« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
Indeed, among the many translators Erasmus is justly entitled to the gratiof ancient Greek authors who flou tude and admiration of posterity, for rished in the beginning of the six his constant promotion of the inteteenth century, Erasmus seems in all rests of learning and science; and respects to have been the most emi for his persevering exertions in the nent. The example which he set in cause of virtue and true religion. studying that language was quickly The biographical sketch of this great followed, and he soon had the plea and estimable man, drawn by the sure of seeing Grecian literature suic hand of Knight, is peculiarly frigid cessfully cultivated throughout the and uninteresting; but his life has whole of Europe. His versions also since been most ably and impartially of some of the plays of Terence and written by the learned Dr. Jortin. Plautus are far above mediocrity.
D. F. --As a literary and moral character,
(To be continued.)
THE BOOK WORM.
If that olde bokes were awaie,
The Visions of Don Francisco de Quevedo Villegas, Knight of the Order of
St. James. Made English by Sir Roger L'Estrange. London: 1696. FEW books were more popnlar than fashion of the times in which he lived. this when it was first published in His wit is of the most genuine sort, England. It had several translators, though it is sometimes tinged with and many editions were printed in an that coarseness of expression which incredibly short space of time. We was the fault of the earlier days. This have taken that of Sir RogerL'Estrange objection applies however only to the for our present purpose ; because, terms of his writing, for their object though he was not so well qualified for is to advocate the cause of virtue, and the task by his knowledge of the Spa- support pure morality, by exposing the nish tongue as Captain Stevens and hideousness of vice; and to encourage some others, yet his translation is mankind in honourable and worthy executed with a racy humour and a pursuits, by shewing them the absureaustic wit which comes nearest to the dity as well as the wickedness of opspirit of Quevedo. In point of lite- posite courses.
There is no weapon rary correctness it is frequently defec so much dreaded by those vices which tive; tbis, however, is a fault which are above or below the law, those conwe can easily forgive, on account of ventional offences which spring from the translator's other excellencies,
a corrupt and profligate state of soQuevedo enjoyed a great reputation in ciety, as ridicule ; the keenness adds his own time; he was a nobleman and to the severity of the blow, and where soldier, but found time to mingle the it falls it makes a mark which all the delights of literary employment with world join in laughing at. It has been the more rude business of his life. the opinion of some of the most pious Besides the book before us, he was and enlightened Churchmen of this as the author of some poetry which stands well as of other countries, that the very high among that of his nation, interests of true religion are more and some other satirical and humour- effectually served, and her enemies ous works, to which perhaps at another more absolutely suppressed, by means opportunity we shall call the attention of well-directed satire, than by any of our readers. He was a man of ex more serious exertions. To have suctensive accomplishments, profound ceeded eminently in this is Quevedo's learning, and great experience. His greatest praise. His wit and his mowritings are distinguished for a severe rality are equally remarkable, and he tone of powerful satire opon the pre- always makes the former subservient vailing follies of mankind, and the to the latter. In the first vision, he
pretends to have seen a priest exor and suited to the Trade thcy drive. cising a possessed Alguazil ; the de- Some are condemn'd to hear other vil, compelled to obey the exorcisms Mens works : (and this is the Plague of the holy man, answers the re of the Fidlers too) We have others proaches which have been made to that are in for a Thousand Years, and bim, by showing that the sins of men yet still poring upon some old Stanare greater than those of the devils. za's they have made of Jealousie.” The author by means of this vehicle He puts some other questions to the has some powerful bits at the vice and Devil relative to the state of the inferfolly of the world, which in spite of all pal regions, and the manner in which modern improvements seems to have mortals are treated there. The demon been much the same then as it conti- is extremely complaisant in answering nues in the present day :
all his enquiries, and having done so, “ Bat tell me now,” said the priest, he says, “ what makes thee torment him thus ? “ so much for your Curiosity, a Nothing in the World, quoth the word now for your Instruction. If Deril, but a Contest betwixt him and you would make an Interest in Hell, me, which was the greater Devil of the you must give over that Roguish way Tro.
ye have got of abusing the Devils in “ The Conjurer did not at all relish your Sbows, Pictures and Emblems : these wild and malicious Replies ; but One while forsooth we are painted to me the Dialogue was extream with Claws, or Talons, like Eagles or pleasant, especially being by this time Griffons. Another while we are drest a little familiariz'd with the Devil. up with Tails, Ilke so many HackneyUpon which Confidence, my good Fa- Jades with their Fly-flaps : And now ther said I, here are none but Friends; and then ye shall see a Devil with a and I may speak to you as my Con- Corcomb. Now I will not deny, but fessor, and the Confident of all the some of us may indeed be very well secrets of my soul; I have a great taken for Hermites and Philosophers. mind with your leave, to ask the Devil If you can help us in this point, do; a few Questions, and who knows but and we shall be ready to do ye one a Man may be the better for his good Turn for another. I was asking Answers, though perchance contrary to Michael Angelo here a while ago, why his intention! keep him only in the he drew the Devils in his great Piece interim from tormenting this poor of the Last Judgment, with so many Creature. The Conjurer granted my Monkey Faces, and Jack-Pudding Posrequest, and the Spirit went on with tures. His answer was, That he folhis babble. Well, says he smiling, lowed his Fancy, without any Malice the Deril shall never want a Friend at in the World, for as then, he had neCourt, so long as there's a Poet within ver seen any Devils ; nor (indeed) did the Walls. And indeed the Poets do he believe that there were any; but he us many a good turn, both by Pimp has now learned the contrary to his ing and otherwise; but if you, said cost. There's another thing too we he, should not be kind to us (looking take extreamly ill, which is, that in upon me) you'l be thought very un your ordinary Discourses, ye are out grateful, considering the Honour of with your Purse presently to every your Entertainment now in Hell. I Rascal, and calling of bim Devil. As ask't him then what store of Poets for Example. Do you see how this they had ? whole swarms, says the Devil of a Taylor has spoil'd my suit ? Devil; so many, that we have been how the Devil has made me wait? fore'd to make room for them : Nor is how that Devil has Couzen'd me, fe. there any thing in Nature so pleasant which is very ill done, and no small as a Poet in the first Year of his pro disparagement to our Quality, to be bation ; he comes ye laden forsooth, rank'd with Taylors." with Letters of Recommendation to The author then pursues his enour Superiours, and enquires very quiries : gravely for Charon, Cerberus, Rhada “ I hope, (said I) there are manthus, Xacus, Minos.
Judges in Hell. You may as well * Well, said I, but what's their imagine (cry'd the Spirit) that there punishment (for I began now to make are no Devils there ; for what are those the Poets case my own)? their Punish- Millions of Catchpoles, Proctors, Atmenis, quoth the Deril, are many, turneys, Clerks, Barristers, that come
sailing to us every day in Shoals, but with his Tongue; the Valiant with his the Fry of corrupt Judges ! Nay, Arm; The Musician with his Voice sometimes, in a lucky year, for Cheat and Fingers ; the Astrologer, with lois ing, Forging, and Forswearing, we Calculations ; The Apothecary, with can hardly find Cask to put them in. Sickness and Health ; the Surgeon,
“ From hence now, (quoth I) would wiib Blood; and the Physician, with you infer, that there's no Justice upon Death it self; And in some sort or the face of the earth. Very right other, they are all Cheats; but the (quoth the Devil) for Astræa (which is Catchpole (in the name of Justice) the same thing) is fled long since to abuses you, with his whole Man; He Heaven. Do not ye know the story? watches you with his Eyes; Follou's no (said I) then (yuoth the Devil) you with his feet ; Seizes with his mind me and I'll tell ye it.
Hands ; accuses with his Tongue ; And “ Once upon a time Truth and Jus- in tine, put it in your Litany. From tice came together to take up their Catchpoles, as well as Devils, Libera Quarters upon the Earth ; but the one nos, Domine," þeing naked, and the other very se We do not know any satirist who vere and plain dealing, they could not has a more forcible or a more witty meet with any body that would ré vein than flows through the above exceive them. At last, when they bad tract. He goes on to say something wander'd a long time like Vagabonds of theladies; though having not onlythe in the open Air, Truth was glad to fear of their anger bcfore our eyes, but take up her Lodging with a Miute; believing also that some of his severiand Justice, perceiving that though her ties would not apply to the sair sex of name was much used for a Cloak to
the present day, and therefore we shall Knavery, yet that she her self was in pass this sub silentio. no Esteem, took up a resolution of re The second Vision is of « Death turning to Heaven: And in order to and her Empire." He supposes, that her Journey, she bad adieu in the having fallen asleep over his Lucrefirst place to all Courts, Palaces, tins, after reading the beautiful euloand great Cities, and went into the gium on the Epicurean system, he Country,, where she met with some dreamed, his fancy supplying both the few poor simple Cottagers, that gave stage and the company. her Entertainment; but Malice and In the first Scene enter'd a Troop Persecution found her out in the end, of Physicians, upon their Mules, with and she was banished thence too. She deep Foot-clotlis; marching in no very presented her self in many places, and good Order, sometine fast, sometime People askt her what she was! She slow, and to say the truth, most comanswered them, Justice, for she would nionly in a huddle. They were all not lye for the matter. Justice ? (cry'd wrinkled and wither'd about the eyes; they) she is a Stranger to us; tell her bearded like Goats ; and their Faces here's nothing for her, and shut the so over-grown with Hair, that their door. Upon these rep!Ises, she took Fingers could hardly find the way to wing, and away she went to Heaven, their Mouths. In the left Hand they hardly leaving 50 much as the bare held the Reins, and their Gloves print of her footsteps behind her. Her rould up together ; and in the right a name however is not yet forgotten), Stafl à la Mode, which they carried and she's Pictured with a Scepter in rather for Countenance than Correcher Hand, and is still called justice ; tion ; (for they understood no other but call her what ye will, she makes as Menage than the Heel) and all along good a Fire in Hell as a Taylor ; and Head and Body went too, like a Bafor slight of Hand, puts down all the ker upon his Panniers. Divers of Jilts, Cheats, Picklocks and Trepan- them I observed, had huge Gold ners in the World: to say the truth, Rings upon their fingers, and set Avarice is grown to that height, that with Stones of so large a size, that Men employ all the faculties of Soul they could hardly feel a Patients and Body io Rob, and Deceive. The Pulse, without minding him of his Atturney picks your Pockets, and shew Monument. There were more than you a Law for't ; The Comedian gets a good many of them, and a world of your Money and your time, with re Puny Practicers at their heels, that citing other Mens Labours; the Lover came out Graduates, by conversing cozens you with his Eyes; thc Eloquent rather with the Mules than the Doc
tors: Well! said I to my self, if there Sheephooks, Pattins, Hob-nail'd-Shoes, goes no more than this to the making Tiares, Straw-Hats, Mitres, Monmoutha Physician, it is no marvel we Pay so Caps, Embroideries, Skins, Silk, Wool, dear for their Experience.
Gold, Lead, Diamonds, Shells, Pearl, * After these, follow'd a long Train and Pebles : She was drest up in all of Mounttbank - Apothecaries, laden the Colours of the Rainbow ; she had with Pestles and Moriars, Supposito- one Eye shut, the other open, young ries, Spatulas, Glister-Pipes, and Sy- on the one side, and old o' the other. ringes, ready charg'd, and as mortal I thought at first, she had been a great as Gun-shot, and several Titled Boxes, way off, when indeed she was very with Remedies without, and Poysons near me, and when I took her to be at tithin. Ye may observe, that when a my Chainber-Door, she was at my Patient comes to die, The Apotheca Beds head. How to unriddle this ries Mortar rings the Passing-Bell, as Mystery I knew not; nor was it posthe Priest's Requiem finishes the busi- sible for me to make ont the meaning Dess. An Apothecaries Shop, is (in of an Equipage so Extravagant, and effect) no other than the Physicians so Fantastically put together. gave Armory, that supplies him with Wea me no aflright however, but on the pons ; and (to say the truth,) the In- contrary I could not forbear laughing, struments of the Apothecary and the for it came just then into my mind, Soldier, are much of a Quality? What that I had formerly seen in Italy a are their Bores but Peturils? Their Farce, where the Mimick, pretending Syringes, Pistols, and their Pills, but to come from the other World, was Bullets! And after all, considering just thus Accoutred, and never was their Purgative Medicines, we may any thing more Nonsensically pleaproperly enough call their Shops Pure sant. I held as long as I could, and gatory ; and why not their Persons at last, I askt what she was? Sho Heil? Their Patients the Damo'd ? answer'd me, I am Death Death ! And their Masters the Devils ?
(the very word brought my Heart into “ lo the tail of these, came the my Mouth) and I beseech you madam, Surgeons, laden with Pincers, Crane- quoth I (with great Humility and bills, Catheters, Desquamatories, Dila- Respect) whither is your Honour a ters, Scissers, Saus ; and with them so going? No further (said she) for now borrid an Outcry of Cut, Tear, Open, I have found you, I am at my JourSuw, Fliy, Burn, that my Bones were ney's End. Alas, Alas! and must I ready to creep one into another, for die then, (said I) No, no, (quoth fear of an Operation.”
Death) but I'll take thee Quick along Then follow a troop of tooth-draw- with me: For since so many of the ers, who are succeeded by a company Dead have been to visit the Living, it of barbers; then the loud and telious is but equal for once, that one of the talkers ; then the liars ; then the med- Living should return a Visit to the lers; all of whom are admirably cha- Dead. Get up then and come along: racterised.
For what you will pot do willingly, His description of Death 'has a you shall do in spight of your Teeth. rough sublimity, which is happily This put me in a Cold Fit; but withmingled with his humorous tone. The out more delay, up I started, and desubject is trite enough ; painters as sired leave only to put on my Breeches. well as poets have tasked their inven- No, no, (said she) no matter for Cloths, tions to express the attributes of the no body wears them upon this road ; edax rerum ; but of the moderns none wherefore come away, naked as you have succeeded more happily than our are, and you'll Travel the better. So Spaniard.
up I got, without a word more and *** I began then to take into thought, follow'd her ; in such a Terrour and what might be the meaning of this Amazement, that I was but in an ill Oglio of People of several Conditions Condition to take a strict account of and Humours met together; but I was my Passage ; yet I remember, that quickly diverted from that Considera- upon the way. I told her: Madam, tion, by the Apparition of a Creature under Correction you are no more which lookt as if 'twere of the Femi- like the Deaths that I have seen, than nine Gender. It was a Person, of a an Apple's like an Oyster. Our Death thin and slender make, laden with is Pictur’d with a Scyth in her lland, Crowns, Garlands, Scepters, Scythes, and a Carcass of Bones, as clean, as
if the Crows had pick'd it: Yes, yes, Going on further, he sees Judgment , (said she,) turning short upon me, I and Hell; and stopping to look at the . know that very well; but in the mean latter, upon Death's asking him the time your Designers, and Painters, cause of his curiosity,
“ I told her," are but a company of Buzzards. The says he, " that I had seen it in the Bones you talk of, are the dead, or Corruption and Avarice of Wicked Maotherwise the miserable remainders of gistrales ; in the Pride and Haughtiness the Living ; but let me tell you, that of Grandees ; in the Appetites of the you yourselves are your own Death, Voluptuous ; in the Lewd Designs of and that which you call Death, is but Ruine and Revenge ; in the Souls of the Period of your Life, as the first mo- Oppressors ; and in the Vanity of diment of your birth, is the beginning of vers Princes. But he that would see your Death: And effectually, ye Die it whole, and entire, in one Subject, Living, and your Bones are no more must go to the Hypocrite, who is a than what Death bas left, and commit- kind of a Religious Broker, and puts ted to the Grave. If this were rightly out at Five and Forty per Cent. the understood, every Man would find a very Sacraments, and Ten CommandMemento Mori, or a Death's Head in ments." his own Looking-glass; and consider They then proceed to a spacious every House with a Family in't, but plain, where Death holds her judgas a Sepulehre fill'd with dead Bodies; ment seat, which is thus described : a Truth which you little dream of, “ I rais'd my Eyes, and saw Death though within your dayly View and seated in her Chair of State, with Experience. Can you imagine a Death abundance of little Deaths crowding. elsewbere, and not in your selves? about her ; as the Death of Love, of Believ't y’are in a shameful Mistake, Cold, Hunger, Fear, and Laughter ; for you your selves are Skeletons be- all, with their several Ensigns and fore ye are aware."
Devices. The Death of Love, I perUnder the auspices of Death, he ceived, had very little Brain, and to journeys through the shadowy patls, keep her self in Countenance, she in which he sees three armed figures kept Company with Pyramus and of human shape, and opposite them a Thisbe ; Hero and Learder, and some bideous monster, with whom they Amadis's, and Palmerins d'Oliva; all were engaged in a fierce combat. Embalm’d, steep'd in good Vinegar, Death explains to him that the three and well dry’d. I saw a great many first were the World, the Flesh, and other sorts of Lovers too, that were the Devil.
brought, in all Appearance, to their “ But what's He bere said I, that last Agonies, but by the singular Miappears in so many several shapes, racle of self-Interest recover'd to the and fights against the other three ? Tune of That (quoth Death) is the Devil of
Will, if looking well won't move her, Money, who maintains, that He him
Looking ill prevail ! self Alone, is Equivalent to them Three, and that wherever He comes, “ The Death of Cold, was attended there's no need of Them. Against the by a many Prelates, Bishops, Abbots, World He argues from their own Con- and other Ecclesiasticks ; who had neifession, and Experience: For it passes ther Wives, nor Children, nor indeed for an Oracle, that There's no World any body else that cared for them, furbut Money ; he that's out of Money, is ther than for their fortunes. These, out of the World. Take away a Man's when they come to a Fit of Sickness, Money, and take away his Life. Money are Pillag'd, even to their Sheets and answers all things. Against the Second Bedding, before ye can say a PaterEnemy, he pleads that Money is the Noster, Nay, many times they are Flesh too. And against the Third, stript, e'er they are laid, and destroy'd He urges, that there's nothing to be for want of Cloaths to keep them done without this Devil of Money. Love does much, but Money does all: The Death of Hunger was encomAnd Money will make the Pot boyl, passed with a Multitude of Avaritious though the Devil put out the Fire, So Misers, that were Cording up of that for ought I see (quoth I) the De- Trunks ; Bolting of Doors and Winvil of Money has the better end of the dows ; Locking up of Cellars and GarStaff.”
rets; and Vailing down of Trap-Dours;