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Foreign and Domestic.


FOREIGN. De Fontibus et Auctoritate vitarum of their writers; and where objects of parellelarum Plutarchi Commenta- curiosity are preferred to objects of tiones quatuor ; Auctore Herren.- the path which nature points out, and

knowledge, genius must decline from Four Commentaries on the Sources yield to the ascendancy of fashion and whence Plutarch derived his parallel on the whole, it may be said, that Plu

the predominance of circumstances. Lives of eminent Men. By Herren. tarch was a much better judge of the Gottingen.

authenticity of the writers, from whom The author of the present learned

he drew his information, than we can enquiry, the disciple and friend of in him until we know the value of his

be; and therefore, if we will not trust Heyne, is placed by the Germans among the most illustrious of their authority, we must always remain scepwriters. He has devoted ten years of moured of this species of writing, will

tics. Those, however, who are ena. toil and application in tracing the

find the researches of Mr. Herren well sources from which Plutarch derived

worthy of their attention, They can. his information; and the result of his

not but admire the spirit of investigaresearches forms the subject of the work before us. It must be confessed,

tion that eharacterizes his enquiries : that the task was of a most arduous

but when they close the work they

must confess, that they have more nature, and that the writer who engaged in it, wbatever might be his

cause to admire the ingenuity of the

writer than to congratulate themselves talents, was frequently placed under the necessity of substitutivg conjecture

on the accession, which they have made for certainty. Plutarch does not al.

to their stock of kuowledge. Herren ways inform us who the authors were

has done, perhaps, what could be done: to whom he was indebted; and even if

Si pergama dextra potuissent, hac defensa he had done so, we, who are so far re videbo; moved from the scene, cannot easily ascertain what degree of credit is due but the subject was unmanageable; for to their authority; and it is doubtful all that the most laborious and diligent whether Plutarch himself was not fre. antiquary will ever be able to effect, quently placed in a similar situation. cannot reach farther than to shew the He was obliged, like alt other histo- probable degree of eredit, that ought rians, to rest many of his sentiments to attach to each particular biography. on the authority of tradition alone; and whatever means he might have possessed of appreciating the value of Dziela dramatyczne Bogusłanz. the traditions of his own time, we certainly can pretend to none. The ad. kiego : - The Dramatic works of vantages which literature derives, Boguslawski.

15 vols. with plates therefore, from such laborious enqui- and portraits. Warsaw, ries, appear to us of a very uncertain character, and rather specious than This is one of the best literary enreal; for even where certainty is at terprizes ever undertaken in Poland. taiped, we have not data sufficient to The author is chiefly known for the convince us that it is certainty, We services he has rendered his native regret that Germany should devote her country. He was formerly a director intellectual might to such unprofitable of the national theatre, and may be speculations. But the character of a considered its founder, an honour to people always determines the character which these works justly entitle bim. Eur. Mag. Vol. 82.


Their principal merit consists in the lectures at the university of Heideloriginality and judgment with which berg, has created a new era in the he has delineated the human character. study of mythology. It is no longer Many of these dramas are translated an incoherent series of ingenious fafrom the Italian, French, English, and bles, but a complete system of useful German, the last of which possess a fictions, entirely founded on agricultuvery particular merit from the fidelity ral notions, or moral precepts. It is with which they are translated. Each philosophy divesting itself of its meis preceded by a biographical notice of taphysical abstractions, and assuming its original author, a review of the a sensible appearance through the inpiece itself, and a critical dissertation tervention of images, sometimes speakon his other works. The first volume ing a language intelligible even to the contains the history of the foundation vulgar, but always preserving its paand progress of the Polish theatre, tive majesty. In developing this novel concluding with a biographical notice science, the discovery of which beof one or other of the principal actors longs exclusively to M. Creutzer, his either dead or retired from the stage. lectures excited the enthusiasm and

The author has neglected nothing to astonishment of his numerous auditors. render this edition of his works wor. The first edition of this work obtained thy of public interest. The type is for its ingenious author considerable extremely beautiful, and the impression celebrity; and a second being called taken off with the greatest care, a cir- for, it has been given with so many imcumstance the more remarkable, as the provements, that it may be justly callart of printing has been a long time ed a new work. The author has dilineglected in Poland. The merit of gently availed himself of all that has this improvement is entirely due to M. recently been published in England and Glucksberg, who, assisted by a cor- France, and has ventured po assertion rector of the press from Firmin Didot, that is not founded in fact. His authoat Paris, has succeeded almost in equal rities are always authors of the greatling the beauty of execution which est respectability, from whose labours distinguishes the works of that cele he has formed a pandect, hitherto a brated printer.

desideratum in the sciences.

Alga Aquaticæ : - The Aquatic Herbs found on the Coasts of Jever Tentamen de Architæ Tarentini and Eastern Frieseland, collected vità et operibus, &c.—An Essay on and dried by O. H. B. Jurgens, 21

the Life and Writings of Architas, pages, folio, containing 100 dried of Tarentum. By Joseph Navarro, sea weeds.

of Naples. M. Jurgens merits the gratitude of When we reflect how seldom diploevery lover of botany, particularly of matists withdraw themselves from the those who live far from the sea, as he splendid frivolities of courts to serious offers them, at a small expense, the contemplation, and how small a portion means of supplying an important desi of their time is devoted even to the deratum in alınost all our herbals. In science of politics, a science with forming the collection of so great a which, of all others, they should be quantity of plants, he had more than best acquainted, the work before us one difficulty to surmount, particularly may be considered unique in its kind. in preparing them for preservation. Its author, who was attached to the They are dried with extreme care, and Neapolitan embassy of the court of placed between two blank leaves, ac Copenhagen, resisting the seductions companied with a Latin description of of courtly pleasures, performed not their physical virtues. The weakest only what his public situation required, of these weeds are pasted on a detach but has treated in this work a public ed leaf of paper, and the most tender thesis in such a manner as to obtain the on a leaf of Muscovy glass.

degree of professor of philosophy in

the Danish university. His example Symbolik and Mythologik : The may serve to convince us, that the busSymbols and Mythology of Ancient

tle and toil, inseparable from the duties

of a public situation, cannot stifle that States, particularly the Greeks. By energy of mind which seeks to signaFrederick Creutzer. ll vols. second

lize itself in pursuits foreign to our edition. Leipsick.

immediate avocations; pursuits which

have other objects than that of disturbM. Creutzer, justly celebrated for his ing the happiness of mankind,

Memoria premiada por la Junta designed or accidental imitations of Suprema de Caridad.--Memoir of others. He also points out the subse

quent improvements, which the arts and the Treatment of the Poor at their

sciences derived from the original views own Habitations. By J. A. Piquer. and suggestions, and the controversies I vol. 8vo. Madrid.

to which they gave rise, and concludes every article with the character of the

author whose life it contains. This memoir obtained the prize, offered by the Supreme Committee of the Cha. ritable Institutions of Madrid, for the

Notizie intorno alle opere, &c.— best work on this subject. The author, An Account of the Works of Gauwho is physician to the Royal Family, denzio Ferrari. By Gaudenzio Bor. has dedicated his work to the sovereign Congress of the Cortes. Besides the diga, 4to. Milan, 1821. Memoir, it contains a Review of eleven Ferrari holds the first rank after other memoirs, presented to the Com Leonardo da Vinci in the Lombard mittee for the prize, with a Reply to school of painting, and yet from the the Objections, published by J. V.C. in ignorance or hatred of Vassari, the his1819. Doctor Piquer maintains, that torian of painters, the merits of Ferpoor patients are much better treated rari are unknown to those who derive at their own houses, or in any private their knowledge of the Ultramontane bouse, than in hospitals however well painters from books. Lanzi knows not directed and administered; a fact which whether to attribute this to Vassari's he proves, not only by the authority of hatred, or his little acquaintance with writers, but by the practise which was Ferrari's merits; but the latter suppocommenced at Madrid, January 1,1811, sition appears to us the more probable; and followed in many other cities of for though Vassari cannot always be Spain.

depended upon, bis errors may, in general, be traced to unmerited praise

rather than to unmerited censure. Della Letteratura Italiana :-Of Though himself a painter of inconsiItalian Literature during the latter derable merit, he seems to have been part of the Eighteenth Century. By characterizes the minds of inferior ar.

at least superior to that jealousy which Camillo Ugoni, 2 vols. 12mo. Bres- tists; and be takes every opportunity cia, 1821.

of extolling his own countrymen, par

ticularly his contemporaries. It is posThe author of this work, a young sible, however, though we have, no writer of a distinguished family in authority for supposing it, that some Brescia, is a zealous advocate of useful private pique might exist between him studies, independent thoughts, and and Ferrari. Whatever be the cause, sound logic. The two volumes already the merits of this celebrated painter, published contain the lives of nineteen who was at once the friend and fellow Italian writers of the eighteenth cen labourer of Raphael, are upknown; extury, with a critical examination of cept to those who have other sources their works. It is expected that the of information than books, and there. work will extend to several other vo fore we look upon the present work, lumes, and it promises a great variety in which his memory is recovered from of intelligence, as the author does not unmerited oblivion, to be one of the strictly confine himself to the matter most useful accessions which Italy has which his title announces. He first made to her modern literature for many makes us acquainted with the senti.

years. ments of his authors, and the views which they have taken of the subjects on which they wrote, and then examines

Storia Universale dell' Indostan, the subject himself. His investigation &c.-Universal History of Hindosis always acute, and his thoughts ge- tan, from the Year 1500 before the nerally original, not caring much whether they are sanctioned by the autho- Christian era, to the Year 1819, rity, or quadrate with the opinions of compiled by Leopoldo Sebastian, other writers. His manner, indeed, is

briefly reJating the life of his author, he passes

1822. immediately to a critical review of his The author divides this work into works, in which he distinguishes such four parts. In the first he determines of his opinions as can be traced only the position of Hindostan, the origin of to himself, from those which are either its inhabitants, its religion, its sciences,

and particularly its astronomy, with the title indeed is simple, and the volume arts and physical qualities of the coun is small, but the subject is analyzed try. In the second, he traces the his and explained in the spirit of true phitory of Hindostan from the expedition losophy. The author endeavours to of Sesostris to that of the Portuguese. shew, that whatever is excellent in the The third contains the conquests which romantic, or modern school of poetry, have been successively made from the was already known and practised by year 1000, by Mahmud Gazni, Geugis, the classics, and that all beyond this is Chan, Tamerlane, Nadir-Shah, &c. In licentiousness and delirium. In the the fourth he describes all the military tenth and eleventh chapters he points and political events of this country, out particularly the inconveniences of from the year 1747 to 1818. The au the modern school, and shews that it thor informs us, that he was ten years has as yet met with no success in Italy. in Turkey, five in Persia, and as many in India, and yet he never speaks from his own observations. The language

Poesie, &c.--Poems of the Maralone can properly be called his own : quis Giuseppe Antinori. Pisa, 1821. the matter would seem to have been communicated to him by another. To

The Marquis of Giuseppe is author form a just estimation of the spirit The present poems rank high among

of a translation of the Idyls of Gesner. which characterizes the present work, it is sufficient to read the last chapter,

the lyrics which are now flourishing on in which he labours to justify the con

the Italian Parpassus, they are remarkduct of the European conquerors in

able for the vivacity of their images, this part of the world. He is decidedly

and for the beauty of their style. hostile to the religious toleration of the Indiaps.

De l'Economie Publique et Rurale Viaggio al lago di Como, &c.

des Perses et des Pheniciens, &c.Travels to the Lake of Como. By of the Public and Rural Economy Davide Bertolotti, &c. Como, 1821. of the Persians and Phenicians. By

The writer of the present work has L. Reynier. I vol. 8vo. Paris. differed from all former travellers to this noted lake, by giving his descrip

This is the second volume of the imtions a dramatic form. In the charac,

portant work undertaken by Reynier a ter of an old soldier, he traverses the

few years ago. The people, of whose various scenes which he has made the

political and rural economy it treats, subject of his observations; and enter

are esteemed the most ancient in the tains his readers with the conversa,

world. The author, however, does not tions, which are supposed to have taken

strictly confine himself to them, but place between himself and various per

extends his inquiries to the various nasons, whom he encountered in his per

tions which, under different names, ambulations. Whatever the scenes

have flourished in the countries cominspire are happily mingled with his prehended between the Euphrates and descriptions, and he joins to ancient

the Indus, and between the Caspian Sea whatever is remarkable in modern

and the Persian Gulph. ter perusing

the work with the most critical attenhistory. To 'encrease the interest of his work, he intersperses it with poeti. tion, we think the learned author has cal quotations, which are, perhaps, too

surmounted almost all the difficulties abundantly disseminated. Among many critic he has travelled through the

which he had to oppose. As an able interesting episodes, we may particularly point out that which relates the night of time, and traversed an extenloves and adventures of Vincenzo and

sive circuit, over which the reader acRosalie, chap. x. p. 164. The work

compan'es him with encreasing interest concludes with some general observa

and pleasure. tions on the civil and natural state of

The work is divided into three parts. Como and its lake.

In the first the author takes a rapid

view of the antiquities of Asia anterior Elementi di Poesia, &c.--Princi

to historic times, from which it appears

that astronomic science had made conples of Poetry for the use of Schools. siderable progress in that country; and Compiled by Giovanni Gherardinini. that an enlightened period, of which Milan.

history has preserved no recollection,

preceded that state of ignorance in It is unnecessary to offer any opinion which we find almost all the Asiatic on the importance of this subject. The pations at present. In the second part,

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the author confines himself to the Per- power and beneficence had been prosians. He inquires into their political claimed long before him by Heomo, the organization, religious institutions, legislator of ancient Asia. The prifinances, commerce, industry, and agri- mitive religion of the Persians was culture. In the third part he treats of purely theocratic, or, if they admitted the Phenicians, their origin, political iwo sorts of spirits, the Ehoromez-duo, existence, agriculture, and useful arts. or good spirits, and the Ahriman, or

The extensive empire, to which Zo evil spirits ; they regarded them rather roaster gave laws, has been succes as intermediate agents between the sively the theatre on which the Assy. Deity and man, than as all-powerful rians, the Medes, the Persians, and beings. the Partbians, have displayed their With regard to the system of finance, prowess. This succession of revolu. it has experienced many changes, and tions which has always been more or has been always determined by the poi less disastrous, those changes of gran- litical vicissitudes of states. Under deur and of calamity, those catastrophes the despotic government of the Assywhich have been equally experienced rians, all the tribes were successively by dynasties, languages, laws, and reduced to the same level, after being customs, manifest the dismemberment devoured by extortions of every deof a great federal constitution, of which scription. Under the military dominathe different nations of wbich, it was tion of the Medes, the Satraps, who composed exhibit, in their turn, ancient never moderated their expenses, expretensions to universal dominion; and, hausted the entire of the public reve. at the same time, the impossibility of nue, and the property of those who tracing the origin of either; of recon. were unfortunately subjected to their ciling their respective histories; and of dominion. Under the Persians, the becoming acquainted with their parti. government being originally military cular institutions. The reign of Cyrus whence it naturally passed to despotwas that of military discipline; that of ism, passive obedience became the ba. Alexander the era of diversity of inte sis of discipline; and the primitive rests and opinions among the numerous vices of the administration were preprovinces of the Persian empire. With- served, or more properly legalized. out manifesting much admiration of The treasures of the Persian kings be the hero of the Cyropedia, without came useless heaps in their hands, magnifying the exploits of this auda, which circulation would bave converta cious warrior, who trampled on the ed into productive wealth. Their stag, most sacred institutions of his country; nation rendered them useless to the who, instead of a representative go- vation, and fatal to Xerxes, to Darius, vernment, which is the only safeguard and to his successors. of liberty and of laws, established the As to agriculture, it was held sacred; despotism of an individual, the right and the laws protected the labours of of conquest, and the enjoyment of all the husbandman, and the produce of places of emolument and power : Rey his labour, even in time of war. Xeyier represents him such as he really nophon erroneously attributes this prowas, and strips him of that imposing tection to the laws of Cyrus. It was crown which the adulation of servile tbe same many ages before him. In writers placed on his head, thereby fact, the great fertility of Persia, that confirming the legitimacy of conquest abundance and variety of its produce, and usurpation. This part of the work which was so much admired by the is particularly worthy the attention of Greeks, whose exiguous territory prethose who devote themselves to the sented no similar advantages; in a word, science of politics.

the flourishing state of the first of arts It is painful to see that so learned became a part of the most ancient inand critical a writer should have so stitutions of Asia. Agriculture and the completely lost bimself in treating of multiplication of the species were parreligion. He implicitly adopts the ab ticularly encouraged by the first legis. surd doctrine of astrology as laid down lators of Persia. The same precept is in the writings of Dupuis. He quotes recommended in the Zend-Avesta, the authority of Strabo, wbo assures us which must have been written apwards that the disciples of Zoroaster adored of two thousand years ago. This lesthe sun; but in no part of the works son, which was handed down from the of this great reformer of the Persian remotest times, was preserved in all religion do we find any mention of the the vicissitudes of the state, and so worship of the stars. On the contrary, strongly implanted in the minds of the he speaks throughout of the worship Persians, that even now, after all the of one God, Lord of all things, whose changes which husbandry has under

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