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APHORISMS, OPINIONS AND THOUGHTS ON MORALS. As the meanest scrap of gauze, of to choose your offence.” The der. bead, or of tinsel, looks beautiful and vise instantly chose to be guilty of costly through the mirror of the drunkenness, as the least fault of kaleidiscope, so does the most com- the three-the consequence was, that mon and dreary scene acquire attrac- while intoxicated, he committed the tion and value, when beheld through other two. the beautifying medium of gratified .“ In the adversity of our best affection, and in the society of those friends," says Rochefoucauld, in his whom we tenderly love.

two hundred and forty-first maxim, Whatever merits we possess, I fear " we often find something which that it is always better for us not to does not displease us.” This is true, allow ourselves to be seen too often, I believe ; but whatever there is and too long, as we all grow tired offensive in the sentiment may be of concealing our defects; and con, explained away, thus We all love sequently, the more we are known, to render services to those who are the less, we are esteemed.

dear to us; and it is only in their · If we took as much trouble to con afflictions that our friends require quer as to disguise our faults, we our aid. A somewhat similar exshould get rid of them very soon. cuse for his own maxim, which has

It is always a mark of true supe- often been severely censured, is conriority, to be able and willing to talk tained in his next-the two hundred on trities with those who can con- and forty-second. “We easily converse of nothing else—it is the sur- sole ourselves for the disgrace of our est way of pleasing also ;-for most friends, when they serve to prove persons charm less by displaying our tenderness for them.” their own talents, than by calling In maxim 267, Rochefoucauld forth the powers, or kindly throwing says, that “ the pleasure of love a veil over the deficiences of others. is loving, and that one is happier

“Thou shalt not put a stumbling through the passion one feels, than block before the blind, but shalt fear that which one inspires. I think this thy God.” Lev. xix. 14.- I could is only true; where the affections write pages on this text-as nothing are stronger than the vanity, and is more common than, in a figura that is a rare case ; where the self

put a stumbling love is stronger than the affections, block before the blind;" that is, to delight results not from feeling, put temptation to fall, in the way of but from inspiring passion. How those who are, we well know, little ashamed should we often be, were able to withstand it: as for instance, we resolutely to unveil to ourselves to urge the man, who has a propen- the true motives of our actions ! sity to drink, to fill his glass, is put- For instance—we praise the beauty, ting a stumbling block in the way or the talents of such an one, and of the blind, and is disobeying the with an ardour that appears most commandment to fear God; for what generous and exemplary; but search ever crimes or immoralities that man our motive, and it will often be may commit, while under the intlu- found, to be the wish of mortifying ence of the wine which you have some one who listens to us, or å dethus led him to drink, you have șire of appearing candid and liberal made yourself responsible in the in the eyes of the company. The eyes


a Just Judge.--I must in- poet Thyrsis is notorious for never dulge myself with inserting here praising any one, except when he the following short but instruct- fancies he mortifies the person to ive tale:- Å dervise, walking in whom he speaks by doing so, as his his little garden, looked up, and envy is far greater than his talents. lo! a genius stood before him—"1" I met Thyrsis to-day,” said a wit, am commissioned," said he, “ to in- of his acquaintance,

us and I told form you, O! dervise, that you are him, that I could not read ten lines destined to commit one of three of C's. poetry—asked me to dinner great faults-murder, adultery, or directly. drunkenness; but you are allowed “When Bifrons smiles in my face,

tive sense,


and hopes I am very well,” said scious, that so tempted, they should Levihanes, of a very treacherous have erred themselves. The truly acquaintance, " I know that · he virtuous woman is not only pure means 'go to h-11.?"

herself, but is slow to give credit “ Love,” says the Italian prn to the impurity of others. verb, “is like a hole in a black Familiarity and intimacy have the stocking—itis discovered instantly;". same effect on the light in which “ If (says Rochefoucauld) there be some characters appear to us, when a love, pure and exempt from any viewed at a distance, which sunmixture of other passions, it is that shine has on those towers and buildwhich is concealed at the bottom of ings which we beheld and venerated, the beart, and of which we are igno- when seen by the pale moon-light. rant ourselves." This might be true, Sun-sbine divests them of the awful. were it not (in my opinion) impossi ness and grandeur which moon-light ble for any such love to exist. I had bestowed, and the supposed cannot believe that a passion, which, greatness and beauty of a character if it exists at all, is always the often disappear on a nearer apgoverning motive of one's actions, proach to, and on a further knowand the ruler of all one's feelingsledge of it.--I scarcely know a betcan remain long undiscovered by ter lesson than is contained in the the person whose heart has con- following proverb :" It is difficult ceived it, though it may be hidden for an empty purse to stand upright." from the knowledge of every one Jealousy and Love are twins; but else. There are many persons who it is lamentable to think, that when never like or dislike any one, but Lovė, the pleasing twin, dies, Jealfrom the mean instigation of gratified ousy, the unpleasing one, usually or offended self-love ; and one be- survives, and is as vigorous as ever. comes, in turn, a fiend or an angel - The cause is, that Jealousy had in their eyes, only as one has fed or the strongest and most attentive mortified their vanity. I am.con nurse-namely, Self-love; and Selfvinced, that vanity is not only a love shrinks with aversion from the universal feeling, but that it is oftener mortification of being forsaken. a deep-seated and all-pervading pas How affecting are a man's tears ! sion than we are any of us aware of. Those of women are as common as

That person is very far from being dew-drops, which are the production pure, who is apt to see impurity in of every evening, and every night ; the most indifferent actions.—When therefore, but little regarded.-But I see women given to suspect other the tears of men are like the rare women of unchastity, I am apt to be- and costly drops of Attar of roses, lieve, that they know the secret weak- and every drop is precious, in proness of their own hearts, and are con- portion to its rarity.




The ancient sect of the Guebres, brethren, through the oppression and different from all other worshippers exaction of the government they are of fire, derived its opinions from Zo- reduced to the most abject state of roaster. The Guebres were of Per- degradation. sian origin, but after having met The Persian Gaebres principally with great persecution, many of them inhabit the banks of the Caspian Sea, quitted the kingdom and formed an and the towns of Ispahan, Yerd, and asylum at Bombay and other esta Kerman. Their great temple of fire blishments on the Malabar coast. called Attush Kurda, Atashgah, or Those who remained in Persia are Atechgah, is in the neighbourhood more miserable than their emigrated of Badku, which, before it was con

quered by the Saracens, was visited This fire does not burn, and if by thotsands of pilgrims. The town any one were in the middle of it of Badku, one of the largest and he would not feel heat. All the finest ports on the Caspian Sea, is earth, for two miles round this large situated in the Peninsula of Abscha- tire, has the singular property of ron, lat. 42° 22 north. The land being inflamed by a hot coal, when round the town is impregnated with it is only put in two or three inches naphta. The inhabitants of Badku deep, but it does not communicate have no other combustible nor any the fire to the adjoining earth. If a other light than what they obtain hole is made in the ground with a from this substance. The black pe- shovel and a torch applied to it, a troleum, made into little round pieces great fire soon appears. If a hollow mixed with sand, serve them instead stick or only a roll of paper is put of combustible. Three of these into the ground two inches, and if pieces are sufficient to heat an oven some one blows through it on a hot enough to bake bread, but the lighted coal placed at the other end, bread has a disagreeable taste and a light flame will issue, which will smell. This substance supplies the burn neither the stick nor the paper. place of lamps and fire to the lower This method is employed by the inclass of people; and serves also to habitants to illuminate houses which cover flat roofs of houses and keeps are not paved, and by means of these out the rain.

hollow sticks, whence the fire comes About ten miles north-east of the out, they boil their water in their town, there are still to be seen the coffee-pots, and even cook several ancient temples that the Guebres kinds of food. built. The spiritual retreat where To extinguish the flame it is only the devout adore their God, under necessary to stop up the orifice. The the image of fire, is a place of about ground that has the most pebbles, 60 feet, surrounded by a little wall emits the most brilliant and active and contains a great many places for flame. The smell of the naphta lodging. In each of these is a little spreads very far, but custom makes volcano of sulphurous fire, coming it less disagreeable. The inhabiout of the earth, through a furnace, tants even employ this fire to calin the form of an Indian altar. This cine lime. The stones are placed fire serves for the purpose of cook one upon another in an open place, ing as well as religious worship. and in less than three days they are Shutting up the furnace extinguish- perfectly calcined. Sulphur is found es the tiame. The flame is of a pale where there are fountains of naphta. colour, without smoke, and emits a In bad weather, when the sky is sulphurous smell. The Guebres have covered with thick clouds, the founa wan complexion, and are oppressed tains emit a great deal of fire, and with a consumptive cough. The the naphta, which often takes fire earth in this enclosure is full of spontaneously on the surface of the subterraneous fire, which is emitted earth, flows burning into the sea, from artificial channels, but which to an incredible distance. cannot be lighted without the as When the sky is serene and the sistance of another flame.

weather fine, the depth of the founBesides these fires in the apart- tain does not exceed three feet. The ments of the Guebres, another large purest and whitest naphta is found tire, issuing from a rock in an open in the peninsula of Apscharon. It place, burns continually. Several is more fluid and volatile than any of these volcanos may be seen inside other kind, but it is obtained in very the wall, and resemble lime kilns. smallquantities. The Russians drink The space, which contains this vol. it as a stomachic, but it does not canic tire, is about one mile in cir- intoxicate them. Taken inwardly cumference. All the country round it is thought to be useful in the Badku appears sometimes enveloped cure of several diseases, to which the in flames, and as if the fire descend Persians and Russians are more peed ou great mass

asses of mountains culiarly subject. with incredible quickness.



What constitutes lying? I an

This is a lie which persons swer, the intention to deceive. If not only think themselves privileged this be a correct definition, there to tell, but one which does not exmust be passive as well as active ly- pose the utterer to severe animadvering; and those who withhold the sion, because all mankind have such truth, or do not tell all the truth, a dislike to be thought old, that the are guilty of lying as well as those wish to be considered younger than who uttera direct falsehood. Lies are the truth warrants meets with commany, and various in their nature and placent sympathy, even when it in their tendency, and may be arrang- shews itself in a notorious falsehood, ed under their different names thus: and that years are annihilated at the

Lies of vanity-Lies of fear- impulse of vanity. Yet if vanity be Lies of benevolence-Lies of flat a despicable passion, this its darling tery-Lies of first-rate malignity- lie is despicable also. Lies of second-rate malignity-Lies Lies of fear are confined chiefly, I of interest-Lies of convenience trust, to weak and uneducated men Lies of mere wantonness; of a de- and women, and to children-but of praved love of lying, and contempt this I am far from .certain. The, for truth : there are others, perhaps, motive to them is, most commonly; but I believe that this list contains the wish to avoid punishment and those which are of the most import- anger, and sometimes the desire of ance. There are also practical lies, not giving offence, or of forfeiting that is, lies acted, not spoken, but of favour. For instance, a child or a those I shall treat hereafter. I will servant breaks a glass, and denies give a slight illustration of each sort having done it, to avoid punishment of lie in its turn, (lies for the sake or anger-acquaintances forget to of lying excepted; these I should execute a commission intrusted to. find'it a difficult matter to define.) them, and either say it is executed

Suppose, to give myself conse when it is not, or make some false quence, I were to say I was actually excuse for an omission which was acquainted with certain great and the result of forgetfulness only. No distinguished persons, whom I had persons are guilty of so many of merely met in Society, and were also these lies in a year as negligent corto mention being at Ch -y-House, respondents, since excuses for not or the Marchioness of 's assem- writing sooner are usually so many bly on such a night, without adding lies—and are lies of fear-fear of that I was there, not as an invited having forfeited favour by too long guest, but only because a benefit a silence. The lie of fear often proconcert was held at these houses, for ceeds from want of resolution to say which I had tickets. These would no, when yes is more agreeable to both be lies of vanity, but one would the feelings of the questioner. “Is be an active, and one a passive lie. not my new gown pretty? Is not my In the first I should assert a direct new hat becoming ? Is not my coat falsehood in the second I should of a good colour " There are few only withhold part of the truth, but persons who have courage to say no, both would be lies, because my in- though, in their opinion, no was tention in both was to deceive. There truth, and yes would be falsehood is another of the lies of vanity, nor, again, to questions such as this which, as it is one of the most com -" Is not my picture too old for mon, I shall particularly mention; me ? . Is not my last work my best ? pamely, the violation of truth which Is not my daughter handsome ? Is persons indulge in relative to their

not my son a fine youth?” Fear of age-án error very generally com- displeasing prompts an affirmative mitted by the unmarried of both answer, and perhaps this lie is one

* This passive lie is a very frequent one indeed in certain circles in London ; and many ladies and gentlemen purchase tickets for benefits, held at certain great houses, merely that they may be able to say, “ I was at lady such a one's on such a night!!!" Eur. Mag. Vol. 82.

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of the least displeasing because it objects of excessive flattery, if they may proceed, for the most part, from know ought of human nature, must a kind aversion to wound the feel know that few persons hear with ings of the interrogator.

complacency compliments bestowed The lie of benevolence is still on another; and they feel assured, more decidedly kind in its nature. not only that the praise bestowed Benevolent persons withhold disa- by the one person will provoke sigreeable truths, or speak agreeable lence, if not uttered undervaluing of falsehoods from a wish of giving their pretensions, in others; but that pleasure. If you say that you are they shall be accused, however fooking ill, they say you are looking wrongfully, of confiding in, and well. If you express a fear that you enjoying the gross incense offered to are becoming too corpulent, they them. declare you are only just as fat as I hope that I do not over-rate the you ought to be. you desire goodness of human nature in assertthem to guess your age, they always ing that lies of first-rate malignity, guess you some years younger than that is, lies designed to destroy the you are. If you are hoarse in sing reputation of a man or woman, are ing, and painfully conscious of it, less frequent than those which I have they assure you, you never sang bets already enumerated—but it does not ter in your life; and all this not from appear to me that such lies are, comthe mean desire to flatter you, and paratively, rare. Slander is not rare, the malignant one of making you but inaccuracy, carelessness, want of ridiculous by trying to impose on attention, and an imperfect memory, your credulity, but from the really are often the causes of a tale of unbenevolent desire of making you just slander, and not an intention to pleased with yourself. There also deceive, and lie with a view to injure. are lies of benevolence which medi There are men indeed who destroy cal men tell a dying patient, and the the reputation of women by boastfriends and relatives on such occa- ing of favours from them, which they sions, unless the patient and the per never received; but these lies belong, sons interested are religious charae- I think, to the lies of vanity, and ters, and on principle desire to know vanity in this case does not so much the truth. It is, however, my firm mean malevolence to injure another, conviction, that in no one instance, as to exalt itself. There is also adnot even on these affecting occasions other reason why lies of first-rate is the real truth to be violated or malignity are not more decidedly withheld—but I know that in this frequent, namely, that the arm of the opinion I am in a very small mino- law defends reputations, and can rity, which, however, as the gospel punish the slanderer-but against of truth is more spread, and more lies of second-rate malignity, the law understood, will, I doubt not, be- holds oat no defence, and I know come in time the opinion of the ma no tribunal of power sufficient to jority-for how can a convinced, se awe those who indulge in it, and rious, and consistent Christian de protect their victims from their atfend lying, that is, deception, on any tacks. A spirit of detraction is, I occasion; for is it not forbidden to doubt not, more widely diffused than do evil that good may come ? and is any other in society ; and it genenot deception evil?

rates satire, ridicule, quizzing, and Lies of Aattery are still more coin lies of second-rate malignity, as cermon, but never can, for one moment, tainly as a wet season does snails be otherwise than unprincipled and and, like the snails, they leave a perdisgusting. They are told, no doubt, nicious slime behind them, which dismerely to gain an ascendancy, and figures and destroys whatever tlrey to conciliate good will. But the flat- prey upon. terer is often far from succeeding in 'The lies to which I allude are, his despicable attempt. His intend- tempting persons to do what they ed dupe frequently sees through his are incapable of doing well, by dint art, and he excites indignation, of flattery, and merely from the where he meant to gain regard ; 'es. mean, malicious wish of leading pecially if the flattery be administered them to expose themselves, in order before other observers, for then the that the flatterer may enjoy a hearty

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