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purchase every year in Transylvania inclusive, distinguishing the amount and Moldavia, flocks of sheep, which expended in towns, from that expended they feed during summer, and sell in country parishes, and stating the again in the markets of Hannasalva, number of parishes in each county, in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia. Many which select vestries have been formed, of them convey in waggons wines and or assistant overseers appointed. The hides into Poland, Russia, Prussia, and result of this account is, that in EngAustria. The Scotacks form no alli- land and Wales, the expense of poor ance with other tribes, so that they relief (exclusive of that of law charges, preserve their dialect free from the least &c.) for the year ending March 25, mixture of foreign idioms.
1813, was £6,656,105 ; expended in
towns, £1,112,691 ; in other parishes, POPULATION AND POOR-RATE RETURNS. £5,543,414. For 1819–20, expended
in towns, £1,371,495, 108.; in other Last Session of Parliament an ab- parishes, £5,958,098, 10. ; sum total, stract of the returns to 1820 inclusive £7,329,594. The sums for the interwas laid on the table of the House. An mediate years need not be quoted ; outline of its curious and valuable con- those already given will tend to shew tents is as follows:
the expense in towns and in “other pa
“ The first account shews the “ amount rishes.” The remaining portion of the of monies assessed and levied in Eng- information contained in this abstract land and Wales, at the several pe- states the number of select vestries to be riods for which returns have been re- 2006; of assistant overseers, to be 2257. quired by Parliament;" and this ac- The next abstract is highly curious: count includes twelve different periods it is a statement of the monies expended since 1748. The total sum expended on the poor only in England and Wales, for the relief of the poor at that period, in the several periods commencing the the average of three years, 1748--49--50, middle of the last century, and reaching was £689,971; that for the
1819- to March 25th, 1820, with a table of the 20, was £7,329,594, including sums ex- number of the people, according to the pended in law during the latter year, enumeration of 1811, and an account of the sum total was £8,672,252. What the property assessed, under schedule an enormous increase in the course of 70 (A,) in 1815. It gives all the counties, years ! But some of the intermediate with the sums total illustrative of the periods are so curious as to merit to be above heads of information for each quoted, to show how rapidly the ex- county: these, of course, are too numerpense advanced when it began to rise. ous to be quoted here. Those for MidThe relief of the poor in 1776 cost dlesex and Lancaster, however, will be £1,521,732, including law expenses, peculiarly interesting, at the same time removals, &c. £1,691,458 ; those law giving an idea of the abstract's plan: expenses, therefore, being £172,726, Middlesex, poor relief, 1750, £81,030; The relief for 1783 was £1,912,241 in- 1820, £630,206; population, 953,276; cluding law expenses, &c. £2,167,148: property assessed, £5,595,536; Lancasfor 1803, the expense of relief was ter, (County,) poor relief, 1750, £21, £4,077,391; with law expenses, &c. 230; 1820, 3120,441 ; population, 5,302,070; and for 1813 and 14, the re- 828,309 ; property assessed, £3,087, lief expense was £6,294,584, with law 774 ; total for England and Wales : expenses, &c. £8,511,863; the law ex- poor relief, 1750, £689,971; for 1820 penses, removals, &c. being nearly (average of 2 years) £7,430,622 ; pop£2,217,279 ;-considerably more than ulation in 1811 was, 10,150,615, excluone third of the whole of the enormous sive of army, navy, marines, and seacost of maintaining the poor having men navigating registered vessels. (See thus been expended in law charges and observations in Journals, vol. 67, p. removals! The sums for 1819 and 20 857.) Property assessed under schebule are given above.
(A) in 1815, £51,898,423; the total sum The next account abstracted (that is, assessed on an account of the poor for sums total only being given) is of the 1814-15, was £7,508,853; for 1813-14, money expended for the maintenance £8,511,863. Thus nearly twenty milof the poor in England and Wales in lions went for Property Tax and the the several years from 1813 to 1820 Poor.
QUID SIT PULCHRUM, QUID TURPE, QUID UTILE, QUID NON.
The Naral History of Great Britain from the declaration of War by France in
February 1793, to the accession of George IV. in January 1820; with an
Account of the origin and progressive increase of the British Navy; illustrated from the commencement of the year 1793, by a series of tabular extracts, con
tained in a separate 4to. vol. By WILLIAM JAMES. London, 1822. THE author of this Naval History Boston, and the French twenty-two gun
has previously been advantageously corvette Berceau, Mr. James remarks, known to the public; and the work before us, far from derogating from his " Much credit is due to the American reputation, will extend and perpetuate captain for his candour—not the less esit. Mr. James has furnished ample ma- timable for its rarity on his side of the Atterials for the future historian, who will
lantic-in publicly acknowledging, that consult these pages with confident re
"the captain of the Berceau fought his liance on their impartiality, accuracy,
ship gallantly, so long as she was in a
situation capable of being defended.' enlightened patriotism, and liberal feel.
Captors, if they new their true interest, ing.
always gain by such acts of fairness. The The author has evidently been guided public, places a greater reliance upon their by a scrupulous adherence to truth; remaining statements; and, after all-is the most sacred of all consideratious- there not more honour in conquering a he has woven for the British sailor, the brave, than a cowardly enemy?" fairest wreath that can adorp the brows of victory—deathless fame is by him To quotė the history of any one of conferred, with no alloy of national the engagements would be uninteresting vanity or envy. His impartial pencil to those of our readers, who are not has delineated the merits of the enemy strictly naval; therefore, we will conin their true colours, and has exalted fine ourselves to a few characteristic the victors by doing ample justice to anecdotes. the vanquished. We should feel highly In an action, in which the privateer gratified if the exploits of our Armies Atalante, was taken by the Antelope were equally well pourtrayed. Packet in 1793,
This work is to form four volumes Svo; of which number the first two “ The command devolved on Mr. Pasco, (with tabular extracts in a 4to. volume) the boatswain; who, with the few brave are given to the world ; and include
men left, assisted by the passengers, rethe Naval circumstances from the de- pulsed repeated attempts to board, made claration of War, in 1793, to the peace
at intervals during the long period, that
the vessels remained lashed together. At of Amiens in 1802. The impartiality last, the privateer’s men, finding they had displayed in the following quotation, is
caught a Tartar, cut the grapplings, aud thoroughly practised by Mr. James.
attempted to sheer off. The boatswain, After describing the action between observing this, ran aloft, and lashed the the American thirty-two gun frigate schooner's square-saii yard to the Antelope's fore-shrouds. Immediately a well- now the only persons in full possession of directed volley of small arms was poured the faculties of mind and body, might have into the privateer, and the crew called for stepped into the boat, and saved themquarter. This, notwithstanding the Ata- selves at least. But, no; they chose to lante had fought with the red or bloody save their two half-dying and unconscious flag at her mast-head, was granted; and companions; these they lifted up, and, possession was forth with taken of the with great difficulty, on account of the prize.
still raging sea, placed in the skiff'; and “ The unparalleled bravery of one of the the "manly boy' rowed them triumphantAntelope's passengers, a M. Nodin, for- ly to the cove. After having deposited merly a midshipman in the French navy, his freight at the nearest cottage, the joydeserves to be recorded. It is related of ous lad, to the shame of many older perthis young man, that he stood by the helm sons who had larger boats, again put off and worked the ship, armed with a musket with his skift : his efforts to reach the and pike, which he alternately made use wreck were, however, this time, unavailof; that, when he perceived the Atalante's ing, and be returned to the shore, wrung men climbing the Antelope's quarters, he with disappointment. Shortly afterwards quitted the helm, and, with the pike, des- two or three other boats, including the patched such as cane within his reach; Tribune's jolly-boat, whichi, with four men, returning at proper intervals to right the had quitted the ship just before she sank, vessel ; that, with the pike and musket, he ventured out, and succeeded in bringing killed or disabled several men; and con- from the wreck the six survivors; making, tinued his astonishing exertions for more with the four that had taken to the jolly. than an hour and a quarier.”
boat and the two that had been saved by
the boy, twelve only, out of two hundred In the account of the melancholy loss
and forty or two huudred and fifty souls; of the British thirty-six gun frigate, including, as already noticed, several woTribune, is
men and children, and including also, “An anecdote strongly illustrative of
many of those humane persous, who had that thoughtlessness of danger for which
come on board from Halifax, to lend their
assistance." the British tar has been so famed. Among the survivors in the fore-lop were two In cutting out the Chevrette from seamen, named Robert Dunlap and Daniel
Camaret Bay, in 1801, Munroe. The latter, in the night, had disappeared ; and it was concluded he had “ Mr. Brown, boatswain of the Beaulieu, been washed away along with several after forcing his way into the Chevrette's others. However, after a lapse of more quarter-gallery, found the door planked up, than two hours, Munroe, to the surprise of and so securely barricadoed, that all bis Dunlap, suddenly thurst his head ihrough efforts to force it were ineffectual. Through the lubber's hole.* His answer to his the crevices in the planks he discovered a mess-mate's enquiry was, that he had been number of men sitting on the cabin-deck, cruising for a better birth; that, after armed with pikes and pistols: with the swimming about the wreck for a consider- fire of the latter he was frequently annoyable time, he had returned to the fore- ed while attempting to burst in. He next shrouds, and, crawling in on the cat-harp- tried the quarter, and, after an obstinate ings,t bad been sleeping there more than resistance, gained the taffrail, (the officer an bour.
who commanded the party was at this “ The first exertion that was made from time fighting his way up a little further the shore for the relief of the sufferers forward,) for an instant, while looking was, at about eleven o'clock in the fore- round to see where he should make his noon, by a boy, 13 years old, from Herring push, he stood exposed a mark to the enecove; who pushed oft, by himsell, ia a my's fire; when, waving his cutlass, he small skift. With great exeriions, and at cried, Make a lane there' gallantly dashextreme personal risk, this noble lad ed among them, and fought his way forreached the wreck; and, backing his lit- ward till he reached his old part the foretle boat close to the fore-top, was waiting castle, which the men, apimated by his to take off two of the men, all his skiff example, soon cleared of the enemy. Here could safely carry, when occurred a trait Mr. Brown remained during the rest of of more than Roman magpanimity. Dun- the contest, not only repulsing the French lap and Munroe, who, throughout the in their frequent attempts to retake his night, had, in a wonderful mamer, pre- post, but attending to the orders from the served their strength and spirits, and who, quarter-deck, and assistiog in casting the of the four survivors in the fore-top, were ship and making sail, with as much cool
The vacant space between the bead of the lower-mast and the head of the top. + Small ropes serving to brace on the shrouds of the lower masts behind their respective yards.
ness as though he had been on board the get redressed. In short, such a character Beaulieu.”
(and how many such have been scattered
over the British navy!)is capable of infectWe cannot dismiss this important ing a whole ship’s-company; and many of work, without extracting Mr. James's the mutinous crews could, no doubt, trace reflections on the Mutiny at the Nore ;
their disorginization to the first appearthey elucidate the probable causes of ance among them of one of these pests of that dangerous combination among the
society. sailors, and set in a proper light the
“A word respectivg private grievances, disgraceful punishment of flogging.
or the grievances of particular ships, and we quit the subject of mutiny, we hope for
What a lamentable thing it is, that « Thus was an end put to the Nore power and cruelty should be so often mutiny; a mutiny that, unlike the former, united: no monarch is more despotic, to was as futile in its origin, as it happily the extent of inflicting corporal punishproved unsuccessful in its issue; a mutiny ment short of death, than the captain of a that, in the opinion of many, has entailed man-of-war. If a man speaks or even on the British navy, more disgrace than looks to offend, be is ordered to the gangcan be washed away by the most brilliant
way; and the bloody furrows on his shoultriumph. It is notorious, that a custom ders soon increase, in number and depth, has long prevailed, for the London police, beneath the vigorous arm that lays on the when a culprit has had wit enough in his cat-o’nine-tails. Captains there have been, roguery just to elude the letter of the law,
and captains there are, who seemingly raiher than discharge him that he may delight in such work; and who, were commit, with increased confidence, fresh the cruise long enough, would not leave a depredations on society, to send him on sailor belonging to the ship with an unboard a man of-war. He is generally a scarred back. Such men, however, are plausible fellow, with a smattering of but exceptions. Moreover, they are, for learning and a knowledge of the world; the mort part, cowards at heart, and what two qualities that rank him very high in is worse, usually make cowards of those the estimation of the upsophisticated sai- they command. Hence, officers of this lor. He sings a good song, or, at all stamp are commonly the cause, mediately, events, tells a good story, and becomes, in if not immediately of dishonourbale detime, the oracle of the forecastle. He feats. The brave officer punishes one man knows his business too well to practise on that he may not bave to punish twenty, and so circumscribed a spot; and, therefore, shares with the delinquent the pain which, as no one has witnessed, no one believes, for example sake, he is compelled to inany harm of him. He is, perhaps, a dab- flict. When he goes into battle, bis men bler in politics, anıl, certainly, from the fight like lions : and, should they at any nature of his profession, a 'bit of a law- time be drawn aside from their duty, they, yer.' He therefore can expound acts of looking up to him as a father, listen atparliament to the sailors. In doing this tentively to his admonitions; and, knowhe reads what he pleases, and explains ing both his benignity and his firmness, how he pleases; tells them where they are can neither controvert the justice, nor wronged, and points out how they may doubt the fulfilment of his threats.”
Madeline, a Tale, By Mrs. Opie. 2 vols. 12mo. London 1822. THIS simple and elegant tale is in to parental and filial duties; the supethe highest degree interesting, and in- riority of cultivated mind and accomferior to none of its justly celebrated plished manners over riches or birth; authoress. The touches of true feel- the misery arising from groundless jeaing, apparent in every page, show the lousy; confidence in, and gratitude most intimate acquaintance with the towards the great Creator; are all enbest emotions of the heart. The style forced in language, that flows directly is natural and extremely well adapted to the heart, and rivals in simplicity to the subject, flowing with a graceful and pathos the unsophisticated style of yet familiar turn of expression, and Mackensie. Since the “Man of Feelabounding in sweetness and naiveté. ing” first appeared, never has the read
A proper controul over the best af- er's heart been more powerfully and at fections of the heart; a due attention the same time more gently affected. The simple and pathetic stile, in which ty, will best appreciate the pathos, the this tale is written, flows always pure simplicity, and the tenderness of this and lucid. The emotions of the heart tale—the anxious parent, the affectionare described in every page, and the ate child, the tender-hearted sister, the descriptions are perfect transcripts of votary of an honourable and delicate nature. Madeline is a tale of tender- affection, will all recognize themselves ness, revealing the secrets of inno- in the portraitures of Ronald and his cence, and its artless and unosten- ever kind hearted wife, Madeline, Faltatious pathos swells the throbbing coner, and Margaret. heart of the reader, and fills the eye Showers of tears will be unconsciouswith irresistable tears. It is the highly shed, over these little volumes, by praise of this gifted authoress, that all those sympathizing hearts; who have her tales are founded on facts; her por- deeply felt, and well remember, the detraits are therefore drawings from na- lightful hopes and fears of a virtuous ture, and display the faithfulness and attachment-that breast must be as hard power of original pictures of real life as adamant, that is not deeply penethese are far more interesting to the trated by the simple effusions of the lovers of nature than all the wander- excellent heart of Madeline ! ings of the imagination, and all the It is very difficult to make selections flights of fancy : vain meteors of dis- from a tale like this, which possesses turbed intellect! Truth alone is perma- neither prominent features of unusual nent, and so universally useful, that life, nor new and striking situations. the genuine history of any one earthly It is like a delicious landscape, more rebeing, however obscure his lot, how- markable for simplicity, beauty, and ever apparently worthless, would be a the truth of nature, than for bold and legacy to mankind of incalculable value jutting precipices, tumbling cataracts, -Hence arises the deep interest we or ruined castles. take in the journal of Madeline, who Circumstances induced Mr. and Mr. pathetically says,
Irwin to take into their family, and
educate as a gentlewoman, the daughter “It contains nothing but the history of a Scotch cottager, or little farmer, of a weak woman's heart. But is not that Madeline Munro. Mrs. Irwin surheart a world to its possessor? Does not vived her husband, and intended to some writer say, That little world the leave Madeline, her adopted daughter, human heart?' and after all, is there, can a fortune suitable to her education, but there be any history more interesting than a history of the affections? Could the
was prevented by sudden death ; a will coldest hearted person be offered the se. Mr. Irwin left Madeline a small re
could not be found, therefore, had not cret details of the life, the affections, the membrance, she would have returned fiults, the sorrows, the cares, the hopes, the sentiments, of even an indifferent per
to her father's cottage as poor as when son of his acquaintance, would he not
she left it. After she had been home a read it in preference to a history of either month, she commenced her journal; Roman or Grecian wortbies?"
wherein she described every event of
her innocent and retired life, and made A faithful picture of the human it the faithful depositary of all the seheart, that beats only in domestic life, crets of her affectionate heart, and all without extraordinary circumstances to the reflections arising in her highly call it forth, and to agitate it with vio- cultivated and well regulated mindlent transitions, is no easy task ; and The regrets felt by Madeline deprived to make it both faithful and interesting by one frown of fortune, of all the luxrequires no common talent.—Minor in- uries and enjoyments of the polished tellects exert themselves in works filled society of which she was so lately the with a train of numerous and rapid in- grace and ornament, and the noble cident; superior powers only can dwell manner in which she stifled them, are on isolated being, and delineate it with beautifully and naturally expressed. all the minuteness and fidelity of nature. Days and weeks passed over MadeSuch is the powerful pencil that pour- line in this retirement, and scarcely trays the mind of Madeline.
any thing disturbed the monotony of Hearts accustomed to sorrow, and her existence, save the anxious solicinot steeled by misfortune to insensibili- tudes of her parents to make her as
* Vol. i. p. 263.