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pounding, and the hammering, were “ No! by the power that made me! performed without the noises usually —No! and if, perchance, my vain and attendant upon such operations; and I romantic wishes should have placed me had not heard one sound by which I in the power of a fiend, my repentance could ascertain my own existence, till will carry me beyond him, and Rudenfranck exclaimed:
sistance shall foil his temptations." “ How now ?- said I well, Raymond I can scarcely tell what followed, but Mortlake? Is not this the true Mine of I saw Rudenfranck wave his hand over Zellerfeld ? The idiots above ground his ead and say, “Come, for it is done,” are toiling for they know not what: and immediately one of the Fire-damp let them dig deeper and be wiser.” spirits rose in the air, a loud explosion
It was not without a feeling of dis- succeeded ; I again sank senseless on gust at my companion, and a shudder the ground, and remember no more. ing as I addressed him, that I replied, Upon my recovery I found myself in a
I “ And what are these, whose labours miner's hut, but above ground, and are confined to such deeps as mortal several workmen belonging to the Mine never visits."
were standing round me, using various “ These," said Rudenfranck, “ methods for my recovery. From these the Metal-makers and Mine-dwarfs, who humane labourers, I was informed that perform all the offices of your race in soon after my entrance into the mine, a nine years; never witnessing old age thick white yapour, which they term nor its attendant miseries; but live, ge- balloon, had exploded ; that it had nerate, and die in the treasure cham- blown up a part of the mine which had bers of the earth.”
been supposed to be haunted, and had “ And those who flew upwards," I been long since disused ; and that I had answered, “what were they?"
been wounded and thrown down by not “The Ore-carriers, and the Fire-damp, having properly avoided the gaseous and the Balloon, and the Vapour-sprites: discharge. All this was unintelligible but come, Raymond Mortlake, if you to me, for neither the time nor the cirwill be an immortal Miner, sign your cumstances agreed with what I had seen name in this register, and leave the up- and heard ; but my wonder was greatper world and its poverty for the bound- ly increased, when they told me, that less riches of the Mines.”
no one was seen to enter the bucket As he spake he held towards me a with me when I first descended; and large volume, bound in massive silver, that the youngest miner in Westphalia with a pen, but at that moment the had heard of, and feared to encounter, whole force of my character returned Ruden franck, the Red Devil of Zellerto me, and dashing the book from me, feld. I cried,
THE BIRTH OF THE DIMPLE.
CUPID once toying with his mother fair,
Thy lovely cheeks-they now more beauteous seem.”
THE METAMORPHOSES OF LIFE.
In nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas
Opes irritementa Malorum.
COUSIN SARAH TO COUSIN SUSAN.
On! dear cousin Susan, such news I've to send,
I wouldn't, dear Susan, accept of a Viscount.
But a Duke, or an Earl, or a Marquiss, dear Sue,
D, E. W.
ESSAY ON POPE'S ART OF CRITICISM.
(Continued from page 253.) IN the former part of this essay, we novelty and beauty of the experiment, took a short review of the subject of the minds of the literati were immediPope's “ Art of Criticism,” and of the ately turned towards the construction author's design in writing it; with a few and improvement of their native tongue; observations on the characters of the and, eight years after the publication of most celebrated critics of ancient and the Toxophilus, appeared for the first modern times. We now proceed to
time a work, which could with proprieremark the great improvement made ty be termed a book of Criticism. This since its first appearance, in literature valuable composition was Wilson's Arte in general, but more especially in the of Rhetorike, published in 1552."* art of Criticism; to select from the It was shortly afterwards succeeded by poem such passages as deserve atten- his Arte of Logic, and translations of tion for their novelty or elegance; and some of Demosthenes' Orations. Of the lastly, to point out such as appear to Arte of Rhetorike, Mr. Warton, the have been taken from or suggested by historian of English poetry, has obthe works of other authors.
served that “it is liberal and discursive, We are first to observe the great im- illustrating the arts of eloquence by exprovement, made in the art of Criticism ample, and examining and ascertaining since the period, at which this poem was the beauties of composition, with the written. “ And here,” to use the words speculative skill and sagacity of a criof a learned and judicious writer, on tic. It may therefore,” he adds, “be this subject, “in order to ascertain justly considered as the first book or with due precision the merits of Pope system of Criticism in our language." as a critic, it will be necessary to consi- These productions, which we have just der,what previous steps had been taken mentioned, gave the spur to genius, and for the advancement of this branch of other critical works followed in rapid literature. Before we proceed there succession, which may be classed in the fore to estimate more particularly the following order; Roger Ascham's value and utility of what he has left Schoolmaster, published in 1570, a work us in this department, it will be proper which, like his Toxophilus, exhibits a to dwell, for a short time, on the origin very improved model of style, and deand progress of English Criticism, and servedly holds a very high rank in the to trace its course to the nineteenth estimation of scholars; in 1575, Gascentury."
coigne's Instruction concerning the ma“Little attention had been paid to, king of English Rhyme ; in 1582, Muland few books of any worth published caster's Elementaire, or Rules concernin, English prose; before the middle of ing the right writing of the English the sixteenth century. Those, who as- Tongue : in 1586, Webb's Discourses pired to the character of learning, neg- of English Poetry, with the Author's lected the vernacular, for the Latin Judgment touching the Reformation of tongue, in which alone they could hope English Verse ; Puttenham's Arte for an extended circulation of their of English Poesie in 1589; Thynne's ideas. We may indeed date the first Notes on Chaucer in 1590; Harringattempt to raise a model of English ton's Apology of Poetrie in 1591; Sir style, from the Toxophilus of Roger As- Philip Sidney's adınirable Defence of cham, which appeared in 1544. This Poesy in 1595; Mere's Palladis Tancia, treatise was composed professedly with or \Vit's Treasurie in 1598; Campion's the view of shewing with what ele- Observations on the Arte of English gance, purity, and precision, the lan- Poesie in 1602; Daniel's Defence of guage might be written, and of giving Rhyme in 1603 ; Lord Bacon's Essay an example of diction more natural and on the Advancement of Learning in more truly English than was used by 1605; and in 1610, his celebrated treathe common writers of that age. The tise On the Wisdom of the Ancients ; consequence of this attempt was such as Bolton's Hypercritica, which was writits ingenious author had' in view. In ten in 1617, though not published till fact, English Criticism owes its birth 1722; and Ben Jonson's Discoveries, to this production; for, struck with the given to the world, after his death, in
* Drake's Biographical Essays, vol. 2.
1640. This treatise and Sir Phillip Virgil, Remarks on Ovid's MetamorSidney's Defense of Poesy have been phoses, Critique on Paradise Lost, Esdeclared, by a judicious critic, to be the says on Tragedy and on True and False two best pieces which, previous to the Wit, and many others which adorn the .prefaces of Dryden, our ancient school pages of the Spectator; Walsh's Preof Criticism afforded. In 1636, Sir face to Dryden's Translation of Virgil's John Denham wrote his poem on the Eclogues ; Dr. Bentley's Remarks on Progress of Learning, and Preface to Collins, and Dissertation on the Epishis translation of the second Book of tles of Phalaris ; the Essays of Shefthe Æneid; in 1660, Cornwallis his field and Roscommon; and Pope's PreDiscourses upon Seneca; and in 1667, face to his Pastorals, the Preface to Dryden his Essay on Dramatic Poesy, the edition of his poems in 1717, the Preface to the Fables, and Discourse Preface to his Translation of the Iliad, on the Origin and Progress of Satire. and the Postcript to his version of the In 1672, appeared Sir William Temple's Odyssey. These are the principal Essays on Poetry and on Ancient and works, which appeared before or about Modern Learning; in 1675, Philips's the period, at which the Essay on CritiTheatrum Poetarum, in the compo- cism was published. In latter times, .sition of which he is said to have re- we have had Hurd's Remarks on Hoceived the advice and assistance of his race ; Fenton's Observations on Waller; uncle Milton; in 1678, Rymer's Short Dr. Young's Observations on Original View of Tragedy, and in 1693, his Re. Composition, written in 1759; Farmer's flections on Shakspeare, and Preface to Essay on the Learning of Shakspeare ; Rapin; in 1690, Lord Lansdown's Es- Bishop Warburton's Commentaries on say on Unnatural Flights in Poetry; Horace's Art of Poetry, and Pope's in 1694, Dr. Wotton's Reflections upon Essay on Man, Dr. Jortin's ObservaAncient and Modern Learning, written tions on Ancient and Modern Authors, to confute some of the principles con- and Life of Erasmus ; Blackwell's tained in Temple's Essay on the same Inquiry into the Life and Writings of subject; and in 1695, Hume's Commen- Homer ; Wood's Essay on the Original tary on Milton's Paradise Lost. “This Genius of Homer ; Godwin's Life, and Jast production may be considered as Tyrioliott's Essay on the Language and the first attempt to illustrate an English Versification of Chaucer; Hughes's Disclassic by copious and continued notes; course on Allegorical Poetry ; Spence's an example, which has been followed in Essay on Pope's Translation of the the last and present centuries, with re- Odyssey ; Brown's Essay on Satire ; gard to Shakspeare, on a very extended Mallet's Essay on Verbal Criticism ; scale.” The notes of Hume, though Thomas Warton's History of English often pedantic and trifling, are not un- Poetry, and Observations on Spencer's frequently replete with entertainment Faery Queen ; Dr. Knox's Moral and and instruction; and, says Warton, suc- Literary Essays, published in 1777 ; ceeding commentators have been often Lord Orrery's Remarks on Swift; amply indebted to them, without even Harris's Hermes ; Lord Kaimes's Ele. the most distant hint of acknowledgements of Criticism ; Mrs. Montague's ment. In 1695 also, Sir Thomas Essay on the Genins and Writings of Blount wrote his Remarks on Poetry, Shakspeare ; the Treatises on Poetry, and Censura Celebrium Auctorum ; a Painting, and Music by Harris, Webb, work of a similar nature to Baillet's
Browne, and Avison; the Dissertations Jugemens des Savans,' In 1696, of Beattie; Blair's Lectures on the Dennis published many critical per- Belles Lettres ; the critical papers in formances, which will be noticed in a the Guardian, Spectator, Tatler, Ramfuture part of this essay.--To these may bler, Adventurer, World, and Connoisbe added Milton's Tractate on Educa.
seur; and Dr. Johnson's Lives of the tion, Latin Thesaurus, and Artis Logi- Poets, with editions of their works, the ce Institutio ; Hobbes's Letter to D' Preface to his Dictionary, and History Avenant ; the Preface to Gondibert; of the English Language. To these Locke's Observations on Reading and we may still further add Dr. Warton's Stady : Lord Shaftesbury's Advice to learned Essay on the Genius and Writan Author ; Edwards's Canons of Cri- ings of Pope ; Lord Monboddo's Disticism ; Markland's Critical Epistles ; sertations on the Origin of Language, Addison's Essays on the Georgics of and on the Origin and Progress of