism, I impress who become such bring their souls this duty in the most solemn man into a' snare.- Private Correspond
SPANISH MARTYRS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.
(To the Editor of the Wesleyan-Methodist Mugazine.) Spain has long been distinguished its energies, and extinguishing every among the countries of Europe for other feeling except a sense of weakits bigoted and pernicious attach ness and terror. The following is ment to the See of Rome, and for the testimony of a learned Spaniard, the sanction it has given to the un- Don Juan Antonio Llorente. forjust and inhuman tribunal of the merly Secretary to the Inquisition Inquisition. The Inquisitor-General at Madrid, in his History of the in Spain possessed an authority Spanish Inquisition, published a scarcely inferior to that of the King few years ago :or the Pope : by joining with either “I do not stop to describe the of these, he was inore than a match several kinds of torture inflicted on for the other; and when supported the accused by order of the Inquisiby both, his power was irresistible. tion,--this task having been exeThe ancient Inquisition was a power
cuted with sufficient exactness by a ful engine for harassing and roo great many historians. On this head ing out a small body of dissidents ; i declare that none of them can be but the Inquisition, as modified in accused of exaggeration. I have subsequent periods, stretched its read many processes which have iron arms over the whole nation, struck me with horror; and I could paralyzing its exertions, crushing regard the Inquisitors, who had
recourse to such methods, in no of absolution were so rare, that one other light than that of cold blooded is scarcely to be found in a thoubarbarians. Suffice it to add, that sand cases ; the Inquisitors making the Council of the Supreme has it a point that, if possible, none often been obliged to forbid the should escape without bearing some repetition of the torture in the same mark of their censure. According process; but the Inquisitors, by an to Puigblanch, another writer on the abominable sophism, have found Inquisition, the number of persons means to render this prohibition reconciled and banished in Andaalmost useless, by giving the name lusia, from 1480 to 1520, was one of suspension to that cessation from hundred thousand ; and forty-five torture which is imperiously de- thousand were burnt alive within manded by the imminent danger to the archbishopric of Seville. which the victim is exposed of Notwithstanding the vigorous dying in their hands. My pen re efforts thus made to uphold Papal fuses to trace the picture of these error and superstition throughout horrors; for I know nothing more Spain, and to suppress all moveopposed, than this conduct of the ments in favour of religious liberty, Inquisitors is, to the spirit of cha- the Reformed opinions found their rity and compassion which Jesus way into that kingdom, and con. Christ inculcates in the Gospel; tinued for a time to prevail. One and yet, in spite of the scandal of the first who were active in which it has given, there is not, spreading them was Juan Valdes, a after the eighteenth century is man of a good family, and who had closed, any law or decree abolishing received a liberal education. Havthe torture.”
ing attached himself to the court, The Inquisition of Seville, in the he quitted Spain about 1535, in course of the first year after its company with Charles V., who sent erection, committed two thousand him to Naples, to act as Secretary persons alive to the flames, burnt as to the Viceroy. That his mind was many in effigy, and condemned se imbued with the leading tenets of venteen thousand to different pe the Protestant faith, even before this nances.. From the same date, up period, appears from a treatise drawn to the year 1517, when the Reforma- up by him, under the title of “ Adtion commenced in Germany, there vice on the Interpreters of sacred were, according to the careful and Scripture.” This tract, which was moderate calculations of the above. circulated privately among his acmentioned Llorente, thirteen thou- quaintance, was originally sent in sand persons who were burnt alive, the form of a letter to his friend eight thousand seven hundred whó Bartolomé Carranza, afterwards were burnt in effigy, and one hun- Archbishop of Toledo ; but who dred and sixty-nine thousand seven had early incurred the suspicions of hundred and twenty-three who were the Inquisitors, by the freedom of condemned to penances ; making in his opinions. It was found among all, one hundred and ninety-one the papers of that Prelate, when he thousand four hundred and twenty was subsequently apprehended by three persons condemned by the order of the Inquisition, and formed several tribunals of Spain, in the one of the gravest charges against course of thirty-six years. There is him. The tract contained the folreason to think that this estimate lowing propositions, among others : falls below the truth; for, from – That, in order to understand the 1481 to 1520, it is computed that, sacred Scriptures, we must not rely in Andalusia alone, thirty thousand on the interpretations of the Fathers; persons informed against themselves, that we are justified by a lively faith from the dread of being accused by in the passion and death of our others, or in hope of obtaining a Saviour; and that we may attain to mitigation of their sentence. And, certainty concerning our justificadown to the commencement of thé tion. Such sentiments render it seventeenth century, the instances highly probable that Valdes had