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The village of Adersbach, in Bo- path, which is sometimes twenty feet hemia, situated in a valley, at the wide, and sometimes not more than foot of the Giant Mountains, at the two, continues its course through extreme confines of Silesia, is cele innumerable windings between the brated for the extraordinary groups perpendicular groups, and those of rock which rise in its environs, masses which, like walls, enclose and extend, though with frequent them on the right and left. A perinterruptions, as far as Heuscheuer. son is frequently obliged to crawl The village borders on a most beau across the intervals, above which the tiful mead, watered by a small rivu- rocks lean one against the other. let, which has its source in the midst The imagination of the old conducof this rocky labyrinth. It is bound tor has discovered in the most irreed on the south by large masses of gular masses resemblances to a parock which stand upright, contigu- lace, a church, a monastery, a pulpit

, ous to each other, and separated only and an infinity of other objects. By by crevices of different widths. The this happy discovery, he hopes to greater number of them are one hun- render them more worthy the obserdred feet high or upwards, and pre- vation of the curious. sent forms which are singularly di In this labyrinth, a person is versified. Some of them resemble obliged to go continually zigzag, works of art, as columns, walls, one time he walks on the naked sand, towers; some are bounded at the at another on the moss and flowery top by irregular curve lines, though turf: at one time he passes under their sides are as perpendicular as if low saplings, at another, he pursues they had been cut by a level. Others the course of little rivulets, whose are bent in all directions, and their smooth and limpid waters follow the craggy summits, which hang in the multiplied sinuosities of their course. air, threaten to descend every mo

These little streams are, in many ment from their perilous abode. places, provided with little bridges, Some of them stand upon an im or crossed by planks, for the convemense base, and diminish as they nience of those who explore this little rise, while others retain the same mysterious world. After journeying uniform dimensions from their bases about a league and a half, the traveller to their summits. The bases of arrives at a place, extremely cool and many of them are rounded by the agreeable, ornamented with saplings, action of the waters. The most re hung with all sorts of mosses and markable of these rocks is that com plants, and closed up, on all sides, monly called the inverted sugar loaf, by tremendous rocks. The loud an appellation which sufficiently de- murmuring of a rivulet, which presignates its singular form ; and many cipitates from a sort of basin, adds isolated pillars which, though only a aninexpressible charm to the delights few feet in diameter at the base, ele- of this solitude. Underneath two vate themselves amid their compeers, lofty saplings, near a fountain as like a range of chimnies.

cool and transparent as imagination The moment we enter this laby can conceive, stands a table, a bench, rinth, we perceive on all sides groups and some seats formed ont of the of rock, which surprize us the more, rock. This place is frequently renbecause we are not in a situation to dered the scene of festive happiness; examine their height and extent. and is frequently greeted by mornThey encircle a beautiful mead, ing visitants who come to breakfast which may be considered the vesti there. The repast is rendered delibule of the labyrinth.

cious by the agreeable coolness of An old honest forester generally the place, which invigorates the aniserves as guide to those, whose curio mal' faculties in a surprising manner. sity leads them to explore this ro From this resting-place there is mantic labyrinth. They follow a an ascent by a narrow opening. The path which is covered, in many way is difficult, as it leads over heaps places, with sand and rubbish forni of sand, produced by the wrecks ed from fragments of the rock. This continually falling from the rocks,

and which are as friable as the ashes half to the north of the little town near the crater of a volcano, for at of Reinerz. In approaching the every step the traveller loses his feet, mountain in this direction, a most and sinks in the uncertain sand. But delightful meadow opens at its feet. when he arrives at the top, he is it is difficult to reach it on this side, more than recompensed by the sight though considerable efforts were of a cascade which precipitates from made in 1763, to facilitate the access. the summit of the rocks. The water The traveller passes constantly over falls, in its first descent, from a height ledges of rocks which are detached of twenty feet, on a rock which im- and laid one over another, in all dipedes its perpendicular course, glides rections. Some of them are as large afterwards down a gentle descent, as houses, others equal churches in and completes its course by flinging magnitude, nor can imagination give itself into the lower basin. Near its creations a greater diversity of this stream the rocks have formed a form than these rocks present. The dark and lofty vault, which presents greater part of the rocks are naked, a most majestic and terrible aspect. but at a considerable height we meet

It is a work of many days to tra a space which has been called the verse all the different paths which garden, and which contains trees cross this labyrinth, but next to the and plants of various kinds. The natural beauties which we have al rocks lift themselves all around, ready described, is an ancient castle piled one over another. On the in ruins, situated in the midst of summit of Tafelstein, which is one those masses of rock, and which, in of the most elevated, there is a most all probability, served as an asylum interesting and romantic prospect. for robbers. The guide, before he The rock on which it is fixed is takes leave of his company, gene- cut perpendicular, like a wall at a rally fires a pistol near the narrow depth of many hundred feet, and opening by which it is entered. The extends through various windings sound, which is reverberated and en- along the frontiers of Bohemia. A creased by the distant echoes, resem- balustrade has been erected there, in bles the rumbling sound of thunder. consequence of its being honoured

The learned are generally agreed with a visit by the Prince of Prussia. as to the origin of the singular forms This balustrade leads to the very of these rocks. They imagine that extremity of the rock, where the the whole space which they cover spectator may contemplate with sewas formerly a mountain of sand, curity the delightful prospect which and that a violent irruption of water, opens before him, in all directions. forcing a passage through the parts Under his feet he beholds the lofty which were less compact, carried mountains extending south and west, them away, and left, consequently, and presenting summits which are deep spaces between the solid masses. sometimes rounded, and sometimes Such is the general opinion, but it is terminated in a point. The extenstill doubtful whether the effect has sive prospect carries the eye of the proceeded from a sudden irruption, spectator over the distant Braunau, and whether it may not be more na- Nachod, and a great number of other tarally traced to that slow but unre- places in Bohemia, immortalized by mitting action of nature, which me the annals of the thirty, and of the tamorphoses every thing after a cer seven years' war. The traveller has tain lapse of time, though its imme some difficulty however, in believing diate agency excites no attention, that he has Bohemia actually before

The mountain known by the him, for at this immense height the name of Heuscheuer, or Heuschaar, mountains, which separate the towns, forming the southern extremity of castles, villages, and convents, disthis chain, is in Silesia, in the appear from the sight, so that he county of Glatz, about two miles imagines he perceives nothing but a and a half north-east of the town level and extensive plain. of this name, and a mile and


IN ARMENIA AND PERSIA, IN 1805 AND 1806. By M. Jomard, Member of the National Instilute of France. The author of this work is that for Trebizond, whence they departed intrepid traveller who has underta- directly for Erze-Roum. There M. ken a journey to Kirgius for the Jaubert was recognized by a certain purpose of importing the Cachemire Ahmed Agha, intendant governor goat into France. He was previ- of the custom-house, who six years ously known for several excursions before had received many civilities into Turkey and Persia, and for the from the French army in Egypt, part he took in the memorable expe- after having been stripped of every dition to Egypt.

thing by the Arabs ; fortunately it There has appeared during the was our author, then secretary to last titenty years a multitude of ac the interpreter, who had transmitted counts relative to Persia and the to him the papers of the French gesurrounding countries; and the au neral. The gratitude of Ahnel thors are in general worthy of pub- procured M. Jaubert, on his return, lic esteem and gratitude for the care the means of entering the Persian they have taken in observing and territory. describing these different countries. Erze-Roum, the principal city of

M. Jaubert had an advantage Armenia, has seventy thousand inover most of them by which lie has habitants, and is situated a short profited: the diplomatic office he distance from the sources of the held gave him access to every per Araxes. The country, though deson of consideration; and it is only prived of trees, is extremely fertile ; by the help of powerful men, that a but it is exposed to the incursions European can break through the of the Kourdes, a wandering people restraints, which in the East must resembling in their manners the prevent him from studying, and ob- Arabian shepherds. The borders of serving deeply, places, men, and the Araxes and the Euphrates are things. The ability to converse with laid waste by the Kourdes, as those the natives in their own language is of the Nile are by the Bedouins. also another very important advan To avoid Bayazid our traveller, who tage, which M. Jaubert possessed; had prudently adopted the Armenian and he was thereby enabled to collect costume, directed his course towards a thousand anecdotes which must Mount Ararat, and arrived towards otherwise have escaped him. This night at a large village named Arzab; advantage is not less precious to the where the Kiahia forbad him to protraveller than the sextant and the ceed, in the name of Mahmoud, Pacha compass.

of Bayazid. He was surrounded The principal object of M. Jau- by seven soldiers armed with pistols bert's travels was to ascertain at the and poignards, and desired io excourt of Persia, if it were true that plain the purport of his journey. the king desired the assistance of * I am an Armenian,” replied he, the French government against his “ and I am going to Erivan to per: enemies. Several motives rendered form a pilgrimage to the convent of secrecy and diligence necessary, and the three churches.” The chief of he went from Paris to Constantino- the troop, who had acted by the seple in thirty-five days. Selim, who cret orders of Mahinoud, made the at that time filled the Turkish throne, travellers prisoners. M. Jaubert recollected the traveller, who had ex took advantage of a favourable opecuted a commission for him; and, portunity, and secreted the papers in spite of Russian influence, our au and presents of which he was the thor obtained firmans which enabled bearer. An hour before day-break him to travel over the Turkish pro- he was taken to Bayazid. The Pas vinces. An Armenian who had cha, a deceitful and cruel man, prebrought the letter of the king of tended to set him at liberty, and rePersia joined him, as well as a Tar tained the Tartar and Armenian tar of the Grand Signior, and a as prisoners. This latter, being put French servant.

They embarked to the torture, confessed the object Eur. Mag. Vol. 82.

of the journey, and was soon after netrated to the pit. The jailor raised strangled. Our traveller, obliged the trap-door, and by help of a cord in his turn to make some confes let down some ounces of bread and sions, was reassured by the insinuat sour milk for the use of the prisoning manners of Mahmoud; who de ers : such was their only support clared his zeal for the court of Per during a captivity of four months, sia, promised him help and protec The air of the prison was suffocattion, and even gave him an escort to ing and infectious; and every day accompany him to the place of his they expected would be their last. destination. “ I hold thee,” said he, To all M. Jaubert's misfortunes were “in my hands as a flower that I wish added the complaints and reproaches to keep from every breath of wind," of his fellow-sufferers, and while his and he added some perfidious words, time passed heavily in this cruel whose covert meaning M. Jaubert anxiety, several of the Kourdes, could not understand. He refused who had taken them, came to him the usual presents, and in order to from the Pacha; who, not underprocure a list of those persons whom standing the papers which he had our traveller intended to take with found in the boxes, and being ignohim, he carried his dissimulation so rant of the use of the arms, the far, as to declare himself responsible spectacles, and other objects of cufor their safety. After all these de. riosity, wished to have them explainmonstrations, human prudence could ed. After having satisfied the ennot foresee the Pacha's design. quiries of these wretches, M. Jau

Our traveller then departed under bert was sent back to his dungeon. an escort of Kourdes, accompanied A relation of the governor of the by the Tartar and two servants, but castle and the governor himself, who deprived of the assistance of his Ar took pity on the prisoners, came menian guide. The escort soon en sometimes to console them, and creased; every moment fresh sol brought them news ; but the Pacha diers arrived. At length they cross had vowed their destruction. Three the river which runs at the foot of months expired in this manner, their Mount Ararat, and serves as a fron clothes were all in rags, sleep had tier to the Turkish possessions ; they forsaken their eyes, and their situaland, and while M. Jaubert was tion was desperate. The Pacha, to congratulating himself on his arri. avoid the reproaches of the Porte, val in the Persian territory, he was or the vengeance of Persia, propasuddenly surrounded by the Kour. gated false reports; but he still hedes; one scized him in the middle sitated to make an end of his vicof his body, another tied his arms, tims. Such was their horrible situand a third disarmed him. They ation, when all at once the plague blind-folded him, turned his face to broke out at Bagazid. It had not wards the ground, and bound in the appeared for twenty-four years. The same manner his servants and the Kourdes fell victims to it, and Mah. Tartar. They then carried them all moud was attacked; in his delirium into a solitary valley: Some hours he condemned the strangers to death, after, M. Jaubert and his attendants but he himself died before his rage were conducted to a lonely castle,

was satisfied, where Mahmoud expected them---he His son Ahmed succeeded him, pretended to have received from Con- and also condemned the prisoners to stantinople an order to seize the per death, but as he knew the governor son of the traveller, but protested was averse to it, he found a prethat no attempt should be made on text to get rid of him: all was over his life. He afterwards caused him with these unfortunate men. In his to be thrown into a frightful cave, turn Ahmed was struck with the conthirty feet under ground, with his tagion. Terror and superstition in. three companions. This cavern, five duced him to revoke his sanguinary feet wide, and sixteen long, had nei. orders; two hours after which he ther bed, table, nor chair; and upon died, 'and his uncle Ibrahim was the ground lay the dead body of a acknowledged by the Kourdes.Bey, recently assassinated by order Through the care of the governor's of the Pacha.

relation a letter from M. Jaubert, In the morning a feeble light pe. written to the court of Persia,

arrived at its destination. The go- (a reflection worthy of notice), that vernor of Eriyan had sent for him

the traveller amongst the Kourdes to Bayazid, and the Chah of Persia ought to fear in proportion to the menaced the town with the whole extent of their hospitality,

You weight of his vengeance if they did are welcome,” says the Kourde, whose not restore him to liberty. Ibrahim hut the traveller passes ; "the stranbeing frightened consults the Porte, ger is a present from God: let him and in the mean time takes the pri- want nothing: misfortune is sacred.soners from their cavern, and con This

very man, when traversing the fines them in a stable. The answer mountains or deserts, is a ferocious of the Port soon arrives from Con: robber, who strips his guest without stantinople, and the Pacha, for once mercy. The secret, which distinfaithful to the orders of the Grand guishes the Kourde robber, is, to Signior, sent M. Jaubert to the camp know how to flatter and deceive him of Youssuf Pacha, who was then ad- whose wealth they covet. vancing towards Armenia at the On the 19th of February, 1806, head of an army. Thus was M. Mr. Jaubert left Bagazid to go to Jaubert miraculously saved from an the Turkish army, and he met with apparently inevitable death. mountains at the defile of Kusseh-day

The country inhabited by the that were covered with snow, whose Kourdes is one of the most interest- brilliancy caused a painful opthalmia ing the author passed through ; it in all who did not wear a black veil, belongs, unequally, to the Turkish and neglected to stop up their nosand Persian empires. Its extent is, trils. The hurricanes were also very in length, from Mount Ararat at dangerous. The ten thousand Greek's thirty-nine degrees and a half north under Zenophon met with the same latitude, to the Kamerin chain of difficulties at this passage. Youssuf mountains at thirty-four degrecs; Pacha knew the author personally, and in width from Mount Ormiah having seen him in Egypt after his to the Tigris. On the north is the fatal loss at the battle of Héliopolis, ancient Colchis, on the east Media, He gave M. Jaubert a very distinand on the south Chaldea.

guished reception, in consequence of Kourdistan produces numerous having just received news of the herds of goats, sheep, and oxen, great victory gained by the French which constitute its chief wealth; at Austerlitz. "He promised to send and the management of bees is at him safe to his destination, and, at tended to. The Kourdes are re. the same time, cautioned him against markable for their tall stature, fair the politeness and agreeable manners complexion, and fine features. Their of the Persians, who, although so bodies are covered by large cloaks much thought of in Europe, are deof black goat-skin, and their heads ficient in frankness and sincerity. with hats made of red cloth, orna The author, while he was waiting to mented with acorns. These wander- hear from the Ottoman Porte, visited ing people are good soldiers ; from the Christian churches in this part of military exercises they go to pasto- Armenia. At length his orders arral occupations, and their leisure rived, and he quitted the camp of the hours are beguiled with vocal music, Osmanlis on the first of April, for which they have a decided taste. with an escort of twenty men; on It is true, that the singer they most the third day he reached Erz-Ingadmire is the one who sings loudest. hian, the ancient Satala, upon the In other respects, they are distin. Euphrates near one of the chains of guished for the same virtues and Taurus. From thence he arrived vices as the Arabs of the desert; the five days after at Erze-Roum. Avoidcustom of robbing, the love of in- ing the road to Bagazid, he directed dependence, and great hospitality. his course north, towards Khenes, In reading the account of the man- Melez-ghird and Van, which gives ners of these tribes, I fancied myself its name to a little inland sea. A litin the tent of a Bedouin. The Kourde tle way from the second of these cannot marry without the consent of towns is the high mountain, called his parents, whatever may be his Seiban-dagh, from whose sunimit the rank or age: paternal authority is eye commands a circumference of to him inviolable. The author adds, fifty leagues : the Yezidis, a Kourde

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