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better. The beautifully proportioned ing about them the trinkets and and graceful structure is now over trappings of Popery, the Colosseum run with Popery. Altars are erected that noble monument, which atat every part of the bold circle ; and tests alike the greatness and the litPopish devotees were actively en- tleness of Roine — stands promi. gaged in what they deemed religious nently in the field of vision. Viewed exercises before each On the steps by daylight from the summit of the of one altar lay a large crucifix, Capitol, or at night, when the rich with wax candles in abundance burn- flood of moonbeams is poured upon ing on either side. Many persons it, the Colosseum is indeed a won. knelt, and fervently kissed the feet derful object of interest. I contemof the wax caricature of our ador- plated it under both aspects; and able Redeemer, and at the saine the impression will not be easily time dropped a small offering in obliterated. Time was, when the money into a little dish, placed for noble and the graceful, the royal that purpose near the object of ado- and the gifted, the virgin and the ration. Money and devotedness are matron, the poet and the philosoinseparably connected in the Church pher, found their places on those of Rome.

now crumbling seats, capable of The next object which fixed our containing their thousands upon attention was the Mons Capitolinus, thousands ; and, gazing on the vast -the site, and part of the ancient area formed for deadly conflict, there structure, of the Capitol, around sought, in the sad excitement of the which memory congregates associa- scene, for gratifications which the tions of the most heart-stirring kind. graceful and rational pursuits of life In front of the Capitol stands the had failed to afford. Popery has undoubtedly ancient equestrian set up her symbols in that scene of bronze statue of Marcus Aurelius, pagan heartlessness, only exchange with other works of art less perfect. ing one kind of darkness for anoIt is as fresh as ever, and as nobly ther. Penitential stations now sur. graceful. From the tower of the round the area ; a large crucifix Capitol we obtained a general view occupies its centre; and indulgences of the chief remains of Rome's great are granted in proportion to the ness, together with the far-spreading number of kisses wbich it receives Campagna, and the course of the from devotees. In the language of muddy Tiber. Directly under us, a forcible writer on this and other and somewhat to the left, were the scenes of ancient and modern Rome, Mamertine prisons,-those gloomy I only add,-“ Erected by a Pagan, abodes of torture and death, in purged of its inhuman rites by a whose sad shadows the great Apos- Priest, and propped in old age by a tle of the Gentiles once lay captive Pope, the Colosseum shadows out and bound ; and near them, rather some faint emblematical picture of more towards the south, the remains Rome itself. It was once the stormy of the temple dedicated to Jupiter theatre of bloody deeds, it is now Tonans, consisting of three exqui- the peaceful asylum of holy crosses. sitely beautiful Corinthian columns, Part of it still stands erect or renoof marble; to the right of these, the vated, part of it totters over its portico of the Temple of Concord; base; but the greater part of it has and to the left, the richly-sculptured vanished. Eloquent in its silence, Arch of Septimius Severus. And populous in its solitude, majestic in there, too, lay the site of the Forum its adversity, admired in its decay, Romanum, all silent and desolate: -the ruins of the Colosseum, like no voice of riveting eloquence is the remains of Rome, excite the there, save that of other days, which curiosity of the antiquary, the rumicomes back on the breeze of fitful nations of the moralist, the zeal of reminiscence. Carrying the eye the Roman Catholic, the admiration onwards to the left, and passing the of the architect, the sigh of the pbi. remains of heathen temples, now lanthropist, the sneer of the cynic, transformed into churches, and bear the humiliation of the pbiloso

pher, and the astonishment of from the Mons Palatinus, and the all!”

heart-humbling history which is Glancing onwards from the Co. embodied in the very name. losseum to the right, the eye rests I feel I must not linger amidst upon the Arch of Constantine, the these hoary remains of the most first Christian Emperor of Rome,– wonderful empire of the world, Christian, alas !—whose way to the crowding as they do upon the meimperial purple was traced in blood. mory, and each claiming a full and As a work of art, it is still noble; as elaborate description. My business a memorial, still valuable; but, in the is rather with that which is now eye of the true Christian, it is a moving and acting in modern blot on the escutcheon of the true Rome. faith. Returning up the Via Sacra, During the Holy Week we availed or Via Triumphalis, we find it ourselves of all opportunities for spanned by the Arch of Titus, watching the ceremonies daily enact. sculptured with the story of Jeru. ed in St. Peter's; and, while marksalem's fall under the Roman arms, ing the conduct of the thousands who and with the symbolic furniture of thronged the area, even while the the temple in bold relief, restored, stated ceremonies were in progress, after a lapse of nearly eighteen cen we could not but notice the utter turies, by a “successor of St. Peter.” listlessness which pervaded them. It Whatever may be the feelings with left an impression on the mind, that which we contemplate the Arch of those who professed to account them Titus and its sculptured trophies, sacred were, nevertheless, entirely and whatever the motive which led unaffected by them. Mere light. to its erection,-whether pride, va. ness and frivolity seemed to pernity, or ostentation,-yet there it vade all ranks, except perhaps a few stands, a record of prophecy ful ascetic Monks, who paced stealthily filled, and of the purposes of Jeho- along, amidst crowds with whom vah accomplished in the destruction they had but little sympathy. On of Jerusalem, the sacking of the one occasion, in the afternoon of temple, and the final dispersion of Good-Friday, turning from the geGod's ancient people ; and there, neral assemblage in the nave of the probably, it will stand, till the city cathedral, we followed a large proof David shall again put on her glo- cession of Ecclesiastics, of various rious apparel, and the now scattered orders, headed by a “ Lord Cardimultitudes of Israel shall say, nal,” attended by his officers of “Blessed be he that cometh in the state, into the northern side aisle, name of the Lord.”

where, after having taken his seat To the right of the Arch of Titus, under an enriched canopy, he reas seen from the Capitol, stands the ceived the public confessions of Palatine-Hill, crowned with the those who chose to make them. crumbling remains of those palaces Hurried, brief, formal was the proin which the Cæsars moved the cess; after which shoals of persons, machinery of Rome's mighty and both lay and ecclesiastical, knelt beonce irresistible empire. Not a trace fore him in succession, and received remains of any thing, but of the his benediction, which was adminisperishableness of earthly greatness; tered by a touch on the head with a and of this there is abundance. small gilt wand, something like a The ploughshare has passed over fishing-rod. Shortly after this the those scenes in which pride, and Pope entered, not in full state, luxury, and cruelty, beld united though abundantly attended ; and, sway; and now rank overgrowth kneeling at a falústool before the and squalid wretchedness are left, high altar, blessed the relics conto declare how the glory which was tained in a vault constructed beneath not after godliness has passed away it. This is a custom of annual like a dream. If Kings and empires observance. were disposed to learn, a rich vo During the Saturday of the Holy lume of instruction is to be gathered Week there is a cessation of cere. Vol. XXIII. Third Series. JANUARY, 1844.

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monies at St. Peter's, and time is I took my station on the south allowed for fixing the various deco- side of the high altar, amidst one of rations, in order to give a stage-like the largest assemblies I ever wit. effect to the sad drama of the fol- nessed ; and, certainly, I must ad. lowing day,—the day on which we mit, one of the most picturesque and celebrate the resurrection from the striking. Perhaps it would not be dead of Him who was delivered easy for the most vivid imagination for our offences, and raised again to conceive any thing more splendid for our justification.” Feeling that and dazzling in its way. And there I ought to embrace every opportu was something, too, in the season of nity of seeing Popery in the magni- the year, the blandness of the atficent form which it assumes atmosphere without, and the bright. head-quarters, in order that future ness of the light wiihin,—that helped protests against it might be based the mind, and stiinulated the imaupon actual experience, I resolved ginative faculty. It was at about on being present at St. Peter's on ten o'clock that the great western Easter-day. Popery as it is can be doors of the cathedral were thrown thoroughly understood only in Rome. wide open, while the choir within We may read of it in books, and sang the introductory anthem. By become intimately enough acquaint- and by, the Papal procession began ed with its dogmas, and doctrines, to enter, advancing up the middle of and discipline; we may trace its in- the nave, which had been kept by sidious workings in our own land, the pontifical guards. The proceswhether it go like the serpent, or sion was headed by soldiers in speak like the lion ; but as to its armour, followed by a large retinue power to influence the mind, by of the civil officers of the Pope, in captivating the imagination, this costume, and a great body of Ecclemust be looked for in Rome.

siastics, Monks, Friars, &c., in the As early as nine o'clock on Eas. various habits of their orders. Then ter Sunday, we found the church came the Patriarch of the Greek thronged by those who were eagerly Church, crowned, accompanied by waiting for the ceremonies of the several Bishops of the same Church, day; while the whole extent of the and their various officers and attendarea was lined by the Papal guards ants; and after them a very large in their picturesque Swiss attire, assemblage of Bishops of the Church keeping a due space for those who of Rome, in their splendid and gold. were to take part in the proceedings. embroidered robes and mitres; next, All Rome was throbbing with life a great number of Cardinals in their and animation. Its week-day dul state-attire of scarlet and purple, ness and moping inactivity were attended by their train-bearers and quite banished. All was glitter, and other officials. It was, perhaps, half glare, and display. Carriages of an hour before those who formed nobles and Cardinals -- the latter the procession had taken the several with their splendid gold and sump- places assigned for them. A large tuous scarlet trappings—thronged space behind the high altar, in the streets, which resounded with which stood the Papal throne, was the clattering of wheels and the carpeted, and superbly decorated cracking of whips. All notion of with gorgeous drapery of crimson Sabbath quiet and peacefulness was and gold, and set apart for the disat an end. I thought of Christ and tinguished members of the proceshis meekness; and asked within sion, except for the Cardinals, whose myself, “ Are these the genuine fol. place was immediately about the lowers of such a Master?” as my high altar, so as to be in attendance eye glanred upon nobles, Cardinals, upon the Pope. As soon as all and inferior Ecclesiastics, Monks, were in their places, a loud flourish pilgrims, and devotees, all pressing of trumpets from without, respouded on together in a current of excited to by another within the cathedral, eagerness, as if to some secular annouaced the arrival of the sove. spectacle.

reign Pontiff himself. Every eye

was turned towards the entrance on The mass was complete ; the host the south side, where there is a was elerated; the idolatrous adoracommunication with the Vatican; tion of the “bread-god” was perand soon was seen the uplifted formed ; and the immense congre. golden cross of the Pope, and next gation began to disperse, in order himself, borne aloft over the heads some to witness, and others to reof the people in his gilded chair of ceive, the Papal benediction from state, under a rich canopy, with fans the front balcony of St. Peter's. of large dimensions made of pea- Following the crowd, I made my cocks' feathers, continually waving way to the grand area without; and from side to side. He wore his it was an overpowering scene, when robes of state, white silk and gold, I beheld its vastness crowded with and his triple crown. He sat more masses of people waiting for the relike an image than a living man, maining ceremony. I cannot say with his eyes for the most part that they appeared like persons exclosed, and occasionally moving his pecting to receive a spiritual benefit; hands, as if in the act of benedic. and so far they were right; but yet tion. His person is far from pre- there they were, alas ! the vassals of possessing, however the weight of a sovereignty which based its magyears upon his brow might entitle nificence upon the ruins of spiritual. him to be called venerable. I should ity. The blue of an Italian sky speak of his countenance as being a hung over us, and the lustre of the bad specimen of the vulgar Italian. brightest sunlight broke upon the He was soon seated on his throne lovely fountains that were casting behind the high altar, and received their misty streams far and wide. the homage of Bishops and others. The great bell of St. Peter's and His triple crown was then removed other bells were tolling, military from his royal brow, and forthwith bands were playing, and all were at offered and deposited on the high the height of expectation, when, at altar; and then, wearing a plain length, bells and inusic suddenly wbite skull-cap instead, he was ar ceased, and a dead silence pervaded rayed no longer in royal, but in the bare-headed and attendant thoupriestly, vestments, for the purpose sands. Immediately the Pope preof saying mass, according to annual sented himself at the middle balcustom. During the whole cere cony, in his full pontifical robes and mony, the Pope, aged as he is, ap- triple crown, borne forward in his peared like a hale and active man. chair of state, and gave the accusThe scene was certainly imposing tomed benediction, signing it, as it and splendid in the extreme; but, were, by the motion of his hands. alas ! no religious feeling could for Some prostrated themselves on the a moment be connected with it. It pavement, while others fell upon seemed altogether a matter of mere their knees, and a few remained external display and ceremonious erect, as mere spectators. As soon pomp; and I could but feel how as the ceremony was complete, a gracious a lot was mine, that I volley of heavy cannon thundered should be a member of a Church from Fort St. Angelo ; again the through which both the bread of military bands burst forth with their life and the water of life are really acclamatory strains, and soon the dispensed to the people. And, alas! area was empty and silent, except as I thought, if a poor guilty and sin- it was traversed by the carriage of a vithered soul, craving after salva- lingering Cardinal or noble, wend. tion, had entered St. Peter's at that ing his way from the splendours of moment, he might have been daz- the Vatican. How sweet and rezled by the church's splendour, so freshing was the simple, scriptural as to have forgotten for a season the worship in which we joined in the burden of his sorrows ; but would afternoon, at the English Protestant have departed without an answer chapel! How affecting the contrast capable of bringing peace and con it presented to all we bad witnessed solation.

in the lifeless formalities of Popery,

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splendid and imposing as they were The Church is every thing, and it to the perception of the carnal does every thing: it leaves scarcely mind!

any thing for man to do for himself. It is quite impossible to convey I believe the Italian mind, generally an idea of the state of Rome during speaking, in its present defective the Holy Week. It is a season state of cultivation, is quite incapawhich seems to afford a strong sti- ble of those intense processes of mulus to the whole sluggish, sen, thought and reflectiveness which sual, and listless population ; and the individual pursuit of spiritual has power to bring up from the truth occasions. There is a mental provinces great numbers of such as diligence and labour connected with delight in a kind of spiritual dissi- real Christian experience, such as pation. When the season is past, the Italian mind is, as yet, unprethe dull habitude of indolent indul- pared to exercise. Hence, then, the gence returns; and, soon afterwards, unlimited influence of a system Rome is deserted by the many who which professes to do for money, shrink from the summer tempera- what cannot be accomplished by ture which is approaching, and from any other means. The sinner rests the malaria which breathes up from his responsibility upon the Church, the Campagna, and carries disease The Church professes to relieve and and death in its course.

cherish; and, while drawing him to Popery seems to be a system be- her maternal bosom, cheats him of yond all others adapted to the tone the “sincere milk of the word,” of the Italian temperament, whose and binds him with a chain stronger prevailing characteristic is indolence. than adamant.

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HISTORICAL MEMORANDA RELATING TO THE “PILGRIM'S

PROGRESS” OF JOHN BUNYAN.*

(For the Wesleyan-Methodist Magazine.) John Bunyan, whom Mr. D'Is- his own well-known autobiographiraeli has fitly designated the “Spen- cal detail, entitled, “ Grace aboundser of the people," was born at ing to the Chief of Sinners : or, a Elstow, near Bedford, in the year brief Relation of the exceeding Mer1628. His parents, according to his cy of God in Christ to his poor own statement, were of the ineaner Servant, John Bunyan;" "namely, class of society. They were, it is in his taking him out of the dungstated, “workers in brass,” or, in hill, and converting him to the faith other words, tinkers, whose profes of his blessed Son Jesus Christ; sion bore to that of a brazier a rela. where is also particularly showed, tionship similar to that which exists what sight of and what trouble he between the cobbler and the shoe- had for sin ; and also what various maker. The education with which temptations he hath met with, and he was favoured was slender and how God hath carried him through defective, such as was accessible to them all." the children of the poor at that Bunyan wrought for his family as period. All the narratives of this an honest and industrious man, and man, which relate to his conversion early became the affectionate husfrom sin to holiness, are, as might band of a deserving wife ; but he be expected, chiefly compiled from was addicted to sin and folly : he

tells us, that he “ was the very ring

leader in all manner of vice and unthis article I am indebted to the Works of John

godliness ;"

and that a woman, Bunyan; his Life, by Southey, and Ivimey; the Christian Observer for 1832 ; and two articles

“though herself a very loose and which have recently appeared in the Gentleman's ungodly wretch, protested that he Magazine, 1843.

swore and cursed at that most fear

* For much of the information contained in

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