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think, was invented by Pope Inno- and such mitigations as the cause cent III., after the Council of Late would bear upon a fair representaran was risen. He owned, he had tion. In a word, authority and docsome scruples concerning commu. trinal points were the two capital nion in one kind; but as for parti- objects; and the first was to be decular points, he thought the best termined before the other could be method would be to choose mode debated. Having received these inrate men deputies on both sides, to structions from Rome, Panzani took draw up the differences in as small the first opportunity to wait on Bia compass as they could, and confer shop Mountague. He omitted not about them.” “And told him, at to acquaint him how much he was parting, that he would take the first admired in Italy, on account of the opportunity to discourse with the many and excellent qualifications he Primate (Laud) on the subject; but was master of. The Bishop, who insinuated that he was a cautious was not a little vain, relished the man, who would make no advances compliment; and returned it, as far unless he were well protected.” as was convenient, upon his ad"This conference between Bishop mirers. He repeated his former disMountague and Panzani being trans course concerning the union ; add. mitted to Rome, the Italians were ing, that he was continually employed extremely pleased with it; and it in disposing men's minds for it, was a great subject of joy, to under- both by words and writing, as often stand that several of the Protestant as he met with an opportunity. He Bishops and Clergy were ready to then again mentioned the Pope's join with the universal Church in supremacy, whose feet, he said, he the article of a spiritual supremacy, was willing to kiss, and acknowand to bearken to an accommoda- ledge himself to be one of his chiltion as to particular matters.” The dren. He added, that the Arch. reply to Panzani from the court of bishop of Canterbury was entirely Rome was, “to inquire into the of his sentiment, but with a great characters of the Protestant Bishops; allay of fear and caution. Then he for, as they were to be employed in renewed the proposal of appointing the projected scheme of union, it deputies on both sides... ....Dr. was requisite to be fully informed George Leyburn assured Panzani, what sort of men they were, and in verbo Sacerdotis, that the Archhow qualified as to learning, morals, bishop of Canterbury encouraged religion, politics, &c., that those the Duchess of Buckingham to rewho were to treat with them might main contented; for in a little time know how to come at them by pro she would see England re-united to per and suitable addresses. But he the See of Rome.” had a strict charge to be very cau “It was not long before there tious and secret in the inquiry. was another interview between PanAbove all things, Panzani was ad. zani and the Bishop of Chichester. vised never to favour the discussion ....Panzani being curious to know of particular points,-the issue of the characters of the chief of the such conferences being always fruit- Protestant Clergy, Mountague told less. Besides, it was never the cus him, there were only three Bishops tom of the Catholic Church to ad- that could be counted violently bent mit of such kind of disputes till the against the Church of Rome ; namefundamental point of a supreme ly, Durham, Salisbury, and Exeter : judge were first settled; for then (Morton, Davenant, and Hall:) the other matters would come in of rest, he said, were very moderate. course. And as there were inany But Panzani received a particular positive laws, or practices out of the character of each Bishop from anolimits of the jus divinum, which were ther hand. It gave an account of disagreeable to the English nation, their age, family, way of life, qualias it was in the power of the Church fications natural and acquired, moto alter them, so they should meet ral and political; and, as far as with all the tenderness imaginable, could be guessed, how - they stood
affected as to the present manage At this point the narrative closes. ment of affairs at court. This ac A superior agent being now in Engcount was carefully transmitted to land, Panzani was recalled, taking a Barberini....... Panzani, once more formal and most complimentary falling on the union, expressed him, leave of both the King and Queen, self in a desponding manner, con
and of the Secretaries of State. sidering the many difficulties with “Nor did he omit to pay his rewhich they had to struggle. Well,' spects to some of the ladies of dissaid the Bishop, ‘had you been ac tinction about court; who, though quainted with this nation ten years Protestants, recommended them. ago, you might have observed such selves to His Holiness, and desired an alteration in the language and in- his blessing." (Page 257.) This clinations of the people, that it was at the end of 1636. Panzani would not only put you in hopes of was kindly received at Rome; and an union, but you would conclude was rewarded, first, with a canonry, it was near at hand.' Then he so and afterwards with the bishopric of lemnly declared, that both he and Mileto. The whole of these details many of his brethren were prepared occur, incidentally, in the course of to conform themselves to the me a much more minute narrative of thod and discipline of the Gallican the internal equabbles of the Jesuits Church, where the civil rights were and other Papists in England, touchwell guarded ; and as for the aver ing the residence of a Romish Bision we discover in our sermons and shop here. This sectarian controprinted books, they are things of versy forms the bulk of the work; form, chiefly to humour the populace, and it was for its sake the whole and not to be much regarded.' history was published by Mr. Be
Among those of the Episcopal rington, himself a Romish Priest, in order who seemed to desire an the year 1793. We are much inunion, none appeared more zealous debted to him for this little history than Dr. Goodman, of Gloucester, of the schemes of Charles, and who every day said the Priest's Mountague, and the rest of the Office, and observed several other traitors; but these were not upperduties as practised in the court of most in his mind when he gave Rome.
narrative to the world.
The point, however, most worthy *“Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, of notice, is, the exact identity of privately repaired to the Archbishop of Canterbury, acquainting him that he could not in his
the movement towards Rome in conscience subscribe the new Canons.
1634–1640, and the similar more peared, afterwards, that he scrupled some pas ment in 1834-1840. In every par. sages about the corporal presence; but whether ticular (except that of the rank of upon Popish or Lutheran principles, he best knoweth himself. The Archbishop advised him
the parties concerned) the resem. to avoid obstinacy and singularity therein. How
blance is complete. The desire for ever, the next day, when we all subscribed the a re-union by Windebank and MounCanons, (suffering ourselves, according to the order of such meetings, to be all concluded by ceived it fit some lawyers should first be on the majority of votes, though some of us in the sulted with, how far forth the power of a Synod Committee privately dissenting in the passing of in such cases did extend. He added, momentet, many particulars,) he alone utterly refused his that the threefold admonition of a Bishop ouzht subscription thereunto. Whereupon the Arch solemnly to be done, with some considerable bishop, being present with us in King Henry the intervals betwixt them, in which the party might Seventh's chapel, was highly offended at him. have time of convenient deliberation. However, *My Lord of Gloucester,' said he, 'I admonish some days after, he was comunitted by the you to subscribe ;' and presently after, “My King's command, as I take it) to the Gate-house Lord of Gloucester, 1 admonish you the second prison; where he got by his restraint, what be time to subscribe ;' and immediately after, 'I could never have gained by his liberty; namels, admonish you a third time to subscribe.' To all of one reputed Popish, to become for a short which the Bishop pleaded conscience, and re time popular, as the only confessor suffering, kar turned a denial. Then were the judgments of not subscribing the Canons." Thus far Fuller. the Bishops severally asked, whether they should The Romish historian Dodd says, that Goodınan proceed to the present suspension of Gloucester, retired from public life, and in his retirement for his contempt herein. Davenant, Bishop of died a member of the Church of Rome, in 1995, Salisbury, being demanded his opinion, con -EDIT.
tague then, is expressed in the same and Church, Monarch and monarchy, words as the same desire by Froude, were to perish together.” (Edinand Newman, and the “ British burgh Review, vol. i., p. 552.) Critic" now. . The points“ boggled And there are frequent symptoms at,” too, are identical. The diffi- of the like condition of utter blindculty on the part of Romanists, in ness now. Only a few days ago, acknowledging the English ordina. we met with the following passage tions, the denial of the cup in the in a Tractarian journal :Lora's supper, and one or two other “ Episcopal Charges are nothing, similar matters, were alleged by the nay, they are worse than nothing, if Bishop and the Secretary in 1636; they be not vigorously followed up.” and the very same points are started “It will be of little use to contine by Dr. Pusey and Mr. Froude now. ourselves to denouncing nonconThe course trodden is the very formity from Episcopal thrones : same. Do men think that it can
conformity must, if needs be, be lead to any other termination ? enforced in
Ecclesiastical Very similar, too, is the vain con Courts.” (English Churchman, Sept. fidence, and the utter ignorance of 1st, 1843.) the real state of public feeling, And this at a moment when one shown in each of these periods. parish in London (Shoreditch) is at Nearly all these public men, Pre open war with its Pastor ; another, lates and Cabinet Ministers, seem (Allhallows, Barking,) by open disto have assured Panzani and his cussion, and a general threat of Italian employers, that the recovery secession, has induced its Incumof England from Protestantism would bent to give way; and three others be an exceedingly easy and simple have similarly prevailed by the genaffair. That any danger should ac tler courses of private persuasion. crue to the Church of England her At a moment when, in Putney, the self, from making the attempt, seems people have subscribed £100 per never to have entered their minds. annum for a Curate, in order to In fact, their ignorance of the real prevent the Rector from preaching state of the country appears to have in his surplice ; and in Ware, have been quite marvellous. “ The Re- resolved to quit the church before port of the state of the provinces of the sermon, rather than bear the Canterbury, as delivered by Laud sight. Enforce conformity by to his master, at the close of the means of the Ecclesiastical Courts ! year 1639, represents the Church of As reasonably expect, at one blow, England as in the highest and most
* To this number another may be added : we palmy state ; there was scarcely the
allude to Marden, in Kent; in which parish a least appearance of dissent. Most
large number of the most influential and wealthy of the Bishops stated that all was inhabitants have seceded from the services of the well among their flocks. Seven or Church of England, in consequence of the out
rageous proceedings of a young gentleman reeight persons in the diocess of Pe
cently appointed Curate, in his rash and inconterborough had seemed refractory to
siderate attempts to introduce the doctrines and the Church, but had made ainple practices of the Romanizing party of Oxford. submission. In Norfolk and Suffolk, How long are the feelings of the godly and Proall whom there had been reason to
testant members of the Church of England to be
tortured and painfully insulted by the nonsensisuspect had made profession of con.
cal and Popish vagaries of certain youths, who, formity, and appeared to observe it
because Episcopal hands have most inconsidestrictly. It is confessed, that there rately been laid upon them, regard themselves was a little difficulty in bringing as justified in riding rough-shod over every truth some of the vulgar in Suffolk to
and usage which constituted the glory of
the Reformation; and which was, until lately, take the sacrament at the rails in
that of the English Church also ? Our Marden the church. This was the only Curate, unmindful of the holy counsels and exopen instance of nonconformity ample of his sainted father, (Mr. David Shaw,) which the vigilant eye of Laud whose memoir appeared on our pages a few could find in all the diocesses of his months ago, (see pp. 353–362,) does not hesitate
to assert,—that the Protestant Church of Engtwenty-one suffragans, on the very land has far more to fear from Wesleyanism, eve of a revolution in which Primate than from Popery! What next?-EDIT.
to turn all the Dissenters in the tators of those High-Churchmen of country into Churchmen by an Act past days are very likely to involve of Parliament.
themselves in some such calamities It is surprising how few persons as befell these two zealous but wrong. there are who appear to be able, or, headed men. The Church is no in short, who appear even to at- longer threatened; but let her not tempt, to forin a right estimate of mistake her real position, and begia the state of public opinion. The to threaten others. Church of England has, indeed, What is the actual change which made great advances of late years, has taken place since 1832? In has intrinsically improved ; and is, that year three Rectors met, in a in real effectiveness, far more power parsonage in the west of England; ful than she was ten years ago. and, after having conversed on the About this advance there is no kind apparent perils of the times, the of doubt; but grievous is the mis- senior of the three exclaimed, on calculation which many vehement breaking up the conference, “Well, partisans ground upon it. They you may take my word for it, that evidently imagine, that, because the neither of us three will be in occudanger of 1833 has passed over, and pation of his parsonage on this day the Church is at ease, and in com three years !” parative safety, therefore she does, There is a floating mass of vague in fact, possess the country, and can and indefinite opinion, which at that do with dissidents and irregulars as moment was felt to be in opposition she thinks fit.
to the Church. The Reform-Bill Such dreamers should endeavour mania had brought "reforms” of to get a closer view of facts. For all description into fashion; the Biinstance : let them institute an ac- shops, and the Clergy generally, curate inquiry into the actual pro were charged with opposing them. portion of the population which is selves to the public will; and it was really attached to the Church. Let felt that if any question could at them go to such immense parishes that moment be brought to issue, in as Shoreditch and Bethnal-green, which the existence of the Estaband see whether, out of masses of lishment was involved, the strongest population extending to seventy or probability existed that the vote eighty thousand in each parish, they would go against the Church. can find so many as seven or eight In two or three years afterwards, hundred men, or in the proportion the feelings of men had greatly of one-hundredth of the whole com altered. The furor of the Reform munity, attending the worship of frenzy was over; men began to be the Church on any one Sunday. somewhat tired of the endless repeOr if it be said, that these are neg. tition of the phrase ; and now the lected and heathenish districts, we Church had fallen into the humble will turn to the other extremity of position of a trembling sufferer; London, and take such parishes as while Dissent, in all its varied forms St. John's, St. Margaret's, or St. of hostility, was clamouring against Clement's, in Westminster. In which her. of these can there be found so large The multitude, too, were not Dis. a proportion as one-twentieth of the senters, any more than they were male inhabitants regularly attending Churchmen. In 1832 they bad been the services of the Church ?
wroth with the Bishops, regarding The moral view of this state of them as opposed to the Reform Bill. things is deplorable; but it is not That quarrel was nearly forgotten, that which we are now contemplat- and now men began to regard the ing: we are looking, at this mo Church as the best form of religion ment, at the political state of the that they knew of, and the Dissent. people. And we simply wish to ers as malicious and unfair assailwarn those who revert with delight ants. From the autumn of 1834, to to the doings of Thomas à Becket the present moment, the stream has and Archbishop Laud, that any imi- continued to move in this direction,
But there are symptoms already of this explains their ardent desire, an ebb; and when it begins to flow now often visible, to be summoned back, it will run with great power to the attack. But greatly would and rapidity.
they be amazed at the result, if their The Tractarian writers, of whom desire could be at once indulged, we have already quoted one, seem and they could, without further de. to pant for an encounter with the lay, be brought into immediate col. whole public, and really to dream of lision with the whole British puba victory. Let them well consider lic. the vast difference that often is ex. It is quite evident, therefore, that perienced between acting on the in anything resembling a contest, offensive, and on the defensive. the “ecclesiastical agitators" must
It is true that Mr. Newman occu receive a defeat. The only thing to pies, in one respect, a similar posi- be dreaded would be, their inveigling tion to that of Daniel O'Connell, in some Diocesan, or other ecclesiasti. Ireland. Both are agitating for a cal authority, into taking a promi. change ; both have promised their nent part in the affair ; and so infollowers a change : both will be felt volving higher interests than their to be virtually defeated, if the Union own, and hazarding more serious in Ireland, on the one hand, and the results than their own discomfiture. Church of England, on the other, At present, however, we can purshould remain unchanged.
sue this subject no further. We Hence it happens true that the have given our readers a hasty Tractarians, having occupied the sketch of a very interesting piece of post of " ecclesiastical agitators” for interior history. And to the Tractaseveral years, and having trained up rians we only offer, in the most a body of young disciples, with ar- friendly feeling, this one piece of dent hopes of some practical results, advice,-to ponder well the last ten do now very naturally begin to feel months of Laud's life, before they a necessity of doing something; and aim at copying the last ten years.
The Religion of Ancient Britain ; or, a succinct Account of several Religious
Systems which have obtained in this Island from the earliest Times to the Norman Conquest ; including an Investigation into the early Progress of Error in the Christian Church, the Introduction of the Gospel into Great Britain, and the State of Religion in England till Popery had gained the Ascendancy. By George Smith, F.A.S., &-c., &c. i2mo.
pp. xii, 550. Longman. It has justly been remarked by a reader is not to expect a minute celebrated writer on the history of and complete investigation of all the Britain, that nothing can be more various subjects which are introinconsistent with that perfect inte. duced into the work. To have grity and sacred regard to truth, attempted this, would have so far which are so essential to the cha- enlarged the undertaking, that, inracter of a true historian, than to stead of being what our author attempt to raise expectations in the seems anxious to term “a small public, which an author is not able, volume, within a convenient comand doth pot design, to gratify. To pass, and at a reasonable price,” prevent even a suspicion of anything numerous volumes would have been of that kind with regard to the vo- necessary to have exhibited what the lume now before us, it is but justice writer was able, and what he wishto. Mr. Smith to observe, that the ed, to communicate. On the prin.